Imatges de pàgina


363. Observe—The general rules for the formation of the base in the perfect (or 2d preterite), 1st and 2d futures, aorist (or 3d preterite), precative (or benedictive), and conditional, apply to all verbs of the first nine classes indiscriminately; sec 250. a. The 10th class alone carries its conjugational characteristic into most of the non-conjugational tenses; and for this reason the consideration of its last tenses falls most conveniently under causal verbs. Compare 289. a.

rK !»•*».* Reduplicated perfect {second preterite).

Terminations repeated from page 127.

PARA8MAI. «f,/-f-V7 A'tmanb.

e mivahe *imahe

*i»he at fie *idhve or * idfire

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itha or tha at litis a
a (au) alus us

ate ire

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ist, 2d, and 3d singular, Parasmai-pada; but leave the vowel unchanged before all other terminations,both Parasmai and Atmane-pada. See 293.0.

c. If the root end in a simple consonant, preceded by short a, this a is lengthened optionally in ist and necessarily in 3d sing.; and before the other terminations it is either left unchanged, or is liable to become e (see 375. a).

d. If the root end in a vowel, vriddhi the vowel of the radical syllable in ist and 3d singular, Parasmai *, and gunate it in 2d sing. (optionally in ist sing.). Before all other terminations, Parasmai and A'tmane, the root must revert to its original form, but the terminations must be affixed according to euphonic rules.

e. Greek affords many examples of verbs which suffer a kind of Guna or Vriddhi change in the perfect; but this change is not confined to the singular, as in Sanskrit. Compare Xtkotva (from Ae<V», tXtvov), v(iroi6a (from areas, (vision), TtTpodxx (from rpt<f>x), TtSttica (from raw), &c.

365. Thus, from w budh, ist c, comes the base of the singular Parasm. Trtv bubodh, and the base of the rest of the tense "^H. Imhitilh (1. bubodh + a = bubodha, 2. bubodh+itha = bubodhitha, 3. bubodh + a = bubodha; Du. 1. bubudh + iva = bubudhiva, 2. bubudh + athus = bubudhathus, &c. Atm. 1. bubudh + e = bubudhe, &c).

Similarly, from the vid, 2d c, 'to know,' come the two bases fa%^ vivedand faftnj vivid; from *rw, 'to cook/ the two bases Trn^Tpapd6 and VH\papa6 (1. 3. viveda; Du. 1. vividiva; PL 1. vividima, &c.: 1. papa fa or papula, 3. papal-a, &C.).

a. There is one Greek root which agrees very remarkably with the Sanskrit in restricting Guna to the singular, viz. fiO (tToui),' to know,' answering to the Sanskrit vid above: thus, oiia, oioSa, owe; tarov, tarot ; "P", lore, taaai. The root vid has a contracted form of its perfect used for the present, which agrees exactly with otOa: thus, veda, vellha, &c. See 308. a.

366. Again, from w kri, 'to do' (see 684), comes the base of the ist and 3d singular Parasm. 'tott: takar (331. a), the base of the 2d sing, ^et takar (which is optionally the base of the ist sing, also), and the base of the rest of the tense *ra takri (1. takar + a = takdra (or lakara), 2. takar + tha = takartha, 3. takar + a = takdra; Du. 1. takri + va takriva (369), 2. takri + athus = takrathus by 34. Atm. 1. takri + e = take ; PL 2. takri + alive = "T^. See 684).

* Vriddhi is indicated by the l^of ^ff^noP. See scheme at 246.


a. Observe—The roots enumerated at 390. a. reject Guna in the 2d sing.: thus, Mt makes 1. 3. ftrV»T, but 2. •ftrfaftnr. So J or w 'to cry' makes 1. 'yurr* or Pr, 2. ^jf^'H.

367. We have seen at 364. a. that if a root, ending in a single consonant, begin with a vowel, this vowel is repeated, and the two similar vowels blend into one long one by 31. But when an initial « or it is gunated in the sing. Parasmai, then the reduplicated t becomes iy before e, and the reduplicated « becomes uv before o: thus, from ^ ish, 'to wish,' come the two bases iyesh and ish (1. 3. PR; Du. 1. \fw, see 637); and from 7^ ukh, 'to move,' uvokh and ukh (1.3. T^W; Du. 1. ^rffc^).

a. The same holds good in the root ^ t, 'to go,' which makes the reduplicated syllable iy before the Vriddhi and Guna of the sing. In the remainder of the tense the base becomes iy (compare 375. e), which is reduplicated into iy (1.3. JjUPJ, 2. ^Jrfirti or JVV; Du. 1. ^fire). But when the prep, adhi is prefixed, the perfect is formed as if from gd, A'tmane only Wing. Du. PI. 3. adhijage, -jagdte, -jagire).

b. And if a root begin with *r o, and end in a double consonant, or begin with N ri and end in a single consonant, the reduplicated syllable is ww^ an: thus, from vr^ art,' to worship,' comes the base WT' dnarf (1.3. ^TR^); from ^if ridh, 'to flourish,' comes fTPPt dnardh (1. 3. *tw§; Du. I. vrpjfire, &c).

c. VII A'tm. 'to pervade,' although ending in a single consonant V, follows the last rule (1. 3. WT?r).

368. Observe—In the perfect (or 2d preterite) the 1st and 3d sing. Parasmai and Atmane have the same termination, and are generally identical in form; but when Vriddhi of a final vowel is required in both, then there is optionally Guna in the first; and when a medial a is lengthened, this a may optionally remain unchanged in the first: thus ^f ' to do' may be in 1st sing, cither w^rt or ^m, and ^' to cook' may be either xprrw or tnrw in 1st sing.; but in 3d sing, these roots can only make ^BTC and ir»TTw.

369. By referring back to the scheme at pp. 160, 127, it will be seen that all the terminations of this tense (except optionally the 2d sing. Parasmai) begin with vowels. Those which begin with i are all (except the 3d pi. Atmane) distinguished by the mark *, because eight roots only in the language (viz. Tsk ' to do*,' *r' to bear,' F ' to go,' ^ ' to surround,' ^ ' to hear,' «r ' to praise,' 'J 'to run/ ^ sru, 'to flow') necessarily reject the i from these terminations.

Rejection of i from itha (2d sing, perfect, Parasmai). 370. The above eight roots (except ^ vri when it means 'to cover,' and except to kri, 'to do,' when compounded with the prep, sam *) also reject i from the 2d sing. Parasmai.

a. Moreover, the ad sing. Parasmai is formed with tha instead of itha after roots ending in N ri (except after the root ^ ri itself, and ^ vri and 'SfUl jdgri, which only allow itha; thus, dritha, vavaritha,

jdgaritha; and except ^ at b);

b. and optionally with tha or itha after the root w svri, 'to sound' (sasvartha or sasvaritha);

c. and optionally with tha or itha after roots ending in "Wt d, E e (except €r Wye, which allows only itha), and after roots in $ at, wt o, \ i, \ i, 7 «, and the root ^' to shake' (except those indicated at 397, 398, as necessarily inserting i in the futures &c.; e. g. far, which makes hikrayitha only, and so also most roots in "31 u);

d. and optionally with tha or itha after those roots enumerated at 400—414, which have a medial a, and which reject t either necessarily or optionally from the futures &c. (e. g. ^raF, bekitha or kaiaktha; j^, iakshamitha or takshantha, &c.); but not *r^ and ^q?r, which can only make dditha, jaghasitha;

e. and optionally with tha or itha after most of the roots enumerated at 415, as optionally inserting t in the futures &c:

f. but all other roots, which necessarily take i, and even most of those (having no medial a) at 400—414 which necessarily reject * in the futures &c., must take itha only in the 2d sing, of the perfect: thus Wf is TTTTnftr tottdsi in the 2d sing. 1st future, but Hiflf<vj tutoditha in the 2d sing, perfect (Du. 1. tutudivd). Some few of these, however, are allowed the alternative of tha, as It 'to create' makes H«f^vj or Wot; TW* to see,'^fifrtr or ^jff; both these roots requiring the radical ri to be changed to T ra, instead of gunated, when tha is used.

g. W^ ' to dip' and iTS^' to perish,' which belong to 370. d, insert a nasal when tha is used: thus, MuT-n^ or «M+v|, ^f$|vj or «pfa.

* But ff 'to do,' if If is inserted after a preposition, as in IRf, does not reject i, and follows 375. k. thus, 2. WTOrfTT.

h. jn 'to be satisfied' and ^'to be proud,' which belong to 370. e, either gunate the radical ri or change it to xra when tha is used (ttjtc^ or met or iT<rfM*l).

Observe—When tha is affixed to roots ending in consonants, the rules of Sandhi, propounded at 296, &c, must be applied.

Optional rejection of i, in certain cases, from the dual and remaining terminations {of the perfect, Parasmai and At mane, marked with *).

371. The roots enumerated at 415, as optionally rejecting or inserting i in the futures &c, may optionally reject it also from the dual and remaining terminations of the perfect marked with • in the table at p. 160: thus ^H makes TBrfirsr or T8HF, 1«rat*r or ^rajftre, ■MKjfH«l£ or T8SPW%; but the forms with the inserted t are the most usual, and all other roots, even those which necessarily reject t from the futures &c. (except the eight enumerated at 369), must take i in the dual and remaining terminations of the perfect marked with *.

Observe—The * is never rejected from the 3d plur. Atmane, except in the Veda.

Substitution of 7 for &T (2d plur. perfect, Atmane).

372. ^ is used instead of it by the eight roots at 369, also in certain cases by the roots mentioned at 371. The usual rules of Sandhi must then be observed, as in nn from Jd{.

a. 3^ for ^sbj may be optionally used by other roots when a semivowel or h immediately precedes, as c$c?fts) or -NT' from <j, fafftfaw or -firj from alt.

Anomalies in forming the base of the perfect (second preterite).

373. Roots ending in 'ST a (as <JT dd,' to give;' Vt dhd,'to place;' ~m yd,'to go;' WT stha, to stand') drop the d before all the terminations except the tha of the 2d sing., and substitute w au for the terminations of the 1 st and 3d sing. Parasmai. Hence, from T dd comes the base ^ dad (1.3. ^\, 2. ^f<;ii or c^m; Du. 1. ifc*. Atm. 1.3. ^, 2. ^ftfi, &c. See 663).

a. ^ttJT 'to be poor' makes 1. 3. ^ft^T; Du. 3. «}^; PI.3. e^fcj*; or more properly takes the periphrastic form of perfect. See 385.

b. WI 'to grow old' has B reduplicated base ftRTT (1. 3. ftlSflj 2. frlxtJUlor ftTrani; Du. 1. fsrfaBT^). Similarly, an uncommon root tin Atm. 'to instruct' makes 1. 3. f*iiq.

e. m 'to throw,' ift 'to destroy,' 'to perish,' must be treated in the sing, as if

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