Imatges de pàgina
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similar signification; as, UM^nJ^'five times.' The neuter of the ordinals may be used adverbially; as, TTW 'in the first place.'

216. Numerical symbols.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 &c.



217. Pronouns (sarva-ndma) have no crude base analogous to that of nouns; that is, no state distinct from all inflexion, serving as the basis on which all the cases are constructed. The reason of this may be, that the pronouns in Sanskrit, as in all languages, are so irregular and capricious in their formation, that no one base would be equally applicable to all the cases. Thus in the 1st personal pronoun, the base of the nom. sing, would be ^sr ah, while that of the oblique cases sing, would be R ma. In the 2d, the base of the sing, is practically 3 tva, while that of the dual and plural is v yu. The 3d would have « sa for the base of the nom. sing., and it ta for the other cases.

a. The question then arises, What form of the pronoun is to be used in the formation of compound words? In the pronouns of the first and second persons, the ablative cases, singular and plural, and in the other pronouns, the nominative and accusative cases singular neuter, are considered as expressive of the most general and comprehensive state of the pronoun. These cases, therefore, discharge the office of a crude base in respect of compound words.


Observe—In Sanskrit, as in other languages, to denote the general and indefinite character of the first two personal pronouns, no distinction of gender is admitted. For the same reason, the formation of the nom. case of pronouns is made to resemble the neuter, as the most general state. This may also be the reason why the 3d pronoun sa drops the s of the nom. case before all consonants. There is no vocative case.

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* As mat is generally used in compounds, mattes and tvattas more commonly stand for the ablative; see r. 719. Similarly, the ablative plural may be yuskmattas, asmattas; but these very rarely occur.

t Bj rulf 6; tl will be the usual form. TOT usually exists as TO, see 64. a.


G. rfWJIN t as yds tnit^tayos HIHIH tdsdm

L. irem^ tasydm — tai/<w iim /osm


N. Ac. TTiT /a/ or inr /arf, it /e, irrfiT ^ani; the rest like the masculine. Compare the Greek article with the above pronoun. a. The above pronoun tad is sometimes used emphatically with the other pronouns, like Me and ipse: thus, sfts'? ' Me egos' IT **j ' Mi nots' F rW 'ilk r»;'

"J$ ' •"' po*»' " "• '•"* Vse •'* ^ W{/ W ipsum.'

221. There is a modification of the pronoun tad (rarely used), formed by combining it with the relative ya.- thus, N. W^, wt, at 5 Ac, W, &c. Fem. WT, W, WW, &c.

a. Observe the resemblance of the Sanskrit personal pronouns to those of the dead and living cognate languages. Aham or ah is the Greek tytc (.Eolic mm), Latin ego, German ich, English ' I:' mdm or nui (the latter being the oldest form found in the Vedas) equals tfJ-t, me; mahyam=mihi; mayi = mei: the mat of the abl. sing, and of asmat, yvshmat, corresponds to the Latin met in memet, nosmet, ice.: tayamorrn is the English' we;' asmdn = us; nas = nos; tvam=tu, thou;' tram or tvd = te, 'thee;' tubhyam = tibi; tvayi= tux; yiiyum = vfUift English 'you ;* vas=vos. The 3d personal pronoun corresponds to the Greek article: thus, tau = Tco, tam=T0V; tdbhydm = TOtv, Tao, Sec.


222. The oblique cases of vnw^dtman,' soul,' 'self' (declined at 147), are used reflexively, in place of the three personal pronouns, like the Latin ipse.

Thus, dtmdnam (me ipsum) aiuihdrena hanishydmi, I will kill myself by fasting;' ntmdnam (te ipsum) mritavad dariaya, 'show thyself as if dead," dtmdnam (se ipsum) nindati, 'he blames himself.' It is generally used in the singular, even when it refers to a plural; as, abudhair dtmd paropakaranfkritah, foolish people make themselves the tools of others.'

a. The indeclinable pronoun ^TT* svayam is sometimes joined, in the sense of 'self,' to the three personal pronouns: thus, w^ ^rf *I myself,' &c,


223. The third personal pronoun Tt^ tad, ' he,' declined above at 220, is constantly used in a demonstrative sense, to signify ' that' or 'this;' and by prefixing * e to it, another common pronoun is formed, more proximately demonstrative: thus, WK$ etad, 'this.' Observe—The / of etad may optionally be changed to n in the Ac. sing. du. pi., I. sing., G. L. du., in all three genders: thus,

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