Imatges de pàgina
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414. Eight in ^ h.—5^ to burn (610); ^ to tie, to string toff ether (624); *? to carry (611); f^ to anoint (659); far^ to make water (ifcr 305. a, *^rfir); fiy? 2. to lick (661); 5^ 2. to milk (660) *; ^ to ascend (d*T, Ovwfri).

Roots ending in consonants optionally inserting or rejecting ^ i, either in all the last Jive tenses and desiderative, or in certain of these forms only.

Observe—When no tenses are specified, the option applies to all except to form II of the aorist and the Parasmai of the prccative (benedictive), which can never insert i.

415. Two in ^ <5.—TW or ra 7. to contract; "tra to cut (630).

a. Three in itj.—^r^ 7. to anoint (668, but necessarily inserts t in desid.); ^ to rub, to clean (390../, 651); »W to fry (optionally in desid. only, necessarily rejects t in other forms).

b. Four in it t.—ir^ to fall (optionally in desid. only; necessarily inserts i in futures and cond., and rejects it in turn) ; Wit 6. to cut (optionally in 2d fut., cond., and desid.; necessarily inserts i in ist tut. and aor.); Wlts to kill (optionally in 2d fut., cond., and desid.; necessarily inserts t in ist fut. and aor.); Tjif to dance (optionally in 2d fut. and desid., necessarily inserts i in ist fut. and aor.). ■

c. Four in ?f d.—**P? to flow (optionally in all forms except 2d fut. and cond. Parasmai, and desid. Parasmai, where i is necessarily rejected); f$^ to be wet, W$ to shine, and TO to kill, to injure (the last two optionally in all forms except 1st fut., which necessarily inserts i).

d. Three in V dh.—tv to perish; ftrvf 1. to rule, to restrain, to keep off; ^V to prosper (the last optionally in desid. only, necessarily inserts i in other forms, see 680).

e. Two in 't n.—WT to stretch and *TJT to honour, to give (both optionally in desid. only, necessarily insert t in other forms, see 583).

f. Five in vp.&{ to be ashamed; ir<^ 1. to defend; mi 4. to be satisfied (618); "m 4. to be proud; *jti to be capable (when it rejects i, it is Pnrasmni only).

g. Two in »4A.—w, 4. to desire (optionally in ist fut, necessarily

* 7? c. i, 'to afflict,' inserts 1 («^f?ni, &c.).
A a

inserts i in other forms *); «j»i to deceive (optionally in desid. only, f^for^fir or ftpsfir or >INrfiT, necessarily inserts i in other forms).

h. One in Rm. —wt i. 4. to bear faftfin or T^rr, Hifamw, Mir, or ^UTt, Air).

i. All in TI iv (optionally in desid. only); as, fire to play, firw to spit, Rm to sew.

j. Two in ^ y.^tjt to honour; 'nrpT or ^cfpx to be fat (but both necessarily insert i in desid., compare 395. b).

k. Three in 5^ i.—^rsr 5. Xtm. to pervade f (but necessarily inserts i in desid., see 681. a); irar 4. to perish (see 390. k, and 620); first 9. to torment (697).

/. Seven in V»A.—^nsj to pervade; TTW to cut in pieces, to carve (HfHjHI or am, irftf«rft| or Tr^rftr, &c.); 3^to cut, to carve; ^pi with fir^ to extract (otherwise necessarily inserts i); %?6. to wish (637); ft^to injure, to kill; ^i. to injure (the last three optionally in 1st fut.,but necessarily insert i in other forms).

m. Twelve in Th. —m! Ktca. to bear (optionally in 1st fut. only, necessarily inserts i in other forms, see the. a); IR to take (nfipn or gniT, &c.); mf to penetrate; Ht? to measure (infijID or Ht?t, &c.); fiff^ snih, to love (%fan or ^rnn or vm, &c.); ^ snuh, to love, to vomit; >j^r to be perplexed (612); *rjr to conceal (>jfijffl or 7ffn, »Tfixnft or T^rfir, see 306. a, 390. m); IR to bear malice, to seek to injure (623); ^ 6. 7. or it 6. to kill (674); ^ or T^ <o extol, to raise; ^f or *TM 6. to kill.

Aorist (third preterite).

This complex and multiform tense, the most troublesome and intricate in the whole Sanskrit verb, but fortunately less used in classical Sanskrit than the other past tenses, is not so much one tense, as an aggregation of several, all more or less allied to each other, all bearing a manifest resemblance to the imperfect or first preterite, but none of them exactly assignable to that tense, and none of them so distinct in its character or so universal in its application as to admit of segregation from the general group, under a separate title.

416. Grammarians assert that there are seven different varieties of

* Except the aorist, following form II at p. 184.
t T5J 9,'to eat,' inserts i.

the Sanskrit aorist, four of which correspond more or less to the Greek ist aorist, and three to the 2d aorist, but we shall endeavour to show that all these varieties may be included under two distinct forms of terminations given in the table at p. 128, and again below, and at p. 184.

417. Form I is sub-divided like the terminations of all the last five tenses into (A) those which reject i, and (B) those which assume it; A belongs to many of those roots at 394, 400—414, which reject t; B to most of those at 392,399, which insert it: but in the latter case the initial * becomes sh by 70, and in the 2d and 3d sing. the initial s is rejected, the i blending with the i, which then becomes the initial of those terminations. Moreover, in the case of roots which insert i the base is formed according to rules different to those which apply in the case of roots which reject *.

a. Form II at p. 184 resembles the terminations of the imperfect or first preterite, and belongs, in the first place, to some of those roots rejecting i, whose bases in the imperfect present some important variation from the root (see 436); in the second, to certain of the roots rejecting », which end in S^ i, ^ sh, or ^ h, and which have 1 «, or ri, for their radical vowel (see 439); in the third, to verbs of the 10th class and causals. ■

Form I.
418. The terminations are here repeated from 247, p. 128.
A. Terminations without \\.
Parasmai. A'tmank.

si svahi smahi

slhds [thds] sdthdtn dhvam or dhvam

sta [/a] sdtdm sata

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419. Observe—The brackets in the A terminations indicate the rejection of initial t from those terminations in which it is compounded with t and Ih, if the base ends in any consonant except a nasal or semivowel, or in any short vowel such as a, i, «.

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