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Parliament, Acts of, useless verbiage

of, before Lord Brougham's Abbreviation Bill, cxi. 194; his remarks on their unskilful preparation, 200; need of consolidation, ib.

Acts of (Private), cxxv. 85; multiplicity of, ib.; Bentham's criticisms, 86; the Constitutional Code, ib.; progressive increase of, 87; expedients of reform, ib.; their exceptional character, 88; the first Act of 1266, ib.; used for banishment and attainder, ib.; definition of the Record Commissioners, 89; earliest local statutes, ib.; the first Divorce Act, ib. ; first Road and Waterworks Acts, ib.; Acts for marsh-lands, turnpiketrusts, workhouses, canals, and gas, 90; present number of Acts nearly 30,000, ib.; legislative and judicial functions of Parliament, ib.; cost and uncertainty of contests, 91; failures of past reformers, ib.; diversities of opinion thereon, ib.; fickle railway legislation, 93 ; rules as to bonâ fide deposits, 94 ; inquiries of Referees as to engineering, ib.; Lord Redesdale's Committee of 1866, ib.; Parliament jealous of its Railway jurisaiction, 95; service on Committees distasteful, ib.; onerous duties of chairmen, ib.; dissatisfaction with their decisions, 96 ; proposal of an external Board for railways, ib.; Inclosures considered as a precedent thereof, ib. 97; the scheme unsatisfactory, ib., objections to a permanent judicial tribunal, ib. ; jurisdiction of Committees defended on grounds of public policy, 98; legal weakness of Committees, ib.; an Assessor recommended, 99; Bills should be deferred for enactnient till the next Session, ib.; comparison of foreign railway legislation, 100, 105; principles of legislation, 107

Parliament, dissolution of, the

Crown's prerogative limited, cxv. 236

Houses of, burning of, in 1834, cxxxiii. 315

the Long, terrorism to the minority in, cxii. 471 Parliament (of 1859) returned in

answer to a personal appeal, cxx. 566; vote of want of contidence carried, ib.; financial embarrassments of Mr. Disraeli, 568; improvements effected by Mr. Gladstone, 569, 570; results of the Commercial Treaty with France, ib. 571; policy vindicated with regard to Poland and Denmark, 573; debate on Japan, 578; principles of Colonial defence established, 579; successful Indian policy, 580; called the extravagant Parliament'by Mr. Cobden, ib.; improved condition of the Army and Navy, 581, 584; fortification of dockyards, ib.; the Cotton Famine, 585; education, 586,587; popular and useful measures, ib. 589; summary of reforms, 590; ecclesiastical measures, ib. 591 ; errors of the Tory Opposition, ib. 592; their defeat on the Dano-German question, ib. ; future measures, 593

its unselfish interest in Reform, cxxii. 280; disagreement of the Liberals thereon, 288; long duration of, 291 ; absence of fierce party contests, ib.; prospects of

the Dissolution, 294 Parliament (1865–1868), Liberal

majority in, due to Lord Palmerston's policy, cxxv. 269; his death, 270; Mr. Gladstone, Prime Minister, ib. ; defeat of the Liberals, ib. (see Reform Bill of 1866); the Derby-Disraeli Government, 283, 301

the Session of 1867, cxxvi. 511; tergiversation of the Con

6

servatives on Reform, ib. 544; the

ten minutes' Reform Bill, 548; its sudden withdrawal, ib. ; substitution of the HouseholdSuffrage Bill, ib. (see Reform Act, 1867); compared with its predecessors since 1832, 573; anticipations of a Reformed Parliament, 579; questions for future legislation, 582 ;

prospects of the next election, 583 Parliament (1865-1868), dissolved

by a Tory Government, cxxviii. 539; sober conduct of the newly enfranchised masses, 540; measures for the next Parliament, 545; immoral conduct of, respecting the Reform Act of 1867, 551 ; its toleration of Tory misconduct, 560; Scotch and Irish Reform Bills, 565; Mr. Disraeli Prime Minister, 566; Lord Mayo's announcement of Irish policy, 568,571 ; debate on Mr. Maguire's motion, ib.; Mr. Gladstone's resolution for the abolition of the Irish Church, 572; unconstitutional retention of office by Mr. Disraeli, 573 ; tame acquiescence

of Parliament therein, 575 Parliament (1868–1874), its general

character not altered by the last Reform Act, cxxix. 288; moderate principles of Liberalism in, 290; composition of Mr. Gladstone's Cabinet, 291; anticipations of Irish Church policy, 292, 296 ; questions of domestic legislation, 296; proper policy of retrenchment, 298

important Session of 1871, cxxxiv. 565; ill-fortune of the Liberal Government, 567 ; the • Megæra,' ib.; Berkshire Autumn Maneuvres abandoned, 568; financial triumphs, 569; measures of domestic reform, 570; effect of the Franco-German War on army policy, 571; the Army Regulation Bill, 574; hostile resolution

of the Lords, 575; Purchase abolished by Warrant, ib.; the Bill passed, 576; Mr. Lowe's Budget unpopular, ib.; restless energy of the Government, 578; programme in the Royal Speech, ib.; failure of the Licensing Bill, 579; Local Government and Local Taxation, 581; the Ballot Bill, 583; Treaty of Washington, 585; alleged failure of the Session, 586 ; loquacity on the Army Bill, 590; private business of Parliament, ib. 598; merits of Liberal

Government, ib. Parliament (1868-1874), Mr. Go

schen's Bills on Local Taxation, cxxxv. 269; and Local Government, 275; weakness of the Opposition, 291

Mr. Gladstone's Irish University Bill, cxxxvii. 569, 578; its rejection, ib.; resignation of the Ministry, 579; Mr. Disraeli declines office, ib. ; the Ministry recalled, ib.; prospects of dissolution, 583; alternative of Wbig or Tory Government, 585

dissolution of, by Mr. Gladstone, cxxxix. 546; the situation compared with 1811, 549; Edinburgh Review, CXXVI. p. 579, referred to, 551; Irish legislation, ib. 552; causes of Liberal defeat,

555 Parliament (of 1874), the new Dis

raeli Ministry, cxxxix. 568; disorganised state of the Liberal Opposition, 570; dearth of Liberal statesmen, 571

strength of Conservative majority, cxl. 549; the Queen's Speech, 550; its promises not realised, 552; Licensing Laws Amendment Act, 554; other Government Bills, 556; Endowed Schools legislation, 557; Conservative blunders, 559; dainaging criticisms of Mr. Gladstone, 561 ;

very much

Mr. Disraeli's charge against the draughtsman of the Bill, 563 ; Public Worship Regulation Act, 565; divided attitude of the Ministry thereon, 567; abortive measures of legal reform, 569; Lord Salisbury and Mr. Disraeli, 571; army and navy mismanagement, 574 ; financial policy, 577; colonial affairs, 580; foreign affairs, 582; the Irish department, ib.; imitation of Liberal policy, 583; prospects of the Liberals, ib.; party

lessons of the Session, 585 Parliaments, duration of, since the

Septennial Act, cxxii. 291 note;

languor in long parliaments, 293 Parliamentary Government, designs of George III. against, cxv. 219

weakness of executive authority in, cxxv. 579; wbat leaders make it, 590

modern system of Cabinet responsibility, cxxvi. 561

obstructiveness of, cxxxvi. 87, 89; undue influence of debating power, ib.; want of foresight in legislation ascribed to, ib.; control of expenditure, 94; confusion of legislative and adminis

trative functions, 101 Parmenides, his theory of the uni

verse, cxvi. 91 Parry (Mr. Gambier), his proposed

plan of fresco-painting, cxxiii. 33,

34 notes Parsons (Robert, 1546-1610), his Jesuitical intrigues, cxxxi. 18, 20

political pamphlets of, cxxxiv. 171, 173 Parties, political, twofold composi

tion of, in England, cxxix. 289 Partition Treaty (Spanish), first,

cxiv. 311, 315 ; second, ib. Party pamphlets, species of, dis

guised as learned treatises, cxx.

379, 380 Party-spirit, prevalence of, in society

under Anne, cxviii. 422

Party-spirit, evil tendencies of, cxxi.

445; political reaction against,

446 Pascal (Blaise, 1623-1662), his monument at Paris, cxv.

546 his remark on Cleopatra's nose, cxxiv, 342

or the mysteries of nature, cxxxiii. 155 Pasley (Capt.), his operations

against the Wahabees in the Per

sian Gulf, cxxv. 13, 14 Pasquier (Chancellor), his recollec

tions of the De Tocquevilles,

cxiii. 434 Pasquin, cruelty of Sixtus V. to,

cxxxii. 305 Passaglia (Father), his overtures to Pius IX., cxix. 258

his pamphlet Pro Causâ Italicâ,' cxvi. 282 Passports, formerly not used in time

of peace, cxxiv. 378, 379 Pasteur (M.), his discovery of quin

idine and chinchonidine, cxviii. 511

his work on Spontaneous Generation, cxxv. 389; origin of his researches, 398; his first experiments on microscopic fungi, ib.; his flasks, 401 ; his theories combated by M. Pouchet, 402 ; convincing nature of his experiments, 403; objections to M. Donné's conclusions, 404; on fermentation, 405, 406

his experiments in heating wines, cxxvi. 197 'Paston Letters,' the, newly edited

by M. Gairdner, cxxxviii. 1; early history of, 3; recent discoveries by Mr. Frere, 4; their genuineness established, ib. ; their historical importance, 5; pictures of social life in, ib.; lawsuits in the Paston family, ib.; Sir John Fal

stolf, 6 Pastor Æternus, Papal Constitution

of, in 1870, cxxxix. 371

v.

Patch, his engravings of Florentine

paintings, cxxii. 80 and note
Patches, a mark of party under Anne,

cxviii. 422
Patents, vices of the law respecting,

cxxi. 579; Admiralty complaints,
580; technicalities of the law, ib.;
popular fallacies, 581; Bentham
and Mill on rewards to patentees,
ib.; patentees confused with in-
ventors, ib.; sources of profit, 582;
risks of patent litigation, 583;
patent-right and copyright, 584;
simultaneous inventions, 586; case
of Holmes North-Western
Railway, 587; Bessemer's steel
process, 588; prior claims of first
applicants, 589; merits of rival
inventors, ib.; case of Heath v.
Unwin, 590; patents wrongfully
maintained, ib.; unjust monopoly
of, 592 ; hardships to poor inven-
tors, 593; Mr. Carpmael on pro-
fessional evidence, 594; case of
Mr. Hills, 595; rights of property
infringed, 596; fallacies of claims
to monopoly, ib.; protection to in-
ventors, 597; inventions of Ark-
wright and Watt, 598; ruinous
cost of, 599; argument of re-
warding inventors, ib. ; patented
inventions avoided, 600; case of
Crane v. Price, 602; stoppage of
improvements by, 603 ; misspent
labour on supposed inventions, ib.;
argument on export of inventions,
607; report of French jurors
against, ib.; compulsory licences,
609; prolongation of, 610

Law of, Lord Brougham's
Act admitting parties to suits as
witnesses, cxi. 194

Museum of, its removal to
South Kensington, cxxiii. 79
Paterculus (Velleius), long obscu-

rity of his writings, cxxxvii. 60
Paterson (William, 1655–1699), pro-

jects the Darien expedition, cxv.
4; his views on Spanish preten-

sions in America, 8; accused of
buccaneering, 9; over-estimates
Scottish resources, 15; his sub-
ordinate part in the expedition,
16; his character, ib.; his per-
sonal history, 18; advocates co-
lonisation of Darien, 24; plan of
a National Bank, 25; his un-
popularity in Scotland, ib.; pro-
poses a Council of Trade,' 30;
his free-trade principles, 35; mis-
takes the functions of free gor-
ernment, 37; on Scottish fisheries,
39; his financial heresies, 40; his

burialplace unknown, 41
Paterson, his British Itinerary,'

cxxxviii. 495
Patriot King,' the, written by Bol-

ingbroke, cxviii. 435; the text-
book of George III., ib.; disco-
very of its publication, 436; Lord
Chesterfield's admiration of its

style, 438
Patronage, Church (in Scotland),

past history of, cxl. 277 ; recent
Bill for abolition of, 282; anti-

cipations of its results, 284
Patteson (John Coleridge, Bishop of
Melanesia), murder of, cxxxvi.

his devotion to the natives,
ib.
Paul (Saint), his conclusive belief in
the Resurrection, cxix. 601

article on his Epistles in the
Dictionary of the Bible, cxxi. 72

his arrival at Rome an epoch
in Church history, cxxxi. 473;
authenticity of his Epistles, 474;
early life, 475; visit to James and
Peter at Jerusalem, 476; the type
of Eastern conquest, 480 ; first
missionary journey, 482; visit to
the first Church Council, 485;
criticisms of the Tübingen school,
486; second missionary journey,
487; at Athens, ib.; Hellenic in-
fluences during his third journey,
490; at Ephesus, 493; bis Epistle
to the Romans,' 494; resolves to

430 ;

revisit Jerusalem, 495; alleged
release from first imprisonment
at Rome, 496; martyrdom, 498;
abrupt close of his life, ib.; his
influence compared with St.

Peter's, 500
Paul (Saint), his authority invoked

by dissenters, cxxxiii. 422 ; undue
pre-eminence assigned to his
Epistle to the Romans, ib.

probable allusion to, in the
Apocalypse, cxl. 496
Paul II. (Pope, d. 1471), his connex-

ion with literature, cxxxvi. 140
Paul III. (Pope, d. 1549), his ces-

sion of Parma and Piacenza, cxii.

124 and note
Paul (Jean), Carlyle's estimate of,

CXxxvii, 116
Paul's Cross, history of, cxxix. 188;

its destruction, 190
Paviland (South Wales), discovery

of ancient bones in a cave at,

cxviii. 275 and 284 notes
Peachain (Edward), Lord Bacon's

conduct in the case of, cxiii. 334
Peaches, long cultivation of, cxxviii.

433; their supposed descent from
sweet almonds, ib.; relation of,
to nectarines, ib.

cultivation of, in France,
сxxx. 480
Peacock (Reginald, 1390–1460),

Dean Milman's eulogy of his 'Pre-
cursor,' cxxxiv. 168; the work

burnt by the author, ib.
Peacock, his gift of verse, cxl. 371;

poem of Love and Age,' 372
Peacocks, sudden variations in the

breed of, cxxviii. 430
Peasant-proprietors (in India), their

attachment to the land, cxxxi.

328
Peasant-proprietorship (in England),

origin of, cxxvi. 66; legislative re-
strictions of, 67; present commer-
cial tendencies against, 68

Mr. Fawcett's views on,
cxxviii. 514

Peasant-proprietorship in Ireland),

Mr. Bright's scheme of, cxxvi.
70; Mr. Mill's proposals criticised,

cxxvii. 532. See Irish Land
Peckham, his synodical council at

Lambeth, cxl. 432
Peel (Sir Robert, 1788-1850), his

injudicious dismissal of Sir Row-
land Hill, cxx. 66

his accession to office in
1841, cxxxix. 549

Mr. Greville's description of,
cxl. 541; Lord Lyndhurst on his

conduct in the Cabinet, 543
Peerages, British, rapid extinction

of, cxxxii. 103
Pegue (India), conquest of the pro-

vince, cxvii. 16
Peiho Forts, operations against,

cxxxviii. 52, 298
Pekin, its disadvantages as a capital,

cxxii. 184
Pelagius II., his forged credentials of

Papal authority, cxxx. 300
Pelly (Col. Lewis, Resident at

Bushire), his visit to the Waba-
bees, cxxv. 12; instructed to pro-
tect the Sultan of Oman, 13; his
ultimatum to the Ameer of Nejed,
ib.; releases Syud Toorkee, 15;

his want of discretion, ib.
Peloponnesus, the, rugged aspect of

the coast, cxxii. 539; beauties of
landscape in, ib. 540; grandeur of
Taygetus, ib. ; scenery of Sparta
and Messenja, 541; the river
Pamisus, 542; Arcadian landscape,
ib.; impressions of loneliness,
545; want of inns and roads, 546;
increase of steamers, 547; culti-
vation of the currant-vine, 550;
silk manufactures, ib.; cotton and
tobacco, 551; revival of agricul-
ture, ib.; monastic institutions,
556; ecclesiastical reform, 558;

state of education, 559
Penal Servitude Act (1853), cxvii.

249; its good effects in Ireland,
250

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