Imatges de pàgina

or p. Observe also, that initial s is liable to become th by r. 70, in which case a following / or th is cerebralised. The substitution of Mcam for dhcam and idhvam for idhvam, in certain cases, is explained in the table at p. 128.

420. General rule for forming the base for those verbs of the first 'nine classes which reject \i and so take the A terminations.

In Parasmai, if a root end in cither a vowel or a consonant, vriddhi the radical vowel before all the terminations.

In A'tmanc, if a root end in \ t, t (, J u, or H u, gunate the radical vowel; if in ^ ri or any consonant, leave the vowel unchanged before all the terminations. Final consonants must be joined to the A terminations according to the rules propounded at 296—306.

Observe—The augment w a must always be prefixed, as in the imperfect; but it will be shown in the Syntax at 889, that when the aorist is used as a prohibitive imperative, the particle md or md sma being prefixed, the augment is then rejected.

a. When a root begins with the vowels ^ t, T u, or N ri, short or long, the augment is prefixed in accordance with 260. a, b.

b. Thus, from tft ' to lead' come the two bases anai for Parasmai and ane for Atmane (anai + sam = ^ff4 by 70; Atm. ane 4-« = tRfW, ane + sthds = CRTOT, &c.); and from if 8th c, 'to make,' come the two bases akdr for Parasmai and akri for Atmane (akdr + sam = wfi by 70, &C. ; Atm. akri + si = wage* by 70, akri + thds = wytlTW by 419, akri + ta = WWTT, &c). See 682. Similarly, ** 3d c, 4 to bear.' See the table at 583.

c. So, from TO 'to join' come the two bases ayauj for Parasmai and ayuj for Atmane (Parasmai ayauj + sam = ^r^h^by 296, ayauj + sva = ^ntiw, ayauj + tam = VTT1R by 419; Atm. ayuj + si = ^gftr by 296, ayuj + this = «u*«jih, ayuj + ta = ^npn); and from ^W 7th c, 'to hinder,' the bases araudh and arudh (Parasmai araudh + sam = Wttm by 299, Du. araudh + sva = v&t*3, araudh + tam = *rOT; Atm. arudh + si = «^fm, arudh + thds = «n>gl«, &c).

d. Similarly, from U.<^ ' to cook' come the bases apdc and apaf {apdi 4- sam = ^raTHf by 296; Atm. apat + « = vrfsj, apat + thds = «i)tm«, &c.); and from e^|r 'to burn' (610), the bases addh and adah (addh + sam = ^nrnjj by 306. a, addh + tam = ^^M by 305; Atm. adah + si = xrnfq by 306. a, adah + thds = Vh<j'vi«, &c).

421. By referring to 391.6. it will be easy to understand that most root* in i, 1,

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436. Observe—No confusion arises from the similarity which this form bears to the imperfect or 1st preterite, as in all cases where the above terminations are used for the aorist, the imperfect presents some difference in the form of its base: thus, iv\' to go' make s aga66ham for its imperfect, agamam for its aorist (see 602); fW^ 't» break' makes abhinadam for its imperfect, abhidam for its aorist (see 583). So again, the sixth conjugation, which alone can show a perfect identity of root and base, never makes use of this form for its aorist, unless by some special rule the base of its imperfect is made to differ from the root: thus, f^pi 'to smear* (cf. aXel<pu>), which makes alipam in its aorist, is alimpam in its imperfect (281). So in Greek, compare the imperfect eXenrov with the 2d aor. eXnrov; eXa/iBavov with e\a($ov; iSa/xvtjv with eSafiov, &c.

a. Note—This form of the Sanskrit aorist corresponds to the Greek 2d aorist (compare asthdm, asthds, asthdt, with tOTijV, eoTijf, fffT»j), and the first form is more or less analogous to the 1st aorist. The substitution of t for e, and dthdm, dtdm, for ethdm, etdm, in the Atmane of form II, is confined to a class of roots mentioned at 439.

437. Rule for forming the base in verbs of the first nine classes. In general the terminations are attached directly to the root; as in agamam, &c, abhidam, &c, at 436. So also, Rs', 'to perish' makes %mj\ (also W^T, see 441,424).

a. Observe, however, that most of the roots which follow this form in the Parasmai, follow form I at 418 in the A'tmane: thus, fW? 'to break' makes abhitsi, &c, in Atmane; see the table at 583: similarly, faj^ ' to cut,' see 667. And a few roots, which are properly restricted to the Atmane, have a Parasmai aorist of this 2d form:

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