Imatges de pàgina

in the reduplication rather than the original root: thus V%, 'to remember,' being changed to ^B^ in the desiderative, the vowel of the root does not appear in the reduplication («Wj).

Formation of the base.

332. Rule for forming the base in the four conjugational tenses. Reduplicate the initial consonant and vowel of the root, and gunate the vowel of the radical syllable before the P terminations only, as in the 2d conjugation, by 293. a.

Observe—This class resembles the 2d in interposing no vowel between the root and terminations. It is the only class that necessarily rejects the nasal in 3d plur. Parasmai-pada, by 290. a, and takes us for an in 3d plur. imperfect Parasmai, before which us Guna is generally required. See 290, 291, 292.

Thus, from >j bhri, 'to bear' (<pepo>, fero), is formed the base of the present singular fw«T bibhar (1. bibhar + mi = fanf**), and the base of the dual and plural fir»T bibhri (Du. 1. bibhri +vas = f«PJ^; PI. 1. bibhri + mas = fawrc^; PI. 3. bibhri + ati = fwfiT by 34 and 290). See the table at 583.

a. Note, that bibharti bears the same relation to bibhrimas that fert does to ferimus, and cult to volumus.

333. Similarly, from »ft bhl, ' to fear,' come the two bases bibhe and bibhi; from 5 hu, 'to sacrifice,' the two bases juho and juhu. The former of these roots may optionally shorten the radical vowel before a consonant, when not gunated. See 666. The latter may optionally reject its final before vas and mas, and is the only root ending in a vowel which takes dhi for hi in the 2d sing, imperative. See 662.

a. |ft, 'to be ashamed,' is like *ft, but changes its final % to ^ iy before the vowel-terminations, in conformity with 133. a. See 666. a.

334. ^ r», 'to go,' is the only verb in this class that begins with a vowel. It substitutes iy for ri in the reduplication, and makes its bases ^TT. iyar and J$ iyri (Pres. S. Du. PI. 3. ^vf£, ^!W, J$fn; Iropf. 1. **li, 2. $*rr., 3. ^T^;

Du.3. $^Tri; Pot. 3. ^m^; impv. i. ^rrrfiu).

335. ^T dd, 'to give' <fii$ttfu, do), drops its final d before all excepting the P terminations. Hence the bases dadd and dad. It becomes <J de before the hi of the imperative. See 663.

336. VI dhd, 'to place' (TlSvjfu), is similar. Hence the bases dadhd and dadh; but dadh becomes ViT before t, th, and s; and dhad before dhve and dhvam by 299. a, b; and dhe before the hi of the imperative. See 664.

337. ?T ha, 'to abandon,' changes its final d to ^ ( before the consonantal terminations not marked with P, and drops the final altogether before the vowelterminations, and before y of the potential. Hence the bases jakd, jahi, jah. Before hi of the imperative the base is optionally jnhd, jahi, or jam. According to some authorities, »Tift may be shortened into »Tt? in the present, imperfect, and imperative. See 665.

338. It ma, 'to measure' (Atm.), and ?T hd, 'to go' (Atm.), make their bases ftw mimi and f»nfl jihi before the consonantal terminations not marked with P. Before the vowel-terminations their bases are mim and jih (Sing. Du. PI. 3. fiifiw. fil^M, f*i?(i; Impf. 3. ^rftr^fa; Impv. 3. fil^ldt). See HTat 664. a.

339. IH^jan, 'to produce' (Parasmai-pada), rejects the final nasal (see 57. a), and lengthens the radical a before / and th and hi, and optionally before y. Before consonantal terminations beginning with more the radical jan remains, but before vowel-terminations not marked with P the medial a is dropped, and the nasal combining with j becomes palatal (compare the declension of rdjan at 149). Hence the three bases jajan, jajd, and jam. See 666. b.

Mo. >n^ bhas, 'to eat,' 'to shine,' like jan, rejects the radical a before the vowel-terminations not marked with P; and bh coalescing with * becomes p by 43 (Pres. S. Du. PI. 3. THf*?, W^tT^, fsfif). The same contraction takes place before terminations beginning with H, 7T, but the final s is then dropped, and the usual rules of Sandhi applied: thus, "W+RI = TXT by 298.

341. that 'to purify,' tVs^'to separate,' and tV^'to pervades' 'to penetrate,' gunate the reduplicated syllable before all the terminations, and forbid the usual Guna of the radical syllable before terminations beginning with vowels, as in the ist sing. impf. and the 1st sing. du. pi. impv. (Pres. 1. tT%fa", 2. *Hft5|, 3. ^Hf*; Du. 1. %fiTOF, &c.; PI. 1. H(•!**<«, 3. ^ftnifir; Impf. 1. *T%ftm, 2. «y>*, &C. ; PI. 3. ^H^W, Sec; Impv. 1. %finrrfa; Du. I.

itfHuw; Pi. i.%ffnTT»T.

(group II.)—Seventh class, containing about 24 primitive verbs.

34a. Rule for forming the base in the four conjugational tenses. Insert if na (changeable to UT na after ri &c. by 58) between the vowel and final consonant * of the root before the P terminations, and tj n (changeable to ^, W., W, R, or Anusvara t, according to the consonant immediately succeeding) before all the other terminations. Observe—This class resembles the 2d and 3d in interposing no vowel between the final consonant of the root and the terminations.

a. Similarly, n is inserted in certain Greek and Latin roots; as, fUtO, fJuoaAavx; lag, Aa/x/3a»»; Sty, Siyyavw; icid, tcindo; fid,findo; tag, tango; liq, linquo. Sec. See id. a.

* All the roots in this class end in consonants.

t The change to Anusvara will take place before sibilants and ^. See 6. 6.

343. Thus, from 6*5 Mid, 'to divide/ ' to break,' is formed the base of the present tense singular fa«T^ bhinad, and the base of the dual and plural fin^ bhind, changeable to bhinat and bhint by 46 (1. bhinad + mi = fi^rftr, 3. bhinad + ti = fame ; Du. 1. bhind + vas = fa^fn, 3. Mind + tas = fW?ir^ or firenr; PI. 3. bhind + and = fa^fa). See the table at 583.

344. Similarly, from ER rudh, 'to hinder,' the two bases T^tuv runadh and ^^ rundh, changeable to runat, runad, and rund (1. runadh +mi= fpffftff, 2. runadh + si = ^igfm, 3. runadh + ti = ma ; Du. 3. rundh + tas = ^si*c); see 671. So also, from fiery, ' to grind,' the two bases fxr^ and NR (Pres. 3. firm: +fir = fart?; Impv. 2. ftj* 4- tV = ftl^fff or fire) .

345. Observe—Roots ending in T[^t and ^ d may reject these letters before tk, t, and chi, when n immediately precedes: hence THii^ may be written for T»TPgTT; fiffal for fWftl. Similarly, ^"•MT^may be written for ^"■^'•H, Bee 298. a j and on the same principle »m»*^ is written for n<jsc«^from w, see 674.

346. »HT 'to eat,' *j»T 'to join,' fa^'to distinguish,' conform to 296. Hence, from bhuj come bhunaj and bhnnj, changeable to bhunak and bhun-k, see 668. a.

347. H^'to break,' ^T^'to anoint,' T^ 'to moisten,' ^*^ ' to kindle,' fi|F ' to injure,' TT^ or TT5^' to contract,' fall under this class; but the nasal belonging to the root takes the place of the conjugational nasal, and becomes «T nu in the strong forms. Hence, from bhahj come the two bases bhanaj and bhanj, changeable to bhanak and bhan-k; from und come unad and und (Pres. 3. utuitli, vistas, undanti; Impf. I. aunadam, 2. aunas, 3. aunat; Du. 3. auntdm, Sec). See 669, 668, 673. Similarly, from ^^, Pres. 1. indhe, 2. intse, 3. inddhe; PI. 3. indhate; Impf. 2. ainddhds, 3. ainddha; Impv. 1. inadhai, &c.

348. f?> 'to strike,' 'to kill,' inserts fit instead of VS before all the P terminations, except in 1st sing. impf. and 1st sing. du. pi. imperative. See 674.



(group III.)—Fifth class, containing about 30 primitive verbs. .349. Rule for forming the base in the four conjugational tenses. Add ^ nu (changeable to w by 58) to the root, which must be gunated into it no (changeable to nft) before the P terminations (293.a). Roots ending in consonants add nuv, instead of nu, to the root before the vowel-terminations. Roots ending in vowels may drop the « of nu before initial v and m (not marked with P), and always reject the termination hi of the imperative. See 291.

a. This change of nu to no is supplied in the corresponding Greek affix w, by lengthening the v, as in ^ivyvv/xt, £evyw[Mv; iumvfu, tutavfiet. See 358. a.

350. Thus, from fa ti,' to gather/ are formed the bases tino and emu (Pres. 1. tino + mi = fs^fHH, tino + si = ftnftftr by 70; Du. 1. time + vas = ftpj^ or treat ; PI. 1. time + mas = fa^K1{ or fsmro 3. 6inu + anti = f^^fM by 34; Impv. 1. tino + dni = f^HMlPH by 36.b, 2. time by 291). See the table at 583.

351. Similarly, from W^op, 'to obtain,' come dpno, dpnu, and dpnuv. See 681.

35a. ^ iru,' to hear' (sometimes placed under the 1st class), substitutes V hi for the root, and makes its bases (pno and ijinu. See 677.

a. ?f** ' to deceive,' T5*»^ and W*T 'to support,' ^W 'to stop,' and *5**^ ' to astonish,' reject their nasals in favour of the conjugational nu.- thus, dabhnu, ikabknu, &C.

(group III.)—Eighth class, containing 10 primitive verbs.

353. Rule for forming the base in the four conjugational tenses. Add vu to the root, which must be gunated into *ft 0 before the P terminations by 293. a.

a. Observe—Only ten roots are generally enumerated in this conjugation, and nine of these end either in ^ n or w H .- hence the addition of u and 0 will have the same apparent effect as the addition of nu and no in the 5th class.

354. The termination of the 2d sing, imperative is rejected: thus, from 1P^ tan, 'to stretch,' 'to extend,' are formed the bases tano and tanu (Pres. 1. tano + mi = TnftftT, 2. tano + si = jr^tfk by 70; Du. 1. tanu + vas = TPJT*^ or K*(%; PI. I. tanu + mas = TT^K^ or Trm*-, Impv. 1. tano + dni = TPnrfa by 36. b, 2. inj tanu). Compare the Greek rawfii, rawuet.

a. The root WT Tan, 'to give,' optionally rejects its a, and lengthens the radical a before the y of the potential: thus, Wan* tanydm or «imi« sdydm, ice.

b. When the vowel of a root is capable of Guns, it may optionally take it: thus the base of ^W 'to go' may be either ^pj or tr^ (1. ^njftfir or ^«)fli).

355. One root in this class, ^t kri, * to do,' 'to make,' is by far the most common and useful in the language. This root gunates the radical vowel ri, as well as the conjugational u, before the P terminations. Before the other terminations it changes the radical ri to «r. The rejection of the conjugational u before initial m (not marked with P) and v, which is allowable in the 5th class, is in this verb compulsory, and is, moreover, required before initial y. Hence the three bases karo, kuru, and kur. See 682.

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