Imatges de pàgina


458. The termination of the infinitive is TI turn, like the turn of the Latin supine.

Observe—The affix turn is probably the accusative of an affix tu, of which the affix tvd of the indeclinable participle (see 555. a) is the instrumental case, and of which other cases are used as infinitives in the Veda.

459. Rule for forming the base in verbs of the ten classes. The base of the infinitive is identical with the base of the first future, and where one inserts t i, the other does also: thus, budh, 1st c, 'to know,' makes jftfiHH bodhitum; fojn kship, 6th c,'to throw,' makes ifa* ksheptum. Moreover, all the rules for the change of the root before the t of the future terminations apply equally before the t of the infinitive. Hence, by substituting um for the final a of the 3d pers. sing, of the ist future, the infinitive is at once obtained: thus, $nKT, STf 5 Wt, Iff; *teT, *t*; «MUftldl, <*vif*<iri. So also, 5^ makes fpv; Jq, f^ or ftrv or fri^i; f*, ^jj- See 388—415.

a. In the Veda, infinitives may be formed by any of the affixes, n% Hq, Trnf, W, W, ^Tff, wit, ^PT, F, ^, *r*r.

4. The following examples will show how remarkably the Sanskrit infinitire answers to the Latin supine. S. WT8 'to stand,' L. statum; S. ^TJ 'to give,' L. datum; S. TTiT 'to drink,' h.potum; S. FJ 'to go,' L. Hum; S. ^tTJ 'to strew,' L. stratum; S. Srai 'to anoint,' L. unctum; S. Ilia 'to beget,' L. gentium; S. ^ftTTJ 'to sound,' L. sonitum; S. TOT ' to go,' L. serptum; S. qfaij 'to vomit,' L. vomitum.


460. Having explained the formation of the verbal base in the ten classes of primitive verbs, we come next to the four kinds of derivative verbs, viz. passives, causals, desideratives, and frequentatives.


461. Every root in every one of the ten classes may take a passive form (see 253, and 353. a, b), which is conjugated as an j&mane-pada verb of the 4th class, the only difference being in the accent *.

a. There will be three kinds of passive verbs: ist, The passive, properly so called; as, from M, dflfl 'he is struck' (i. e. 'by another'), where the verb

* The accent in passives is on the characteristic p, whereas in the Atmane-pada of primitive verbs of the 4th class, it falls on the radical syllable. There are occasional instances in the Maha-bharata of passive verbs conjugated in the Parasmai.

implies that the person or thing spoken of suffers some action from another person or thing.

b. adly, An impersonal passive, generally formed from a neuter verb, and only occurring in the 3d singular; as, from if| 'to go,' *T»nT 'it is gone;' from •** to dance,' «J«n it is danced,' where the verb itself implies neither person nor thing as either acting or suffering, but simply expresses a state or condition. This impersonal form is commonly used in classical Sanskrit, with an instrumental case, in place of the active verb: thus 'l«(n *T1TT' it is gone by me' is equivalent to 'foaii* 'I go;' and THT 'i«<ni 'let it be gone by him' is idiomatically used for *f 'I'dAg 'let him go.'

c 3dly, A reflexive passive, where there is no object as distinct from the subject of the verb, or, in other words, where the subject is both agent and sufferer, as in M»*<n 'it is ripened' (i. e. 'becomes ripe of itself); ITTTn 'he is born,' &c. In these latter, if a vowel immediately precedes the characteristic y, the accent may fall on the radical syllable, as in the 4th class. They may also, in some cases, make use of the Atmane-pada of the active, and drop the y altogether: thus to express' he is adorned by himself,' it would be right to use *JJTfl 'he adorns himself.'

462. Observe—Passive verbs take the regular Atmane-pada terminations at 247, making use of the substitutions required in the 4th class. In the aorist (or 3d preterite) they take either the A or B terminations of form I at 418, according as the root may admit the inserted \i or not; but they require that in the 3d singular of both forms the termination be ^t in place of sta and ishta.

Conjugational tenses.

463. Rule for the formation of the base in the four conjugational tenses, Atmane-pada, of roots of the first nine classes. The rule is the same as in the 4th class at 272, viz. affix Tt ya—lengthened to TIT yd before initial m and v—to the root, the vowel of which is not gunated, and often remains unchanged.

Observe—This ya is probably derived from yd, 'to go,' just as the causal aya is derived from i, 'to go.' It is certain that in Bengali and Hindi the passive is formed with the root yd. Compare the Latin amatum in, &c. See 481.

464. Thus, from ^ ist c, 'to be,' comes the base >ji( bhuya (Pres. bhuya + i = *$, bhuya +se = und, &c.; Impf. abhuya +t = T9»jir, &c.; Pot. bhuya + (ya = >£TTr, &c.; Impv. bhuya + ai = y$, &c.); from m 6th c, 'to strike,' comes tudya (Pres. tudya + i = jrd, &c).

465. The root, however, often undergoes changes, which are generally analogous to those of the 4th class and the precative Parasmai-pada (see 275 and 445); but a final d is not changed to e as in the precative.

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First and second future of passives.

474. In these and the remaining tenses no variation generally occurs from the bases of the same tenses in the primitive, Atmane-pada, unless the root end in a vowel. In that case the insertion of ^ i may take place in the passive, although prohibited in the primitive, provided the final vowel of the root be first vriddhied: thus, from rH 6i, 5th c, 'to gather,' may come the base of the 1st and ad fut. pass. ddyi (itiyitdhe &c, 6dyishye &c), although the base of the same tenses in the primitive is te [ietdhe &c, leshye &c). Similarly, from JT hu and "f kri may come hdri and kdri (hdvitdhe, kdritdhe), although the bases in the primitive are ho and kar.

a. In like manner ^ t may be inserted when the root ends in long WT o, or in * e, is, wo, changeable to^JTrf, provided that, instead of Vriddhi (which is impossible), y be interposed between the final d and inserted i .- thus, from ^T dd,'to give,' may come the base of the fut. pass, day! {ddyitdhe he.), although the base of the same tenses in the primitive is dd (ddtdhe &c); from 3f hue, 'to call,' may come htdyi (jEifiiiti? &c), although the base in the primitive is hod. But in all these cases it is permitted to take the base of the primitive for that of the passive, so that Retake or ddyitdhe may equally stand for the 1st fut. pass.; and similarly with the others.

6. In the case of roots ending in consonants, the base of the two futures in the passive will be identical with that of the same tenses in the primitive verb, the inflection being that of the Atmane. TS^'to see,' however, in the passive, may be •jfjirti^, yfijfW, as well as $81*, "JTS; and f^T 'to kill' may be TnfHfll?, ^Tf^*», as well as f flip, ?f5r*T; and flT ' to take' may be yif^clltf, ifl(V«l, as well as

c. In verbs of the 10th class and causals, deviation from the Atmane form of the primitive may take place in these and the succeeding tenses. See 496.

Aorist (or third preterite) of passives.

475. In this tense, also, variation from the primitive may occur when the root ends in a vowel. For in that case the insertion of T i may take place, although forbidden in the primitive verb, provided the final of the root be vriddhied: thus, from fa <H may come the base of the aorist pass, aidyi (afdyishi he., 427), although the base in the Atman of the primitive is a(e (aceshi &c, 420). So also, from J hu and tf kri may come ahdvi and akdri (ahdvishi, akdrishi, 427), although the bases in the Atman of the primitive are aho and akri (ahoshi, akrishi, 430). Again, i may be inserted when the root ends in long WT d, or in ** e, v ai, mt o, changeable to WF d, provided that y be interposed between final a and inserted i: thus, from 71 "to give,' q * to protect,' ?f ' to purify,' it ' to cut,' may come addyi (addyishi &c), although the bases in the Atman of the primitives are different (as adishi kc). But in all these cases it is permitted to take the base of the primitive for that of the passive (so that the passive of N may be either addyishi or atethi), except in the

C c

3d pert, sing., where the terminations ishta and sta being rejected, the base, as formed by Vriddhi and the inserted «, must stand alone: thus, afdyi, 'it ni gathered;' ahiiri, 'it was sacrificed;' akdri, 'it was done;' addyi, 'it was given.' 'protected,' 'purified,' 'cut.'

a. Sometimes the usual form of the aorist Atmane is employed throughout (see 461. c). This is the case whenever the sense is that of a reflexive passive, not of the real passive: thus, "WT 'to tell' in the aorist passive 3d sing, is WWTTU. but in the sense of a reflexive passive "enemi; TW ' to have recourse' makes passive aorist ist sing. Wyfqfa, but reflexive wfifrfani; and «P|' to love' makes 3d sing, passive <H<*f*i or ^^ifa, but reflexive W«I«W.

b. If the root end in a consonant, the base of the aorist pass, will always be identical with that of the Atmane of the primitive, except in the 3d sing., where J i being substituted for the terminations ishta and sta of form I at p. 179, generally requires before it the lengthening of a medial a (if not already long by position), and the (! una of any other short medial vowel *. Hence, from tan, 'to stretch,' ist, 2d, and 3d sing, atanishi, atnnishthds, atdni; from kship, 'to throw,' akskipn, akshipthds, akshepi; from vid, to know,' avedishi, aredishtkds, avedi. Sic.

c. The lengthening of a medial a, however, is by no means universal; and there are other exceptions in the 3d sing., as follows :—Nearly all roots in am forbid the lengthening of the vowel in the 3d sing.: thus, ^emf* from 1H"*» ' to walk;' WWW from W^' to bear;' vi^ifii from ^TT ' to be calm' (but in the sense of' to observe,'


d. Similarly, ■wmhi from WV and xnifn from »T»T. The former may optionally substitute lomifsT from ^T.

e. ip^and "J? lengthen their vowels (WHlfJI, Wjf?).

/. The roots at 390. /. will have two forms, 'Wftfa or *mif»i, <N'flfM or WTTTrftl.

■wnrfa or ^jf<!«sifii, &c.

g. C* 'to perish,' ip^'to yawn,' T^'to desire,' insert nasals (*WjW> Titif***. 1TW). Similarly, <7>^' to receive,' when it has a preposition (e. g. »irti«l . and optionally when it has none (Weil*** or Wc3Tf>T, Pan. VII. 1, 69).

h. »?3 'to break' may drop its nasal, in which case the medial a is lengthened

(wrfti or wrrftf).

i. Tf ' to clothe' may either retain the e or change it to ( or i (w?ft or "fffifft or Wirtfll.

j. \ 'to go' substitutes IT, and optionally docs so when adhi is prefixed in the sense of ' to read* (WU|l||fil ()r «IU||ftl).

k. f^1(' to blame' makes WTlfTftl or ■wifH.

Precative (or benedictive) and conditional of passives.

476. In these tenses the same variation is permitted in the case of roots ending in vowels as in the last; that is, the insertion of "^ 1 is allowed, provided that,

* A medial vowel, long by nature or position, remains unchanged (by 38. 61, and in one or two cases a short; as, asami for asiimi.

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