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Agricultural labourers, present effect

of local rates on, cxxxv. 265
Ahasuerus, question of his identity

with Xerxes, cxxi. 67
Aikin (John, M.D., 1747-1822),

Southey's remark on his • British

Poets,' cxxii. 74
Air, ventilation of rooms and mines,
cxxii. 430

opalescence of, by sunlight,
cxxx. 146; blueness of, explained,
147
Airlie, the Bonny Ilouse of,' ballad

of, cxx, 330
Airlie Weem, the, in Angus, cxx.316
Airy (Sir George Biddell, b. 1801),

his reply to Mr. Proctor's criti-
cisms respecting the transit of
Venus, cxxxviii. 160-163

his appointment as Astro-
nomer-Royal, cxl. 98; his valua-

ble lunar observations, ib. 99
Aix-la-Chapelle, bodies of saints

removed to by Eginhart, cxviii.
359

use of, for the wounded in
the war of 1870, cxxxii. 573

Peace of (1668), cxii. 76

Treaty of (1748), cxxv. 488;
its results, ib.
Ajunta (Central India), its pictur-

esque situation, cxxii. 375; Bud-
dhist cave temples at, 385 ; ques-
tion of their date, ib. 387; the
cares described froni Major Gill's

photographs, 388–391
Albar (Emperor of Hindoostan

1543-1605), his invasion of Be-
rar, cxxxvii. 230

his promotion of the study
of different religions, cxxxix. 419
Alabama claims, Tory policy in 1866
respecting, cxxv. 296

submitted to arbitration,
cxxxv. 577. See Geneva Arbitra-

tion
Alacoque (Margaret Marie), her

alleged revelations, cxxxix. 252;
incidents of her life, 253; Lan-

guet's Memoir' of, 255; specialty
of her supposed mission, ib.; her
visions, 260; her so-called revela-
tions anticipated, 261; Father de

la Colombière, 261-267
Alaric I. (King of the Visigoths, d.

410), his capture of Rome, cxviii.
346 ; his final blow to paganism at

Rome, 348
Alava (Spanish general 1771-1843),

his friendship with the Duke of
Wellington, cxix. 325; anecdote
of, at Quatre Bras, 320; his partial
estrangement with the Duke, ib. ;

his interview with Aranda, 327
Albany (Louise, Countess of, 1752-

1824), her marriage with the
Pretender, cxiv. 152; her per-
sopal appearance, 153; ill-treat-
ment of, by her husband, 100;
takes refuge with him at Rome,
161 ; her divorce, 160; relations
with Alfieri, 169; visits England
with him, 171; her coquetry with
Fabre, 179; death at Paris, 181;
character, 182

Bonstetten's admiration for,
cxix. 439
Albert (Prince Consort 1819-1861),

difficulties of his position, cxv.
240; his constitutional wisdom,
241

the Memorial' to, cxviii.
93; architectural criticisms there-

on, ib, note

his first visit to Scotland
with the Queen, cxxvii. 281; bis
wide religious sympathies, 292;
bis Highland expeditions, 296;
his intimacy with Bunsen, 493

his aptitude for business
described by Lord Kingsdown,
cxxix. 62

his descent from John
Frederick of Saxony, cxxxii. 92

his appearance in boyhood,
by Stockmar, cxxxvi. 392; un-
popular reception in England, 396;
allowance by Parliament reduced,
397; the Naturalisation Bill, ib.;
question of his regency, 398;
friendship with Sir R. Peel, ib.;
his strong German sympathies,
401; Lord Clarendon's eulogy of

him, 407
Albigeois, the, crusade against,

CXxxvii. 205
Albuera, battle of (1811), the Duke
of Wellington on, cxvi. 65

Sir W. Napier's description
of, when composed, cxxi. 95
Albuquerque (Duchess de), cxxix. 25
Alcock (Sir Rutherford, b. 1809),

his . Elements of Japanese Gram-
mar,' cxii. 37

his "Three Years' Residence
in Japan,' cxvii. 517; national
interest of his work, 518; its
opportune appearance, 540

his despatch on Japanese
affairs in 1864, cxxii. 197
Alcohol, effects of, on fermentation,

cxxv, 406
Aldermanbury, etymology of, cxxxi.

159
Aldersgate, etymology of, cxxxi. 158
Aldo Manuzio. See Manuzio, Aldo
Alemanni (Luigi, Florentine poet),

his harangue to Charles V., cxxxii.

73; anecdote of The Eagle,' ib.
Alençon (François, Duke of, 1554-

1581), his personal appearance,
cxxxi. 23; projected marriage

with Elizabeth, ib.-26
Alexander the Great (B.c. 356–323),

his patronage of Aristotle, cxxxvi.
522; his death, 524; his arbitrary
rescript to the Greek cities, ib.

Oriental legends respecting,
cxxxv. 30

his sacrifices at Troy, cxxxix.
508, 533

portrait medals of, cxl. 172
Alexander I. (Emperor of Russia,

1777-1825), his projects of serf-
emancipation, cxii. 199

-, his prosperous govern-
ment of the Baltic provinces,

cxxxii. 50; secret societies during
his reign, 364, 365; his will regard-

ing the suceession, ib.
Alexander II. (Emperor of Russia,

b. 1818); maladministration of his
government, cxii. 176-188; his
financial difficulties, 189; sincerity
of his desire for serf-emancipation,
193; his proclamation in 1857
against serfdom, 203

his first measures of reformi,
cxxxii. 55; his tour as Cæsare-
witch in Siberia, 379

letter of “un Slave' to,
cxxxiv. 37
Alexander III. (of Scotland, 1242-

1286), his coronation oath sworn
in French, cxviii. 239

interest of his reign to anti-
quaries, cxx, 319

his prosperous reign, cxxvi.
246
Alexander III. (Pope, Rolando di

Ranuccio Bandinelli, d. 1181), his
schemes of temporal dominion,

cxii. 113
Alexander VI. (Pope, Rodrigo Len-

zoli Borgia, about 1430–1503), bis
proposed crusade against the Turks,

cxxi. 220
Alexandria, astronomical school of,

cxvi. 95
Alfieri (Vittorio, 1749–1803), bis

early love-adventures, cxiv. 155;
visit to Florence, 157; his passion
for the Countess of Albany, 158;
banished from her society at Rome,
105; meets her at Colmar, 166;
their subsequent intimacy, 169;

his death and burial, 178
Alfonso Henriques (King of Portu-

gal, 1094-1185), his extraordinary
longevity, cxxxi. 459; tomb at

Santa Cruz, ib.
Alford (Dr. Henry, Dean of Canter-

bury, b. 1810), his translation of
the Odyssey, cxvii. 355

his · Queen's English,' cxx.
39; origin of his publication, 40

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on the influence of usage on lan-
guage, 41; on the effects of lan-
guage on national character, 42;
his controversy with Mr. Moon,
43; his minute method of criti-
cism, 45; on the use of magni-
loquent words, 53; advocates

simplicity of language, 57
Alfred (King 849–901), his two
journeys to Rome, cxviii. 240

compared by Mr. Freeman
to St. Louis, cxxx. 201; his lite-

rary merits, 203
Algæ, description of, cxxx. 156
Ali, Mehemet. See Mehemet Ali
Alison (Sir Archibald, 1757-1839),

his • History of Europe from 1815
to 1852,' Vols. II.-VIII., cxi. 119;
his previous demerits repeated, ib. ;
his five causes of national decline
of England, ib. ; his distortion of
statistics, 120; misstates the effects
of Free trade and Reform, ib.-121 ;
his narrative of the Indian and
European campaigns the best part
of his work, ib.; unfair aspersions
on French authors, ib. ; his pre-
tentious style, 122; looseness of
design, 123; iteration of narrative
and phraseology, ib.-124; his egot-
isms, 125; on the contraction of
the currency in 1819, 126; on the
threefold erils of the currency
laws, 127-130; on Catholic Eman-
cipation, ib.-133 ; on the causes of
Parliamentary Reform, 134; his
defence of the Old Constitution,
ib.-136; alleged injustice of tax-
ation since 1832, ib.; his theory of
the fall of the Whigs in 18-11, 138;
on Sir R. Peel's Administration,
139; ascribes Irish emigration to
Free trade, 140; his blunders in
continental history, 141; misstate-
ments respecting Russia, ib.; and
Poland, 142; contradictory theo-
ries of Russian unity, ib.; 144;
his eulogy of the Restoration in
France, 145; denounces the go-

vernment of Louis Philippe, 146;
his panegyric of German modera-
tion in 1815, 147; on Parliamen-
tary government in Germany, 148;
ignorance respecting the Zollverein,
149; on the international relations
of Europe, 150; his four periods,
ib. ; his views of English policy
towards Spanish America, ib.; his
judgment warped by partisanship,
151 ; on the separation of Belgium
from Holland, ib.; on the Spanish

uccession, 152; his blunders on
the Turkish treaties of 1810 and
1841, 153, 154; theory of a league
against England in 1848, ib. ; his
portraits of public men, 155;
blunders respecting Lord Palmer-
ston, 156; on Lamartine and
Thiers, 157, 158 ; prophesies des-
potism in America, ib.; ignorance
of German literature, ib.; absurd
criticism of Goethe and Schiller,
159; mischievous character of his

history, 100
Alison (Sir Archibald), his 'Lives

of Lord Castlereagh and Sir C.
Stewart,' cxv. 510; his constant
inaccuracies, ib.; his diffuse no-
tions of biography, 511; his indis-

criminate adulation, 537
Aljubarrota, battle of (1385), cxxxi.

461
Allard (M.), French officer in the

Sikh service, cxxxiv. 385-387
Allegiance, Civil, early l'apal claims
respecting, cxxx. 330.

pretensions of Ultramontanes
in opposition to, cxxxvii. 576
Allen (William, Cardinal 1532-

1591), his Admonition,' cxxxiv.
173

(Mr. T.), his scheme of postal
telegraphs, cxxxii. 223
Alleyn (Edward, 1566-1626), MS.

letter of his wife, published by

Mr. Collier, cxi. 481
Almanza, battle of (1707), cxl. 478,

479

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Alphonso (Henriques, King of Por-

tugal). See Alfonso
Alpine Club, the, its vitality and
success, cxiii. 224
its origin, cxxx. 121 ; foreign

;
imitations of, ib.; its researches be-
yond Switzerland and Tyrol, 337;
exploration of the Caucasus, ib.

.
Alps, the, their attractions for tra-

vellers, cxiii. 223 ; beauty of snow
scenery, ib.; rapid increase of
Alpine climbing, 224; neglect of
scientific observation, 225; the
glacier of Mont Dolent, 229

military roads across, cxxii.
123

recent books of travel on,
cxxx. 118; past indifference to
Alpine scenery, 119; the Monte
Rosa group explored, 120; explo-
rations of Dr. Forbes, ib.; Alpine
clubs, 121 ; merits of local guides,
ib.; guide-books, 122 (see Ball,
Mr. J.); beauty of Cormayeur,
123; the Dauphiné range little
visited, ib.; imposing precipices
of Monte Rosa, 124; tour round
it, 125; the Matterhorn, 126;
grandeur of the Val d'Anniviers,
127 ; Mr. Reilly's excellent maps,
128; merits of the Engadine, 129;
view from the Piz Languard, 131 ;
the Rhætian Alps, 133; travels of
Mr. Tuckett in the Orteler group,
ib. ; the Eastern Alps, 134; Gen-

eral Dufour’s map of, 135.
Alsace, mortgaged to Charles the

Bold by Sigismund of Austria,
cxix. 559-508; Ilagenbach's
government of, ib.; alliance of
free towns with Swiss confederacy,
569; entry of Charles, ib.; revolts

against him, 571
Alsace and Lorraine, cession of, to

France, cxxxiii. 478-479; recent
German claims to, founded merely
on conquest, ib.480

population of, when ceded
to Germany, cxl. 385

Alt-Rognitz, Austrian defeat at

(1866), cxxv. 376
Althorp (John Charles, Lord, after-

wards Earl Spencer, 1782-1845),
his conduct in 1831 on Reform,
cxxxiii. 306–309; generous con-
duct to Mr. Littleton, 314

Lord Cockburn's eulogy of
his oratory, cxl. 272
Amari (Michele), his History of the

Mussulmans in Sicily, cxvi. 348;
his mastery of Arabic scholarship,
ib.; on Arab rule in Africa, 357 ;
intended

scope of his work, 377
Ambassador, Wotton's sarcastic defi-

nition of, cxxvi. 252
Ambert (General Baron), his ‘Tacti-

cal Studies,' cxxiii. 95; his mas-
terly account of Austerlitz, 114;
on the modern use of artillery,

122
Amboise, Iluguenot conspiracy of

(1560), cxxx. 362; Edict of (1563),

370
Ambrose (Saint, 310-397), his in-

fluence on Western monachism,

cxiv. 329.
Ameer Khan, Governor of Canda-

har, cxxv. 17, 18; revolts against
Shere Ali, 22 ; his death in battle,

23
America, Spanish claims to the whole
continent, cxv. 8

alleged discovery of, by the
Basques, cxix. 383
America (North), archæology of,

cxxv. 332; richness of ancient
remains in, ib.; condition of, on
the arrival of the Spaniards, 333
(see Mexico); European igno-
rance of its early history, 338;
aboriginal monuments, ib.; three
pre-Columbian epochs, 339; civili-
sation in Yucatan and Panama,
ih.; ancient buildings in Central
America, 310; the temple of
Palenqué, 341, 342 ; architecture
of the Aztecas, 343; Casas Grandes
of the Indians, ib.; varieties of

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pueblos,' 344; primitive stone
structures, 345; Estufas of the
Intermediate Period, 346; tradi-
tions of Montezuma, ib.; remains
of the Earliest Period, 347; viz.,
sacred and sacrificial mounds, ib.-
350 ; military works in Ohio, ib.;
copper ornaments, 351 ; high per-
fection of pottery, ib.; Indian
'garden beds,' 352; theories of
aboriginal races, 354; Asiatic
immigration, 355; visited by an-
cient Japanese, ib.; primitive links
with the Old World, 356; worship
of the phallus, 357; polytheism,
ib.; pyramidal ruins in Yucatan
ascribed to Egypt, 359; the pyra-
mid of Xochicalco, 360; similari-
ties of early tribes, ib.; unity of
races inferred from language, 361;
primitive immigrants, 362; main
courses of population, ib.; Oriental
source proved by ancient monu-

ments, 363
America (United States), Federal

and State taxation in, cxi. 243; tax-
able property in, 244; taxation com-
pared with that in England, 246

increase of brain disorders in,
cxii. 526; condition of, under Mr.
Buchanan's presidency, 547. See
Buchanan, J. Percival

limited power of the Presi-
dent, cxiii. 557; dangers of presi-
dential elections, 558; causes of
secession deep-seated, 559; prin-
ciples of early abolitionists, 500;
Squatter Sovereignty introduced,
563; slavery the cause of disrup-
tion, 566-573; Southern views of
Federation, 574; their reasons for
secession unsound, 577; the 'Peace
Congress' at Washington, 578;
difficulties of coercion by the
Northern States, 579; separation
preferable to civil war, 581 ; per-
petual union impossible, 586

aspects of, to French and
English travellers, cxy. 187

America (United States), Sir

Cornewall Lewis's criticism of
the system of presidential elec-
tion, cxviii. 145; democracy not
to be tested by its results in,
146; evils of the Caucus system,
ib.; the War of Secession ascribed
to Federalism, 147; separation of
free and slave states advocated by
Sir G. C. Lewis, 150

Episcopal Church of, mixed
synods of clergy and laity in,cxviii.
576; was never a branch of the
State Church of England, ib. ; the
"General Convention,' 577; dis-
cipline enforced by law, ib.

first steps towards slave
mancipation in, cxix. 205; one-
third of, unfitted for man, 474;
limits of the Great American
Desert, 475

corruptions of English lan-
guage in, cxx. 42; disintegrating
effects of democracy on social life,

the Alien and Sedition Laws,
194; co-operative societies in, re-
semble trades' unions, 432; ex-
change of vegetable products with,
495, 496

idiot institutions in, crxii.
41, 42; specimens of idiots in, 62,
01

Northern indifference to the
Union at one time, cxxiii. 525;
change of feeling,526; blind policy
of Mr. Buchanan, ib. 527; his suc-
cessors, 528; improved moral tone
of the presidency, ib. ; immediate
results of the late war, 529; diffi-
culties of re-construction, ib.;
anomalous aspect of parties, 530;
altered doctrine of State Sore-
reignty, ib. 531; restoration of
seceded states, 532; theory of
Mr. Sumner, ib.; policy of Mr.
Johnson, 533 ; limited power of
Congress, ib.; dangers of central
government after the war, 534;
Radical policy criticised, 535; co-

191 ;

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