Imatges de pàgina
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may observe that the letter m generally enters into the ist sing. Pasasmai; * into the ad sing. Parasmai and Atmane; and t into the 3d sing. du. and pi. Parasmai and Atmane of all the tenses. Moreover, that the letter r occurs in the ist dual, m in the ist plural of all the tenses, and (Mr in every 2d plural Atmane-pada. In the imperfect and potential Atmane, and in the perfect Parasmai, Ik is admitted, instead of x, into the 2d sing.; and in the 2d pi. of the last tense, th has been dropped, owing to the influence of the heavy reduplication. For the same reason the m and fare dropped in the ist and 3d sing, perfect. Observe also—When the ist dual Parasmai is ros, the 2d and 3d end in as (except the 3d du. 1st future), and the 1st plural is mns. When the 1st dual Parasmai is ra, the 2d and 3d end in tarn, tarn (except in the perfect), and the ist plural in ma. When the ist dual Atmane is rahe, the ist plural is make, and the last letter of the remaining terminations is generally e. When the ist dual Atmane is vahi, the 2d and 3d end in dm; the ist plural is mahi, and the 2d plural is dhram.

d. The frequent occurrence of m in the ist sing., of s in the 2d, of t in the 3d, of mat and ma in the ist pl., of ta in the 2d pi., and of ant in the 3d pl., suggests a comparison with the Greek and Latin verb. We may remark, that m, the characteristic of the ist person sing., is suppressed in the present tense active of all Greek verbs except those in /JU (asmi = "e, Dor. (jJ-f-i for (VfJil, daddmiz=bihxfu), and also in Latin verbs (except sum and inquam); but 01 and 0 answer to the Sanskrit d of bhardmi= <f>(po),fero. In the Greek middle and passive, the pu, which originally belonged to all active verbs, becomes Pal ; while the Sanskrit, on the other hand, here suppresses the m, and has e for ai; bhare (for bhara-me) = <f>tpofjJti. In the imperfect, Greek has v for the Sanskrit and Latin mute m; atarpam=. (TtpTtcv, adaddm = (biai!V, attpnaram = (.<TTopvvv, araham = rehebam. Greek has pu in the ist sing, optative or potential; and in verbs in Pi, v takes the place of the mute m of Sanskrit and Latin: thus, bhareyam = <p(poif/.l,feram; dadydm = OJ0011JV, dem; tishtheyam = ivraiyv, stem. In the first Greek aorist, m is suppressed, so that Sanskrit adiksham (3d pret.) = efi«<fa; but not in the ad aorist, so that addm = «&<w. In the perfect the Sanskrit a = Greek a, tutopa = T(Tvd>a. In the Greek middle and passive futures, m is retained, but not in the active; ddsydmi = owtjx, dekskydmi=.otiK<7U>, ddsye Owoopwu. As to the ist person plural, the Sanskrit mas of the pres. is P" (for pK() in Greek, and mus in Latin; tarpd-mas=. T(p*o[MV; sarj)d-mas= (piro-fxtv, serpi-mus; dad-mas = 0ibc-fAtv, da-mus; tiskfkdmas = l<rra-p\f.v, sta-mus. The Atmane-pada mahe answers to the Greek ft-f6a; dad-make = 0i00-fM$a. As to the other tenses, in the imperfect ist pi. abhardma = upfpo-fLtv, fereba-mus; avahd-ma^iveheba-mus: adad-ma = £0lOO-pUV; abkard-maki = HJxpOfJLtOeu In the potential ist pl. bkare-ma = <f>(poi-fJ.(( (-/*«), ftra-mus; dadydma=6ibs<iir)p\lf (-pity), demo ; dad{-maki = 0&ol-pilQa. In the 2d future, ddsyd-mas=.bmao-px(v, dekshyd-mai = otiKaG-pxa>. In the 2d pen. sing, active, the characteristic * has been preserved in all three languages: thus, in the present, the Sanskrit asi (for original asxi) = f<77i,«; dadd-si = 0ibw(,das; bkara*i = <f>(ptt(, fern; rakasi = rekis. In the Atman, the Sanskrit se (for sat, by 32)

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These ten classes of verbs are said to form ten conjugations; and the four tenses, which alone are affected by these conjugational rules (viz. the present, imperfect, potential, and imperative), are called the conjugational tenses. It is evident, however, that the ten classes hardly form distinct conjugations in the classical sense of the term. They are rather ten rules for forming ten classes of verbs from roots; or, in other words, for moulding and fashioning ten classes of roots into the proper form for receiving a common scheme of terminations in four of the tenses only.

349, Although it will be afterwards shown (at 257) that these ten classes may be grouped together under three general heads (1. comprising the 1st, 4th, 6th, and 10th classes; II. the 2d, 3d, and 7th; III. the 5th, 8th, and 9th), yet it will be better in the first place to give a brief summary of the ten rules for forming the base of the four conjugational tenses in the ten classes of verbs, according to the Indian order.

1st class. Gunate the vowel of the root (unless it be W a, or a long vowel not final, or a short vowel followed by a double consonant, 28. b) before every termination of the four tenses, and affix ^ a— lengthened to «rr a before initial m * and v — to the root thus gunated.

2d class. Gunate the vowel of the root (if capable of Guna, as in the last) before those terminations only which are marked with P in the scheme at 246. Before all the other terminations the original vowel of the root must be retained.

3d class. Reduplicate the initial consonant and vowel (see 331) of the root, and gunate the radical but not the reduplicated vowel before the P terminations only, as in the 2d conjugation.

4th class. Affix V ya—lengthened to in yd before initial »j * and v—-to the root, the vowel of which is generally left unchanged.

5th class. Affix ^ nu to the root, and gunate this nu into no before the P terminations only.

6th class. Affix ^T a—lengthened to ^n a before initial m* and v— to the root, which in other respects generally remains unchanged.

7th class. Insert ^T na between the vowel and final consonant of the root before the P terminations, and ^ n before the other termi

* But not before m the termination of the- 1st si 11 jr. imperfect Parasmai.

nations. Observe the peculiarity of this conjugation — that the conjugational na or n is inserted into the middle of the root, and not affixed.

8th class. Affix 7 u to the root, and gunate this u into o before the P terminations only. Observe—As all the roots, except one, in this class, end in 'w, the 8th conjugation will appear similar to the 5th.

9th class. Affix qrr na to the root before the P terminations; ?ft $//.^ri«^ ni before all the others, except those beginning with vowels, a**'

where only ^ n is affixed.

10th class. Gunate the radical vowel (if capable of Guna) throughout all the persons of all the tenses, and affix ^m aya—lengthened to WiT ayd before initial m* and v—to the root thus gunated.

250. It will appear, from a cursory examination of the above rules, that the object of all of them, except the 2d, 3d, and 7th, is to insert a vowel, either alone or preceded by y or n, between the modified root and the terminations; and that the 1st, 4th, 6th, and 10th, agree in requiring that the vowel, which is immediately to precede the terminations, shall be a or a. It will appear, moreover, that the 2d, 3d, and 7th, alone agree in not interposing a vowel between the final of the root and the terminations; and that the 5th, 8th, and 9th, agree in interposing either u, a, or 1, after the letter n.

a. It must never, however, be forgotten, that the conjugational characteristic, whatever it may be, has reference only to the four conjugational tenses (except only in the 10th conjugation), and that in the other tenses the base is formed according to one general rule for all verbs of whatever class; or, in other words, that in these tenses all verbs, of whatever class, are as if they belonged to one common conjugation.

6. It is evident, that a comparison between the difficulty of the Sanskrit and (Jreek verb would be greatly to the advantage of the former. The Greek verb has three voices, and about ninety tenses and moods: the Sanskrit has only two voices, and not more than twenty tenses and moods. Besides which, a far greater number of verbs are susceptible of the three voices in Greek, than of the two in Sanskrit. Moreover, in Sanskrit there are no contracted verbs, and no difficulties resulting from difference of dialect; and although there are ten conjugations, yet these have

But not before »i the termination of the 1st sing, imperfect I'nrasmai.

reference to four tenses only; and, under some of these conjugations, only two or three common verbs are contained.

251. Hence it appears, that conjugation in Sanskrit is really conjugation, i.e. a process of Sandhi or 'junction' of a verbal base (formed out of a root according to ten rules for four of the tenses, and one general rule for the other six) with a common scheme of terminations, and that in conjugating a verb, two things have to be done; 1st. to form the base from the root, in the manner described above; 2dly, to join the base with the terminations, according to euphonic rules.

252. Before proceeding to a detailed explanation of the formation of the verbal base of the simple or primitive verb, under the several classes, it will be worth while to specify the four other verbs deducible from roots, and to explain how they are derived.

a. It has been already shown, at 74, that there are a large number of monosyllabic sounds in Sanskrit, called roots, which are the source of verbs as well as nouns. These roots are in number about two thousand; and the theory of grammarians is, that each of them may serve as the rough block out of which the inflective bases of five kinds of verbs may be fashioned: 1. of a primitive, transitive or intransitive; 2. of a passive; 3. of a causal, having often a causal and often merely a transitive signification; 4. of a desiderative, giving a sense of wishing to the root; and 5. of a frequentative (or intensive), implying repetition, or heightening the idea contained in the root.

b. It will be found, however, in practice, that a great number of these two thousand roots never occur at all in the form of verbs, and not always even in the form of nouns; and that the verbs in real use are comparatively few. Of these, moreover, certain particular roots (such, for example, as flf kri, 'to do') are made to do the work of others, and applied to the expression of the most various ideas by compounding them with prepositions and other prefixes. Nevertheless, theoretically, from every root in the language may be elicited five kinds of verbal bases.

c. The first, or primitive verb, is formed from the root, according to the ten different rules, already given, for the formation of the base in the first four tenses. The second, or passive, is formed according to the rule for the change of the root, required by the 4th class; viz. the addition of ya in the first four tenses. The third, or causal, is formed according to the rule for the change of the root, required by the 10th class; viz. the addition of aya to the root in all the

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