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391; his death and successors,

393
O'Brien (Mr. E.), his · Proposal for

the Settlement of the Irish Land
Question,' cxxxi. 256 ; his scheme

examined, 268, 271
Observatory, Royal, at Greenwich.

See Greenwich Observatory
Ocean, the, its physical functions,

cxii. 307; theory of a circumpolar

cables, 234, 238 ; question of ex-
ternal injury, ib.; tabular list of,
241 ; question of State-purchase,
245; opening of the cable to India,

247. See Electric Telegraph
O'Connell (Daniel, 1775-1847), his

appearance described by Mr. Crabb
Robinson, cxxx. 520

his views on land-tenure in
Ireland, cxxxi. 264

his misconduct to Mr.
Littleton on the Irish Coercion
Bill, cxxxiii. 311, 314

sketches of, by Mr. Greville,
cxl. 547
Ochterlony of Guynd (John), his

account of Angus, cxx. 310
Octoroon, the word criticised,

sea, 309

cxx. 54

forms of animal life in the
lowest depths, cxxx. 159
Oceanic Circulation, cxxxv. 430 ;

stream and drift currents, 435
(see Gulf Stream); Major Ren-
nell's doctrine, ib., 436; agency
of winds, ib. ; phenomenon of back
water, 437; horizontal circulation
caused by drift and in-draught,
438; Atlantic trade-winds and
equatorial currents, ib., 439; ef-
fects of, on climate, 450 ; bottom-
temperature, 452; doctrine of
Humboldt and Pouillet, 452 ;
opposite conclusions of Ross and
Herschel, ib.; thermometric ob-
servations of the Lightning,' 453;
views of Dr. Carpenter, 454; the
Porcupine' expedition, ib. ; test-
ing of thermometers, 455; the
Miller-Casella thermometer, 456;
thermal conditions of the Medi-
terranean, 457; Atlantic surface
temperature compared, 459; com-
parison of their deep-sea tempera-
ture, 460; glacial coldness over
deep-sea beds, 461; ascribed to
outflow of Polar water, ib.; theory
of lateral conduction,

ib. ; in-
fluence of Arctic stream, 462 ;
recent soundings, ib., 463; Dr.
Carpenter's doctrine of vertical
circulation, 465; question of Pole-
ward indraught, 467 ; 'Globige-
rina-mud, 470; promised scienti-

fic expedition, 471
Ocean-telegraphs, early sketch of,
cxxxii. 228, 232 ; recovery of lost

X

Octroi, the, its burdensome character

in France, cxi. 240
Odilon-Barrot (M.), his administra-
tion of 1839, cxii. 453

on centralisation and its
effects, cxv. 324
Ecumenical Councils, character of,

in early times, cxxx. 298, 299; the
proposed Council miscalled, 311.

See Vatican Council
O'Flanagan (J. R.), his "Lives of

the Irish Chancellors,' cxxxiv. 44;
the subject laboriously treated, ib.,
45; defects and inaccuracies, 46;
his attempt to vindicate Fitton,
58; his work ends with Lord

Plunket, 69
Ogilby (John, b. 1600), his English

Road-book, cxxxviii. 493; his

career and writings, ib.
O'Hara (General), sketch of, in

Cyril Thornton,' cxxii. 308; his
engagement to Miss Berry, 309,
310

his operations in 1793 at
Toulon, cxxxix. 202, 203
Oldcustle (Sir John, Lord Cobham,

d. 1417), Bale's chronicle of his
trial, cxxiii. 173, 174; his intro-
duction by Shakspeare, ib.

O'Leary (Father), Froude's exposure

of his perfidy, cxxxix. 492, 493
Oliphant (Mrs.), her Memoir of

Edward Irving,' cxvi. 426; merits
of her work, 427; her ideal con-

ception of her hero, 428
Olivarès (Don Juan Enrique de

Guzman, Conde de), Ambassador
of Philip II., cxxxii. 309; his dis-

putes with Sixtus V., ib. 325
Ollivant(Alfred, Bishop of Llandaff),

his objections to liturgical revi-

sion, cxjii. 31
Olympia (Greece), excavations at,

cxxii. 561
Oman, Sultan of, entreats British

aid against the Wababees, cxxv.
9; demonstrations in his favour,
10; indignities offered to, by the
Wahabees, 12; British interven-
tion, ib. (see Pelly, Colonel Lewis) ;
the tragedy at Sohar, 14. See

Ihoweynee
Omens, former belief in, in England,

cxv. 316

Orchids, indoor cultivation of, cXXI.

476
Ordericus Vitalis (b. 1075), his

value as an historian of the Con-
quest, cxxi. 14; his parentage, 15
and note; conflict of his political
feelings, 34; his use of the word

Saxon,' 37 note
Ordination Service, objectionable

passage in, cxiii. 18
Ordnance Department, its defects in
the Peninsular War, cxvi. 72

Map, the, marvellous accu-
racy of, exii. 305
Ordnance Survey of Great Britain,

inaccuracies of the one-inch map,
cxviii. 378; dispute as to the
scale, ib. (see Cadastral Survey);
unpopularity of the Ordnance De-
partment, 379; piecemeal nature
of the surveys, 380; the Survey
Department organised by Colonel
Colby, 388; his survey of Ireland,
389; the six-inch survey, 390;
Report of the Royal Commission,
392; requisites of public maps,
401; their value respecting trans-
fer of property, ib.; six-inch scale
necessary

for military purposes,
403
Oregon, claims of Hudson's Bay

Company in, cxix. 449; annexed
to the United States, ib.; the

Oregon Treaty of 1846, 459
Oresme (Nicole, fourteenth century),

his Treatise on Money, edited by
M. Wolowski, cxxiii. 83 ; his per-
ception of Locke's theory, 84;
discovery of his MSS., ib.; his
advanced principles of economy,
85; his personal history, ib. ; sound
views on depreciation, 90; ex-
posure of theological fallacy of
tribute-money, 91; refutes claims
of royalty, 92; his fresh and vi-

gorous sentiments, 93
Oxford, Earl of. See Walpole, Sir

Robert
Organisation, effect of, on human

•Omichund v. Barker,' Hindoo oath

admitted in the case, cxxi. 447
'Oupaloyüxou, the, Barlaam's de-

nunciation of, cxxi. 490
O'Neil (Miss, the Actress), Miss

Wynn's criticism of her acting,

cxix. 314, 317
Onyx, ancient determination of the

name, cxxiv. 252
Opal, varieties of, cxxiv. 250
Opera, an and Italian, contest

between, cxxii. 403
Oporto, the Wine Company,' es-

tablished, cxxxvi. 197; riots at,

198
Orange River Territory, suggestion for
replanting woods in, cxx. 479 note

abandonment of, by the
British, cxxxiv. 416, 420
Orata (Sergius), his artificial oyster-

beds, cxxvii. 46; his litigation

thereon, 47
Orcagna (Andrea), his works in

sculpture, cxxi. 529

affairs, cxiii. 282; English cha- Catherine II. of Russia, cxxxviii.
racter deficient in, 283

432; his breed of horses, 433
Origen (185–254), his admiration of Orsini (Paolo Giordano, Duke of
St. John's Gospel, cxix. 590

Bracchano), his supposed murder
his doubts concerning eternal of Peretti, cxxxii. 296 ; brigand-
punishment, cxx. 300

age in his family, 299
Orissa, scheme for irrigation of, cxix. Orsini (Giordano, Cardinal), his dis-

125; proposed diversion of the covery of twelve comedies of
Mahanuddee river, ib.

Plautus, cxxxvi. 124
conquest of, by Bactrian Orvieto, bas-reliefs in Cathedral at,
Greeks, cxxx. 504

cxxi. 530, 531
recent famine in, cxxxi. Osten (Baron), story of his escape
337

from a lion's jaws, cxix. 335
Orleans (Louis, Duke of, murdered Ostriches, their motion described by

1407), his graceful address, cxix. Shakspeare, cxxx. 87
535; assassinated by John of Bur- Ostrovsky (A. N.), Dramatic works
gundy, 536

of, cxxviii. 158; national character
Orleans, Jean Baptiste Gaston, Duke of his plays, 159; his powers of

of, 1608-1660), his plots against satire, ib.; outline of his Storm,'
Richelieu, cxii. 67

160; sketch of town life and cha-
Orleans (Philip, Duke of, 1674- racter, 168; the 'Vospitannitsa,'

1723), his profligate rule as Re- 170; story of Whom may not
gent, cxxv. 473, 474

Sin and Sorrow touch ? ' 174; the
Orléans (Marie Louise d'), negotia- "Penniless Lass,' 177 ; the · Profit-

tions for her marriage with Charles able Appointment,' 181 ; farcical
II. of Spain, cxxix. 16; her per- plays, 186 ; specimens of court-
sonal appearance, ib. ; her journey ship, 187; Heavy Days,' 188;
to Spain, 18; first meeting with his plays wanting in plot and
Charles, 19; her troubles at Court, situations, 190
20, 28; her suspected poisoning, Otho (King of Greece, b. 1815), his
29

unfitness for his position, cxvii.
Orleans (Princess Marie of), her in- 579; good measures of his ad-

timacy with Ary Scheffer, cxii. ministration, 581; his expulsion,
167; her genius for sculpture, ib.; 595
specimens of her art, 169

bis efforts at monastic re-
Orleans, Maid of. See Arc, Joan of form, cxxii. 558
Orleans (Bishop of), his Letter on the Oude, the Company's policy of non-

coming Ecumenical Council,'cxxx. interference.cxvii. 8; treaties with,
297; his mistake as to the invita- 10; evils of native government,
tion of Protestants, 309 note; on 11; system of British government
the authority of Councils, 317 in, on its annexation, 445; first.
note; on the relations of the Papacy symptoms of the Mutiny in, 457 ;
with the State, 329

it assumes the aspect of a popular
recriminations at the Vatican insurrection, 466 ; Lord Canning's
Council, cxxxiv. 135; opposes the proclamation, 474; success of his
dogma of infallibility as inoppor- policy, 476; position of the Ta-
tune, 142; his evasive excuse, lookdars defined, ib.
146

the rising in 1857–8, cxxiv.
Orloff (Alexis, Count), his services to 325; alleged grievances of the

Talookdars before the Mutiny,

326, 327
Oudenarde, battle of (1708), cxvi.

524
Outram (Sir James, 1805–1863), ap-

pointed Resident at Lucknow,
cxvii. 11 ; his report on the con-
dition of Oude, 12; his noble cha-

racter, 467
Outram (Mrs.), her remonstrance to

Sir W. Napier, cxxi. 97
Overstona (Samuel Jones Loyd,

Lord, b. 1796), his tracts on the
National Debt and Sinking Fund,

cxvi. 137
Owen (Professor R., b. 1804), his

* Paleontology' and 'Address to
the British Association at Leeds'
(1858), cxi. 487; on the operation
of a secondary creative law on
species, 500; his law of irrela-
tive repetition,' 503, 506; on In-
vertebrate Animals, ib.; on the
stages of organisation, 513

on the antiquity of the An-
daman Islanders, cxvi. 172

his cerebral classification of
Mammalia, cxvii. 557; on the
dental structure in man,

564
on the propagation of infu-
soria, cxxv. 392

his mistaken notion of the
antiquity of the Bos longifrons,
cxxviii. 427

on the valuable functions of
infusoria, cxxx. 161
Owen (Robert Dale), his experiment

in co-operative manufacture at

New Lanark, cxx. 422
Oxford (Robert Harley, Earl of,

1661–1724). See Harley
Oxford, examination for a degree at,

formerly a farce, cxx. 150; low
standard of entrance examinations,
154; study of modern languages
at, 174; religious agitation at,
after the · Essays and Reviews'
judgment, 275; • Declaration of
the Oxford Committee, 277

Oxford, architecture of the Radcliffe
Library, cxviii. 89

intellectual egoism at, cxxxii.
390 ; the Tractarian movement at,

ib.
Oxley (Mr.), his river explorations

in Australia, cxvi. 5 ; his theory

of an Inland sea, ib.
Oxus, the river, question of its navi-

gability, cxxxix. 325
Oxygen, anomalies respecting,

çxxxiii. 160
Oysters, way of opening them in
Scotland and France, cxviii. 230

publications respecting,
cxxvii. 43; they are alive when
eaten, ib.; supposed allusion of
Homer to, 44; the words tñbos
and õotpeov, ib., 45; rare refer-
ences in Greek authors to, ib.;
oyster-culture popular with the
Romans, ib. ; artificial oyster-beda
of Orata described by Pliny, 46;
viraria depicted on old Italian
vases, 47 ; knowledge of, ascribed
to the Æthiopians, ib.; varieties
mentioned by Pliny, 48; British
oysters imported by Agrippa, 49;
Ronan use of, before dinner and
at supper, ib.; Juvenal's allusions
to, ib. ; immoderate love of Vitel-
lius for, 50; denounced by Seneca,
ib.; receipt for cooking, by Api-
cius, 51; the kápklvos, or oyster-
crab of Oppian, ib.; supposed
lunar influence on, 52; anecdote
by Aulus Gellius, ib.; oyster-shells
used as medicine and for cement,
53; oyster-lovers among great
men, 54; physical structure of,
ib.; theory of Galen, ib.; they are
hermaphrodites, 55; embryonic
development of, 56 ; simplicity of
their nervous system, 57; their
habits, ib.; partly susceptible of
education, ib.; food, early size,
and duration of life, 58; their
enormous fertility, 59; ravages of
star-fish, ib., and of dog-whelks,

61; enemies of, among birds, 62; } injuries of sand and frost, ib.; protection of fry at Lake Fusaro, 63; oyster-culture in France, ib.; greening of, 64; scarcity and dearness of, in England, 65; the cause yet unknown, ib.; warm weather required for spat, ib.; familiar saying on the months for eating oysters, 66; they should be masticated, 67 ; receipt for artificial sea-water, ib.; foreign oysters, 68; fishing regulations of the

Convention Act of 1839, ib.; en-
forcement of close season, 69;
deep-sea beds, ib.; trade in chan-
nels, 70; beds within the three-
mile limit, 71; private fisheries,
ib. ; questions of clos season and
limitation of size, 72; Report of
the Commissioners of 1866 there-
on, ib., 76; recent powers of the

Board of Trade, ib.
Oysters, Homeric allusion to, cxxxiii.

361

P Pacific Ocean, physical character of tional Guard at Paris, cxxxiv,

the basin of, cxvii. 92 ; supposed 525 subsidence of its bed, 94

Palæontology, the term discussed, Paganini, munificent caprice of, cxx. 469, 470 cxxxiii. 51

Palafox y Melzi (Don José de, Duke Paganism, moral ethics of, cxxx. 41 of Saragossa, 1780–1841), his dePaget (Mr. J.), his “New Examen,' feat by Lannes, cxxxi. 75; his de

cxiv. 279; his carping criticism of fence of Saragossa, 76, 79 Macaulay's History of England,' Palermo, capitulation of, in 831 to 287 ; his attempted defence of the Mussulmans, cxvi. 367 Claverhouse, 299

Palestine, the Churches of, cxii. 423; Painting, connexion of, with religion, influence of religious associations

cxx. 95; the devotional and his- of, 424; Latin archæology of, torical classes of sacred paintings, 450; Ottoman rule in, deprecated, 97; the art preceded by sculpture, 459 105; first use of, in churches, ib.;

bilingual use of Greek and legendary subjects chosen by Aramaic in, cxxii. 105 note Christian painters of the Renais- Palestine Exploration Fund, accounts sance, 106; conventional treat- of its proceedings, cxxxvi. 1 ment of Scripture subjects by the Paley (William, 1743-1805), his Old Masters, 107

theory of civil society in Moral Painting, modern reproduction of pre- Philosophy,' cxiv. 479 Raphaelite defects of detail, cxxxi.

his dictum on the belief in 407

miracles, cxix. 593 note in Italy. See Italian Painting

his definition of Church Paixan (or Paix hans, General), his Establishment, cxxviii. 258 application of hollow shot to ship’s

his argument of design from guns, cxix. 518

the watch traced back to Cicero, Paladine (General Aurelles de), cxxxix. 442 note

made Commander of the Na- Palgrave (Sir Francis, b. 1802), his

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