Imatges de pàgina
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Terminations of second future repeated from page 128.

gydvahe sydmahe syethe tyadkve

syete syante

a. Observe—The first future results from the union of the nom. case of the noun of agency (formed with the affix It tri, see 83. I) with the present tense of the verb VtTiu, 'to be:' thus, taking <*T^ diitri, 'a giver' (declined at 127), and combining its nom. case with WW tismi and ? he, we have ddtdrmi and datnhe, 'I am a giver,' identical with the ist pers. sing. Parasmai and Atmane of the 1st fut., 'I will give.' So also ddtdsi and ddtdse, 'thou art a giver,' or 'thou wih give.' In the ist and 2d persons dual and plur. the sing, of the noun is joined with the dual and plur. of the auxiliary. In the 3d person the auxiliary is omitted, and the 3d sing, dual and plur. of the ist future in both voices is then identical with the nom. case sing, dual and plur. of the noun of agency: thus, diti, a giver,' or ' he will give;' ddtdrau, 'two givers,' or ' they two will give,' &c. *

387. The terminations of the second future appear also to be derived from the verb *m joined, as in forming the passive and 4th conjugational class, with the y of the root VJ' to go,' just as in English we often express the future tense by the phrase ' I am going.'

388. Rule for forming the base in verbs of the first nine classes. Gunate the vowel of the root (except as debarred at 28. b, and ex

* The future signification inherent in the noun of agency data, seems implied in Latin by the relation of tlator to datarus.

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final radical consonant with the initial t and s of the terminations will require an acquaintance with the rules already laid down at 296, &c.

We now proceed to enumerate, 1st, the roots which insert »; 2dly, those which reject it; 3dly, those which optionally insert or reject it.

Observe—In the following lists of roots the 3d sing, will sometimes be given between brackets, and the roots will be arranged in the order of their vowels.

It is of the utmost importance that the attention of the student be directed to this subject, as the assumption or rejection of this inserted vowel is not confined to the two futures, but extends to many other parts of the verb; insomuch, that if the first future reject \i, it is generally rejected in form I of the aorist, in the Xtmane-pada of the benedictive, in the conditional, infinitive mood, passive past participle, indeclinable past participle, future participle formed with the atlix tnrya, and noun of agency formed with the affix tri; and often (though not invariably) decides the formation of the desiderative form of the root by * instead of ish. So that the learner, if he know the first future, will pass on with greater ease to the formation of these other parts of the verb, and may always look to this tense as his guide. For example, taking the root kship, 'to throw,' and finding the ist future to be ktheptdsmi, he knows that i is rejected. Therefore he understands why it is that the ad future is kshepsydmi; the aorist, akthaipsam; the Atmane of the benedictive, kshipsiya; the conditional, aksheptyam; the infinitive, kshcptum; the passive past participle, kshipta; the indeclinable participle, kskiplvd; the future participle, ksheptarya; the noun of agency, kshtptfi; the desiderative, Hkshipsdmi. On the other hand, taking the root ydi,'to ask,' and finding the ist future to be ydtitd, he knows that i is inserted, and therefore the same parts of the verb will be ydtishydmi, aydtisham, ydiishfya, aydtiskyam, ydditum, ydUta, ydixtvd, ydtitaryu, ydiitji, yiydHshdmi, respectively.

Roots ending in vowels inserting Jm {except as indicated at 391. a).

As before remarked, it is evident that roots ending in vowels do not properly require the insertion of another vowel. The following, however, take s .

392. Five of those in ^ i and $ i, viz. fin * to have recourse' (Wftnrr, *fW*), fig «to swell,' tf«to fly,' # * to lie down,' ft? ' to smile' (in desid. alone).

a. Six of those in 1 «, viz. ^ ' to sneeze,' wj 'to sharpen,' ^ ' to praise,' i|' to join,' »s 'to sound,' 'to roar,' w snu 'to ooze' (the last only when Parasmai *).

* If W is inflected in the Atmane, it may reject i.

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