« AnteriorContinua »
or ?d (the two latter, however, are not likely to occur), then the final ? h is still changed to Rt k before s; but the initial T d and R g are aspirated according to the analogy of 42. c; thus, <fV^ doh + « = vtf^T; ^ dah + sydmi = v^rrfa; ^PT? aguh -\- sam = ysripq.
b. In the root TC nah final 7 A is treated as if it were dh, and becomes H / before T^a. Compare 182. e, and see 624.
c. In roots beginning with ^ d, like <*? duh and M, dih, final ? A becomes *\g before dh; i. e. before the dhi of the 2d sing, imperative, and before the terminations dhve and dhvam (see d. below): thus, J* duh + dhi = ?frv duffdhi. And in a root beginning with n, like RT nah, final A becomes d before these terminations.
But if the root begin with any other letter than ^ d or «^ n, then final ?A is dropped, and the V dh of the termination becomes <f dh, the radical vowel (except N ri) being lengthened: thus, f?j^ lih 4- dhi = <^lfd; #A + dhvam = fftcf. An option, however, is allowed in the case of the roots at 305. b.
d. And 306. a. applies before dhve and dhvam, when final * A be- ■£• comes ix ff or is dropped, although not before dhi of the imperative: thus, duh + dhve = w«fr dhugdhve; and aguh + dhvam = Vf^ aghudhvam.
(group II.)—Second class, containing 70 primitive verbs.
307. Rule for forming the base in the four conjugational tenses. Gunate the vowel of the root (except when debarred by 28. b) in the strong forms, or before those terminations only which are marked with P in the memorial scheme at 246. Before all the other terminations the original vowel of the root must be retained by 293. a.
Remember, that no vowel is interposed between the root and the terminations. Compare Greek verbs like etfii, fund, &c. See 258. a, 294.
308. Thus, from farj vid, 'to know5 (Greek e"Sa>, "Sov, Lat. video), is formed the base of the singular present ved (1. ved + mi = its vedmi, &c), and the base of the dual and plural vid (Du. 1. vid + vas = fqgavidvas, etc.; PI. 1. vid + mas = fmmKvidmas, &c). So also the base of the imperfect aved and avid (1. aved + am = avedam, 2. aved
+ s = avet or aves by 43. a. and 292); the base of the potential vid (1. vid + yam = ftTCTPJ vidydm, &c.); and the base of the imperative
313. *FT stu and ^ 1111, 'to praise;' *J yu, 'to join,' 'to mix;' and ^ ru,' to sound' —follow 312, but take Vriddbi instead of Guna before the consonantal P terminations *. Hence the bases *cn stem, ^ stu, and ^^ stuv; see 648. Before the vowel P terminations both Vriddbi and Guna are generally (but not always) suppressed, and up substituted, as in TT at 312. Note, that these roots may optionally insert an s ( before the consonantal P terminations; and before this vowel Guna, not Vriddhi, is required. According to some authorities, however, i is inserted before all the consonantal-terminations; and, according to others, before all the consonants, except y, v, or m, not followed by an indicatory P.
314. "9, 'to speak,' can never take Vriddhi, like the roots at 313; but inserts an ^ t after Guna in the places where those roots optionally insert it, vis. before the consonantal P terminations. Hence the bases bravi, bru, brim. See 649.
a. Before the vowel P terminations Guna is not suppressed, excepting in the 1st sing, impf., which may be either vstq or «i<-H
315. jft, 'to lie down,'' to sleep' (Atmane only), gunates the radical vowel before all the terminations, and inserts r in the 3d pi. pres., impf., and imperative, after the analogy of the 3d pi. potential. See 646.
316. ^5^, 'to cover5, takes either Vriddhi or Guna of the final a before the consonantal P terminations, except before the 2d and 3d sing, of the impf., where Guna only is admissible. Before the vowel-terminations it follows 312, but Guna is retained before the vowel P terminations, excepting in the 1st sing, impf. Hence the bases urnau, urno, urnu, and urnuv (Pres. Par. 1. wlilN or winft; Du. 1. '3H|«rW; PI. 3. ^wMlf, see 290. bj Impf. 1. W5§^ or WFgq by 260. a, 2. ^J?fta, &c.; Pot. I. ^fl&TTf; Impv. S. I. Jw8<*lfH, 3. 3HDT* or *Iflil. Pres. Atm. 3. *^, *4lHlH, *«|=lrt).
317. TT' to go,' IT 'to protect,' ^ 'to eat' (edo), WITt' to sit,' Atm., and other roots having a or a for their vowels, cannot be changed, but are themselves the inflective bases (Pres. 1. TTyrf-)-mi = yain«, see 644; ^^ ad+mi=admi, 2. ad+si =atsi, 3. ad+ti=atti; Du. 3. ad+tas=attas, &c, see 652). With atti compare Lat. edit.
a. ^TT^'to sit' is similar; thus ds+ e= use, ds+se = dsse, ds+te=dste. The final of ds is dropped before dh, hence PI. 2. fTTSq ddkve, &c.
b. V^ 'to eat,' before the terminations of the 2d and 3d sing, imperfect, inserts the vowel V a by special rule, see 652; and some other roots of this class require peculiar changes, as follows :—
318. C((Ve;i daridrd, 'to be poor,' follows 290. b, making its base daridribefore the consonantal terminations not marked with P, and daridr before ati, us, arm (Pres. S. Du. PI. 3. qftglpH, ^ftfjTW, efogft; Impf. 1. ^fcgi; PI. 3. «^t\|W; Pot. 3. eA^ld; Impv. 1. e^Tfiff; Du. i.^ficjTW; PI. 3.^*73).
319. efhft didhi, 'to shine' (Atm.), and %<ft' to go' (Atm.), change their final to y, and not to ty, before the vowel-terminations (compare 312); but in the poten
* That is, the terminations marked with P, which begin with consonants.
tial the final icoalesces with the /of the terminations (Pres. Sing. I. ^TO; VP*li PL 3. efhflTT; ^«nr: Pot. 1. ?MK &c).
320. sPtvra<?, 'to speak,' changes its final palatal to a guttural before all the hard consonantal terminations, in conformity with 176; but not before the soft (except dh), by 294. a. It is defective in the 3d pi. present and imperative, where its place must be supplied by sj at 314, 649. Hence the bases va6 and vak. See 630.
321. W^ntrij, 'to cleanse,' is vriddhied in strong forms, and optionally before the vowel-terminations having no P. Hence the bases mdrj and mry. See 651.
322. ^5 rud,'to weep,' besides the usual Guna change before the P terminations, inserts the vowel ^ i before all the consonantal terminations except y, and optionally a or ^ i in the 2d and 3d sing. impf. Hence rodi, rudi, rud. See 653.
a. W^'to sleep,' 'V^and ^TT'to breathe,' and »TR^'to eat,' are similar, but 1 without Guna. The last obeys 290. 6. In the Epic poems, forms like «hii»i are ) found as well as «sM»i, while in the Veda other roots besides the above five insert
»(as jrYfafa, ^rfirfn-, srfVsfa, Tjftfir, &c).
323. ^^ Aon, 'to kill,' makes its base ^ ha before t or th (by 57. a); H ghn before anti, an, antu; and if ja before f?. The last change is to avoid the proximity of two aspirates. See 654, and compare 331. b.
324. ^S^ra*',' to desire,' * to choose,' suppresses the a, and changes r to u before the terminations which have no P (see 293. a); and T|^u« becomes T*l ush before t and th by 300. See 656.
325. sJS^ ti, 'to rule' (Atmane only), and s^ id, 'to praise' (Atm.), not gunated by 28. b, insert the vowel 3J t between the root and the terminations of the 2d person W, ^", i&, and *4 (^—Pres. 1. 4$, 2. $fs^, 3. i^ (see 48. 6); I)u. 1. $th%; PI. 2. jjfsTCf; Impf. 3. ?$, &c; Pot. 1. s^fa, &c.; Impv. I. f«,
2. ^fir^, 3. ijgT; PI. 2. $fn4. i^»—Pres. 1. t$, 2. ^%^, 3.4$ by 300; Impf.
3. %», &c; Impv. 3. $*T, Sec.).
326. ^TS^iaksh, 'to speak' (Atm.), drops the penultimate k before all consonantal terminations, except those beginning with ntorr (Pres. I. *1W> 2. ,^+ *f — ^f^, 3. *re, &c, see 302. a, 303. a; Impf. 3. WJV; Pot. 3. ^BjTrl). Katyayana considers «F3TT the original root, whence is formed 9TT; the latter being substituted for ^^in the non-conjugational tenses.
327. W8 as, 'to be' (Parasmai-pada only), a very useful auxiliary verb, follows 293. a, and rejects its initial a, except before the P terminations. The 2d pers. sing, of the pres. is vftr for ,HftR. The impf. has the character of an aorist, and retains the initial a throughout, and inserts ^ i before the « and t of the 2d and 3d sing.; see 584. The 2d sing, imperative substitutes e for as, and takes the termination dhi. This root is found in the Atmane-pada, with the prepositions rt and ati, when the Present is Sing, ifir?, -w, -«; Du. -33%, -TTOj -TTff, -W?, -W, -UTT; Pot. S. i. mfriifl", &c. (Pan. VIII. 3,87). See 584.
328. 3TT^sa'j, 'to rule,' in Parasmai (but not in Atmane), changes its vowel to \ i before the consonantal terminations having no P, except that of the 2d sing.
Impv. Before that and all vowel-terminations, as well as in the strong forms, the vowel of the root remains unchanged; and, after i, ^becomes ^by 70. Hence the bases jm^ and firm . See 658.
a. nW, 'to shine,' is Pres. 1. "TWrftR, 2. ^^tfw, 3. ^rfti*; Du. 1. ^W^TW; PI. 3. ^irrafn" (290. b); Impf. i.TTOira, just or *T*mf(292.a), 3-**WH[; Du. i.^^+IW; PI. 3. wm<*i«M; Pot. 1. ^4iwi; Impv. i.^*mifn, 2. *cw\faor ^anffc(304), 3.^torj; Du. I. <i<*i«n, 2.^rrer; Pi.3. ^*i«*.
329. 7^ duh, 'to milk,' and f?T? lih, 'to lick,' form their bases as explained at 3°5> 306. They are conjugated at 660, 661.
(group II.)—Third class, containing about ao primitive verbs.
RULE8 OF REDUPLICATION.
Applicable to the 3d class and to all reduplicated forms, such as the perfect (or ad pret.), aorist (or 3d pret.),desiderative, and frequentative.
330. In doubling a root the initial consonant and first vowel are generally repeated, as lilip from lip, but there are special rules;
331. 1st, As to consonants. A corresponding unaspirated letter is substituted for an aspirate: thus, 7 d for v dh. So in Greek T is repeated for 6; as, Bum, Tsqvko, &c.
a. The palatal f 6 is substituted for the gutturals "% k or Wt kh; and the palatal nj for the gutturals n g, « gh, or * h.
b. Note—f^,' to kill,' and fire, ' to go,' substitute « gh for ^ when reduplicated.
c. If a root begin with a double consonant, the first consonant only, or its substitute, is repeated; but if with a double consonant, whose first is a sibilant and whose second is hard, the second, or its substitute, is reduplicated: thus, ^ 6 for Hf ksh; Tt s for xjr sy; if j for f hr; w / for w sth; ^ 6 for Bb* sk; q p for ER sp.
d. 2dly, As to vowels. A short vowel is repeated for a long, and diphthongal sounds are represented by their second element: thus, «a is reduplicated for wr a; ^ i for t (, N ri, ^ ri, we, and W ai; 7 '/ for ~9 11, *h 0, and vl ait. In certain cases *; t is also repeated for a and d, as being a lighter vowel.
•J"^}& e. Note—^, 'to shine,' makes didyut for dudyut. t"-~ . '' ^
f. Observe—As a general rule, the reduplicated syllable has a tendency to lighten the weight of the radical syllable.
g. Observe also, that when a form has once been reduplicated, it is never reduplicated again in forming other derivatives from it (see 517.0), and that when roots which have to be reduplicated have any changed form, this modified form is taken