Imatges de pàgina

of the 10th conjugation will not be explained under the general head of the nonconjugational tenaea (at 363), but will fall under causal verbs.

6. According to some grammarians all verbs of the 10th class may also belong to the 1st. It has been already pointed out that many verbs of the 10th are also conjugated in other classes; and many may be regarded as nominals.


290. Before entering upon the formation of the base in the remaining two groups, the student should turn back to the table at 247, and observe that they take the regular terminations of the memorial scheme, with few substitutions, except in the 3d plur. present and imperative, Atmane-pada, where the nasal is rejected in all six classes.

a. The 3d class, however, owing to the burden occasioned by reduplication, rejects the nasal from the 3d plur. of the Parasmai-pada, as well as from the Atmanr-pada.'in these two tenses, and takes us for an in the 3d pi. imperfect.

6. Two roots, moreover, in the 3d class (>T^'to eat' and ^TT*? 'to rule') *, and roots of more than one syllable (as, <;(*.£ 1 'to be poor,' ^«w«^ 'to shine,' iTPT ' to be awake,' all formed by reduplication), resemble the 3d class in rejecting the nasal from the 3d pi. Parasmai, and taking us for an in the imperfect.

e. Some roots ending in d, as ITT, *Tf, and a few others of the 2d class, as ftRf, iFW, &c, also optionally take us for an in the imperfect, before which a final d is dropped.

291. Observe also, that roots ending in consonants, of the 2d and 3d, and all roots of the 7th, and the root 7 hu of the 3d class, take dhi (the Greek 61) for hi in the ad sing, imperative t (see 247); and that roots ending in vowels, of the 5th, and all roots of the 8th, and roots ending in consonants of the 9th class, resemble the first group of classes at 259, in rejecting this termination hi altogether.

292. Again, roots ending in consonants will reject the terminations s and / of the ad and 3d sing, imperfect by 43. a, changing the final of the root, if a soft. consonant, to an unaspirated bard, by 42. a; and in other respects changing a final consonant, as indicated at 43. b, c, d, e. In roots ending in IT, ^L S, v, the 3d person rejects the termination t regularly, and ends therefore in simple il; the ad person optionally rejects either the termination s, and ends therefore in t, or the

* Sds probably follows the analogy of reduplicated verbs, on account of its double sibilant. It may have been a contraction of 3,01*1. So »P5( may be a corruption of »i«i*i.

t Dhi was originally the only form. Hence in the Vedas wfif (k\z8i); and in the Maha-bharata wrrsrfv. Dhi then passed into hi, as dhita passed into hita, and hhiimi into the Latin humus.

final dental of the root, and ends then in s; ex. gr. vid—3d person onset, 2d person avet or aves.

a. If B root end in TT s, this s must be changed to T^ / in the 3d person; and may be optionally so changed in the ad person, see 304. a.

b. If a root end in "? A, this final h becomes =fT k in the 2d and 3d sing, imperfect of roots beginning with T d; in all other roots the final ^ h becomes T ( (cf. 305). In both cases the aspiration is thrown back on the first consonant of the root, if this is allowed by the general rule (p. c, 306.-0).

293. Although comparatively few verbs fall under the last two groups of classes, yet some of these are among the most useful in the language. Their formation presents more difficulties than that of the 1st group, containing the 1st, 4th, 6th, and 10th classes. In these latter the verbal base, although varying slightly in each, preserves the form assumed in the singular before all the terminations of every conjugational tense; but in the last two groups the base is liable to variation in the various persons and numbers of most of the tenses, such variation being denoted by the letter P and other indicatory letters of the memorial scheme at 246, which, be it remembered, are significant only in reference to the second and third groups, and not to the first.

a. In the perfect (2d preterite), however, being a non-conjugational tense, the P is equally significant for verbs of all conjugations. Observe—This P, which usually indicates that in those persons of the tense where it occurs, the verbal base must be gunated, is generally to be found after light terminations. The 1st, 2d, and 3d sing. Parasmai of the present, imperfect, and perfect are manifestly light terminations. The 3d sing. Parasmai of the imperative is also clearly light. The object, therefore, of the P in these forms is to show, that fulness of form or weight is to be imparted to the root or base before these light terminations, and these only: thus ^ 1, 2d conj., to go,' is in the pres. sing, emi, eski, vti,- in du. ivas, ithas, itas; in pl. imas, &c.: just as in Greek €'/«, etc, eitri; rrov, Roy ; </mv, &c.: compare also <f>rjfJ.i (for <f>&f*i), <pvjs, tpijai, <f>onov, (parov, (fyaixvj, <j>aT(, Fri. So again, stri, 'to strew,' is in pres. sing, strinomi, strinoski, strinoti; in du. strinuvas, strinuthns, strinutas; in pi. strinumas, &c.: just as in Greek (TTOpVV/JU, (TTOpVVf, (TTOpVVTl, OTOpVVTOV, oropvvTOV, ffropvvpitf, Sec. Similarly, M, ' to buy,' is in pres. sing, krtndmi, krinasi, Mndti; in du. Ike. krtm'vas, Mnithas, krtnitas, krinimas, &c, the d being heavier than i. Compare Greek wtpva/xi (vtpvrifu), vipvdf, vepvan, irepvarov, Trepvarov, &c. The P stands after the terminations of the first six persons of the imperative, Parasmai and At- mane, to indicate that even before these heavy terminations the base must be full. Perhaps the reason of this may be that these six forms agree more with the Vedic mood called Let than with the other forms of the imperative. See Bopp's Comp. Gr. 722. When a root ending in a consonant is long by nature or position, no additional weight is necessary, and no Guna is then possible (see 28. 6); but in place of Guna, the root or base sometimes remains unmutilated before the light terminations, while mutilation takes place before the heavy. The same holds good in roots ending in d: thus da and dhd suppress their final vowels before the heavy terminations, and preserve them before the light; see 335, 336. Similarly, as, 'to be,' which by a8. b. cannot be gunated, drops its initial vowel before the heavy terminations, retaining it before the light; see 32M and compare 320.

294. Another source of difficulty is, that in the second group (viz. the 2d, 3d, and 7th) the verbal base will generally end in a consonant, as most of the roots in these classes end in consonants, and there is no provision for the interposition of a vowel between the root and the terminations. This group of verbal bases, therefore, will resemble the last four classes of nominal bases; and the combination of the final consonant of a base with the initial /, ///, dh, or .1, of a termination in the conjugational tenses of these three classes requires a knowledge of the laws of Sandhi already propounded, as well as of the following additional rules.

a. Remember, that as regards the initial m, v, y, or vowel of a termination, a hard consonant at the end of a root is not made soft before these letters, but remains unchanged: thus, vat + mi = vatmi, tekship + vas = 6ekshipvas, and vat + ydm vatydm. See r. 41. c.

295. Observe—The following rules will also apply in forming the conjugational tenses of the Parasmai-frequentative (see 514), and in forming the base of the non-conjugational tenses of all the class except the 10th, and in some of the participles; for although in most roots ending in consonants provision is made for the insertion of the vowel ^ t (see 391) before the terminations of these tenses, yet there is a large class of common roots which reject this inserted vowel, leaving the final of the base to coalesce with the initial consonant of the termination. It will be convenient, therefore, in the following pages to introduce by anticipation examples from the non-conjugational tenses and participles.

Combination affinal ^6, ^ 6h, \'}, *RJh, with it t, *i th, V dh, * s.

296. Final ^ t and •{_/', before it t, v th, v dh, and vs, are changed to ^ k (compare 43. d), the M k blending with s into ^ksh by 70, and becoming *{g before dh: thus, va6 + ti = vakli; vai + that = rakthas; rat 4- «' = vakshi; mot -f- tydmi = mokthydmi; mut + ta = mukta;

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