Imatges de pàgina
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Sidhvam is used for sidhvam when immediately preceded by any other vowel but a or a, and optionally ishidhvam for ishidhvam when immediately preceded by a semivowel or h.

442. Observe, that the terminations of this tense resemble those of the potential in the memorial scheme at p. 125. In the 2d and 3d singular they are identical. In the other persons of the Parasmai a sibilant is inserted, and in some of the Atmane, both prefixed and inserted. The only difference between the potential and precative of verbs of the 2d and 3d groups, at 290, will often be that the potential will have the conjugation^ characteristic: thus, Mid, 7th c,' to break,' will be bkindydt in the potential, and bhidydt in the precative. Compare the optative of the Greek aorist tolypt with the optative of the present 8/So/ijv.

443. Rule for forming the base in verbs of the first nine classes. In the Parasmai, as a general rule, either leave the root unchanged before the y of the terminations, or make such changes as are required in the passive (see 465—472), or by the oonjugational rule of the 4th class, and never insert *.

In Atmane, as a general rule, prefix i to the terminations in those roots ending in consonants or vowels which take * in the futures (see 392, 399), and before this i gunate the radical vowel. Gunate it also in the Atmane in some roots ending in vowels which reject t: but if a root end in a consonant, and reject i, the radical vowel is generally left unchanged in the Atmane, as well as Parasmai.

444. Thus, from R 1st c, 'to be,? come the base of the Parasmai bhu, and the base of the Atmane bhavi, by 36. a {bhu + yusam = »nrrtf &c, bJtavi + siya = nfWN by 70).

445. Frequently, as already observed, before the y of the Parasmai terminations, the root is liable to changes analogous to those which take place before the y of the 4th conjugational class at 272, and the y of passive verbs at 465; and not unfrequently it undergoes changes similar to those of the perfect at 373, &c., as follows:—

446. A final WT d is changed to E e in the Parasmai, but remains unchanged in the Atman, as before the s of the 2d future terminations: thus, <TT 3d c,'to give,' makes e^«ii«t Ike. for Parasmai, but <;i«1m &C. for Atmane-pada; *TT' to drink' makes M1l*i &c.

a. But HH ' to become old' makes Ij)«ii«i &c, and e,U.£i' to be poor' drops its final even in Parasmai (^fcVTO, cjftf^'iV'I, &c. Compare 390. c).

447. Final ^ i and T u are lengthened in Parasmai, as before the y of passives, and gunated in Atmane, as before the $ of the 3d future: thus, f% 'to gather' makes VNw &c, %«<fal &c.; and ?' to sacrifice' makes pm &c, ^"A", &c.

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455. Observe, that this tense bears the same relation to the 2d future that the imperfect does to the present. In its formation it lies half-way between the imperfect or first preterite and the second future. It resembles the imperfect in prefixing the augment V a to the base (see 260), and in the latter part of its terminations: it resembles the second future in the first part of its terminations in gunating the radical vowel, in inserting ^ i in exactly those roots in which the future inserts t, and in the other changes of the base.

456. The rule for the formation of the base in verbs of the first nine classes after prefixing the augment v a, according to the usual rules, will be the same as for the 2d future at 388. Gunate the radical vowel, except as debarred by 28. b. &c., and insert t before the terminations if the futures insert i. When t is rejected, the rules of Sandhi must of course be observed, and all other changes as in the 2d future, see 388—415.

457. Thus, ww ist c, 'to know,' makes ^nffftnrj &c.; *w 'to milk' makes wtajl &c. (see 414 and 306. a); fip^'to hate,' ^tw &c. (see 412); *T* * to conceal,' vrf^oj or wtftiW (415. m); w*( ' to be immersed,' wrap (390.*).

a. The segment will be prefixed to roots beginning with vowels according to the rules for the imperfect: thus, WB to cover' makes WnR^l or WTO, see r. 260. a, b, and compare 390. b.

b. \' to go,' with wftl prefixed (meaning 'to read'), may optionally form its conditional from the root m (trwh>T or WU|'fl«l|, see 421.?).

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