« AnteriorContinua »
GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 241. Although the Sanskrit verb (dkhydta, kriyd) offers many striking and interesting analogies to the Greek, nevertheless so peculiar and artificial is the process by which it is formed, that it would be difficult, in treating of it, to adopt an arrangement which would be likely to fall in with the preconceived notions of the classical student.
There are ten tenses and moods (kdla). Seven of them are of common occurrence; viz. 1. the present, 2. the imperfect (often called the first preterite), 3. the potential (or optative), 4. the imperative, 5. the perfect (often called the second preterite), 6. the first future, 7. the second future. Three are not so commonly used; viz. 8. the aorist (often called the third preterite), 9. the precative (also called the benedictive), io. the conditional. There is also an infinitive mood, and several participles. Of these, the present, the three past tenses, and the two futures, belong to the indicative mood. As to the imperative, potential, precative, and conditional (see p. 122, 1. 4), these are moods susceptible of various times; but, as there is only one form for each, it can lead to no embarrassment to arrange them indiscriminately with the tenses of the indicative, and to call them tenses with the native grammarians.
Four of the tenses, viz. the present, imperfect, potential, and imperative, are called conjugalional tenses, and are placed first in order, because the distinctive character of the ten Sanskrit conjugations is established by the form they assume (as will be explained afterwards at 248).
a. Observe—The ancient Sanskrit of the Vedas is more rich in grammatical forms than the later or classical Sanskrit. There is a Vedic subjunctive mood, technically called Let, which comprises under it a present, imperfect, and aorist; the Vedic potential has distinct forms for the present, aorist, perfect, and future tenses; and the Vedic imperative distinct forms for the present, aorist, and perfect tenses. The Vedic infinitive, too, has ten or eleven different forms, though it is doubtful whether these are all to be assigned to different tenses.
342. Although the three past tenses are used without much distinction, yet it should be observed, that they properly express different degrees of past time. The imperfect or first preterite (anadyatana-bhuta) corresponds in form to the imperfect of Greek verbs, and properly has reference to an event done at some time recently past, but before the current day. It may denote action past and continuing, or it may be used like the Greek aorist. The perfect or second preterite (paroktka-bkuta) is said to have reference to an event completely done before the present day at some remote period, unperceived by or out of sight of the narrator: it answers in form to the Greek perfect, but may also be used like the aorist. The aorist or third preterite refers to an event done and past at some indefinite period, whether before or during the current day: it corresponds in form and sense to the Greek 1st and 2d aorist, and sometimes to the pluperfect*. Again,
* The fact is, that neither one of the three past tenses is very commonly used to represent the completeness of an action. This is generally done by employing
the two futures properly express, the first, definite, the second, indefinite futurity *: the second, however, is the most used, and answers to the Greek future. The potential may generally be rendered in English by some one of the auxiliaries, may,' 'can,'' would,' 'should,''oughtf.' The conditional (or imperfect of the future) is occasionally used after the conjunctions yadi and 6et, if:' it has an augment like the imperfect and aorist, and ought on that account to be classed with the tenses of the indicative. The precative or benedictive is a tense sometimes used in praying and blessing (dsish.). It is a modification of the potential. There is no tense exactly equivalent to the pluperfect in Sanskrit: the sense of this tense may often be expressed by the past indeclinable participle or by the past passive participle; as, tasminn apakrdnte, 'after he had departed.' See Syntax, 840, 899. a.
The infinitive mood generally has an active, but is capable of a passire signification.
a. Native grammars designate the moods and tenses by the following technical words: present, lat; potential, tin-; imperative, lot; imperfect or first preterite, Ian-; perfect or second preterite, lit; first future, hit; second future, Irit; third preterite, lun-; precative or benedictive, lin- (dsishi); conditional,/rin-. The Vedic subjunctive is called let.
S43. Every tense has three numbers, singular, dual, and plural.
To each tense belong two sets of active terminations; one for the active voice (properly so called), the other for a kind of middle or reflexive voice. The former of these voices is called by Indian grammarians Parasmai-pada (' word J directed to another*), because the action is supposed to be transitive, or to pass parasmai, 'to another (object'); the latter is called Atmane-pada (' word J directed
the passive participle with an instr. case; or by adding vat to the pass, part., and combining it with the present tense of as, 'to be;' as, uktavdn asmi, 'I have said.' See Syntax, 897.
* The first future (hit) is said to be anudyatane, i. e. to be so far definite as to
denote what will happen at a future period, not in the course of the current day
(Panini III. 3, 15); whereas the second future may refer to immediate futurity,
as, for instance, ^ft JlnHfOT ' to-morrow I will go,' TOI WPhCRjy Tfft ^T Jlfrlllfn
this very evening or to-morrow I will go.'
t The potential is said to be capable of the following senses: 'commanding,' directing,' 'inviting,' 'expression of wish,' 'enquiring,' 'requesting.' Panini III.
X Pada is an inflected word as distinguished from an uninflected root. Pan. I. 4,14. The term pada or voice has here reference to the scheme of terminations only; so that in this sense there are only two voices in Sanskrit, and they are often used indiscriminately. Although the Atmane-pada has occasionally a kind of middle signification, yet it cannot be said to correspond entirely with the Greek middle to oneself), because the action is supposed to be restricted dtmane, 'to oneself.' This distinction, however, is not always observed, and we often find both Parasmai and Atmane employed indifferently for transitive verbs. Some verbs, however, are conjugated only in the iftmane-pada, especially those which are neuter, or in which the direct fruit of the action accrues to the agent (see the distinction of Uddttetah and Anuddttetab at 75. c): thus, mud and rut meaning 'to be pleased,' 'please oneself;' bhuj meaning 'to eat' (not 'to protect'); da, 'to give,' with d prefixed, meaning 'to give to oneself,' 'to take,' are restricted to the Atmane-pada. Sometimes, when a verb takes both padas, the Atmane, without altering the idea expressed by the root, may be used to direct the action in some way towards the agent: thus, pa6ati means 'he cooks,' but palate, 'he cooks for himself:' yajati, 'he sacrifices;' yajate, 'he sacrifices for himself:' namati, 'he bends;' namate, 'he bends himself;' dariayuti (causal),' he shows;' dariayate,' he shows himself,'' appears:' kdrayati, 'he causes to make;' kdrayate,' he causes to be made for himself:' and ydc, 'to ask,' although employing both voices, is more commonly used in the Atmane, because the act of asking generally tends to the advantage of the asker.
a. Some verbs are restricted to particular padas when particular prepositions are used: thus the root ram with prep, vi (meaning ' to cease') is only Parasmai (P. I. 3, 83), but with prep, itpa, is used in both voices. Again, kri withpard (' to reject') and with anu ('to imitate') are Parasmai only. ttutji either with prep, vi or pard (meaning 'to conquer') is restricted to the Atmane (P. I. 3, 19). So viil with prep. »i (meaning ' to enter") and M with vi (meaning 'to sell') and dd with d (meaning 'to take') are Atmane only. See this subject more fully explained at 786.
b. Passive verbs are conjugated in the Atmane-pada. Indeed, in all the tenses, excepting the first four, the passive is generally undistinguishable from the Atmane-pada of the primitive verb. But in the present, imperfect, potential, and imperative (unlike the Greek, which exhibits an identity between the middle and passive voices in those tenses), the Sanskrit passive, although still employing the Atmane-pada terminations, has a special structure of its own, common to all verbs, and distinct from the conjugational form
voice. We prefer to regard the passive as a distinct derivative from the root, using the Atmane terminations.
of the Atmane-pada. Thus the Greek Okovw makes for both the middle and passive of those four tenses, ist sing. aKoiofiai, ijKovofitjv, aKovolfxtjv, (ikovov. But the Sanskrit fan, 'to hear,' makes for the conjugational form of the Atmane, mm WSTfo, snjtffar, TSJ*n^; while for the passive it is ^nr, wv, Vint, vni. Compare 253, and see Bopp's Comparative Grammar, 426, 733.
244. As in nouns the formation of an inflective base out of a root precedes the subject of declension, the root requiring some change or addition before the case-terminations can be affixed; so in verbs the formation of a verbal base out of a root must be antecedent to conjugation. Again, as in nouns every case has its own termination, so in verbs each of the three persons, in the three numbers of every tense, has a termination (vibhakti), one for the Parasmai-pada, and one for the Atmane-pada, which is peculiarly its own. Moreover, as in nouns, so in verbs, some of the terminations may be combined with memorial letters, which serve to aid the memory, by indicating that where they occur peculiar changes are required in the root. Thus the three terminations which belong to the ist, 2d, and 3d persons of the present tense, Parasmai-pada, respectively, are mi, si, ti; and these are combined with the letter P (miP, sip, tip), to indicate that the roots of verbs of the second and third groups (see 257. b.c. and 293) must be modified in a particular way, before these terminations are affixed.
245. The annexed tables exhibit, ist, the scheme of terminations for Parasinai and A'tmane-pada, with the most useful of the memorial letters (indicated by capitals), in all the tenses, the four conjugational being placed first; 2dly, the same scheme without memorial letters. Observe—Since the various classes of roots require various changes in the terminations of some of the tenses, the figures, in the second table, will indicate the classes in which these changes occur.
246. Terminations with memorial letters.