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cantile posts, viz. Hong-Kong, St. Helena, etc., ib. ; the sugar islands viewed as tropical farms, 103; dative corruption in Jamaica, ib.; policy of conquest abandoned, 104; Anglo-Saxon colonies the question for discussion, 105; exempt from contribution to Imperial charges, 106; former argument of monopoly of trade, ib. ; effects of Free Trade and repeal of the Navigation Act, 107; colonial patronage abandoned, ib.; chiefly valuable for emigration purposes, ib.; argument of prestige, 108; the bargain unequal, ib. ; anomalous position as belligerents, 109; temptations to separation in time of war, 110; unselfish home-policy, 111; their loyalty to the Crown, ib.; guarantees of colonial loans criticised, 112 note; instance of imprudent interference with, 113 (see New Zenland); proper principles of reciprocity, 120; legitimate claims of England, 121; need of treaty

regulations, ib. Colonial Episcopate, cxviii. 552 ;

preference of the laity purely rationalistic, 553; religious principles imported into the discussion, 555; functional purposes of, viz., ordination and confirmation, 556; views of Archbishop Secker thereon, ib.; value of bishops chiefly administrative, 557; distribution of, ib.; missionary bishops, 5.58; first episcopal sees at Nova Scotia and Quebec, 560; tabular statement of, by Mr. Hawkins, ib.; gradual relinquishment of State endowments, 561, 562; grants of two home societies, ib.; solid advantages of colonial bishoprics, 562; excessive subdivision of dioceses, 503 ; compared with home episcopacy, 561, 565; mischief of territorial titles in the colonies, ib. 667; the evils illustrated at Cape

Town, ib.; serious nature of Anglican pretensions, 569; pitiable condition of sinecure bishops, 570; temptations to neglect bred by forced inactivity, 571; indeterminate authority of, over the subordinate clergy, ib.; relations with dissenting bodies, 573; proposed mixed synods of clergy and laity, 576; attempts to constitute governing bodies by mere voluntary agreement, 577; irrational notions of spiritual law in the Colonies, ib. 578; the notions dispelled by English lawyers, ib.; appeal to Parliament for an enabling Act, 579; the Bills of 1852 and 1854, ih.; fierce opposition in Parliament, ib.; the latter measure withdrawn, 580; the movement renewed in colonial legislatures, ib.; the Canadian Act passed, ib.; policy in South Australia, ib. 581; case of Long v. Bishop of Cape Town,

582-585 Colonisation Society, the, in America,

its scheme for deporting slaves to Africa, cxix. 205; its cautious introduction in the North, 210; its plans resisted by the negroes, ib.;

similar proposals of Lincoln, 223 Colquhoun (John), his · Isis Reve

luta,' cxxxi. 207; his literary

character, 208 Columbia (British), its geographical

union with Canada anticipated, cxii. 331

its erection into a colony, cxix. 451; limited means of approach to, 460; physical features, 461; gold-mining in, 468; prospects of the mining population,

471 Columbus (Christopher, 1442-1506),

his views on Eastern commerce,

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295;

passage, ib.; their material and
ponderable substance, ib.; their
size, 396; Newton's theory proved
by Halley, ib.; the comet of
Halley, 398; of Encke, Biela, etc.,
ib.; Arago's estimate of their
number, 399; their relations with
the sun, 400 ; Lexell's comet, ib.;
the bright nucleus in the head,
401 ; notion of their being simply
beams of light, 402 ; polarisation
of light from, 404; telescopic ob-
servations of, ib.; formation of
the tail, 405; Donati's comet,
407; theory of Bessel, ib.; Tyn-
dall's experiments, 408; spectro-
scopic examination, 409; their
erratic course, ib.; curves, 410;
short period' comets, 411; iden-
tified with meteoric streams, 413–
415; reappearance of Biela's comet
in 1866, 416; comet of 1862 iden-
tified with August meteors, ib.;
solidity of their composition estab-

lished, 418
Command, the word defined by Mr.

Austin, cxiv: 463
Commercial Treaty (French), argu-

ments against, examined, cxi.
280; changes effected in French
commerce by, 292 ; its probable
stimulation of industrial competi-
tion, 300; results on interchange
of products, 302; on wine con-
sumption, 305; value of Mr.
Gladstone's proposals, 311; broad
and sound basis of, ib.

results of, cxx. 570, 571

(1800), originated in the
Crimean alliance, cxxix. 281;
recent agitation of French Protec-
tionists against, 367 note; Mr.
Wolowski on the good results of,

ib.
Commerell (Captain), his operations

on the Gold Coast, cxxxviii. 579
Commissions, Royal, advantages of

non-professional element in, cxviii.
501 ; examples thereof, 502

Lord Bolingbroke's esti-
mate of, in his time, cxviii. 411

with Speaker
Finch, cxx. 34

effect of the first Reform
Act on, cxxiii. 287; prospects of
working men in, 289

its functions not those of an
Assembly of Estates, cxxv. 289–

its recent irresolution on
the Reform question, 580 ; its pre-
sent function in the Constitution,
581

dispute of, with the City in
1771, cxxvi. 31 ; altered system of
Cabinet government in, between
the Stuarts and William IV.,
561; its working dependent on
the initiative of the Crown, 565

prejudices of, against "lite-
rary members,' cxxvii. 567, 568

its character not changed by
the Reform Act of 1868, cxxix.
288; the most aristocratical body
in the world, 290, 291; increased
power of, under Edward III.,
518

Reports of Committees on
the business of, cxxxiii. 57; de-
liberative and legislative functions
of, ib. ; its universal scrutiny of
affairs, 58; defective capacity for
legislation, ib. ; statistics of Acts
from 1861 to 1870, 59; Bills
withdrawn for want of time, 60;
appalling amount of promised
legislation, ib.; facilities of private
Members for introducing Bills, 62;
overtaxing of Ministers, ib. ; recent
statistics of hours of sitting, ib.;
first Reformed House, 63; tep-
dency to talk, ib.; classes of
talkers, 64; four anonymous gos-
sipers extracted from «Hansard,
65; need of restraint, 66; daily
routine of work, 67; "morning

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ib.;

sittings,' ib.; Mr. Disraeli's changes therein, ib.; Ministers and independent Members, 68; unsystematic division of time, ib. 69; 'massacre of the innocents,' 70; Government Bills withdrawn, 71; want of method in proceedings, ib.; the Committees of 1837 and 1848, ib.; intermingling of debates, 73; question of the clôture, ib.; and limitation of speeches by rule, 74; practice in America, 75 ; double discussion on second readings of Bills, 76; privileges of private Members, 77; the Committee of 1854, ib.; of 1861, 78; frivolous amendments on motion for Supply, 79; waste of Fridays, ib.; barren inquiry in 1861, 80; the clôture recommended, question of curtailing number of Bills, 83; Public Bill Revision Committee 'proposed, 84 ; sittings of Committee of the whole House, ib.; Sir J. Pakington's proposal thereon, ib.; powers of Select Committees might be enlarged, 85; obstructive motions for adjournment, 86; presentation of petitions, ib.; preliminary delays, 87; questions of enforced divisions on Wednesdays, ib.; and of reviving Bills the next session in statu quo,

88; need of remedies, 89 Commons, House of, rules of, adopt

ed by France and America, cxxxiv. 588; the previous question,' 589 note; unrestrained latitude of debate, 591; motions before Supply, ib.; proposed Giand Committees, 592 ; remedy for “talking bills out,' 594; evening sittings might be divided, 595; Private Bill legislation should be abolished, 596.

obstructive power of, over Government, cxxxv. 87 (see Parliamentary Government); former talking-out of questions after petitions, 517; value of recent rule

Comparative Theology. See Theology,

Comparative Competition, its effects on price, cxxx.

394 Competitive Examinations, defects of,

applied to legal studies, cxxx. 554

opening of the Indian Civil Service to, cxxxix. 330; sinister predictions, 331 ; objections to, overruled, ib. 333; failure of, in the Indian Civil Service, 334 ; alleged exclusion of competent officials, ib. ; evils of the 'cramming' system, 343 (see Indian Civil Service); wide field of subjects, 345; opposed to university system of education, 347; success of crammers explained, 348; bardships of defeated candidates, ib. ; remedies proposed, 349 ; restriction and classification of subjects, ib. ; question of natural science, 350; limit of age should be raised, ib. ; the system at Woolwich, 351; the cramming system, ib. 355 ; the principle of competition abused, 356 ; evils thereof, in filling up the higher departments, 357; importance of previous nominations,

358 Comprehension Act (1689), cxl.

441 Comte (M. Auguste, 1798–1857),

his ! Cours de Philosophie Positive,' cxxvii. 303 ; his tedious course of argument, 306 ; his pretentiousness and dogmatism, 307 ; his early life, ib. ; associated with Saint-Simon, 309; their quarrel, 310; his early essays in the : Producteur,' ib.; his unhappy. mara riage, 311; his insanity, 312; he

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attempts suicide, ib.; his recovery, 'Compurgation,' the form of trial
313; his marriage solemnised in described, cxl. 253
the asylum, ib.; his rule of study, Comunidades,' revolt of, under
314; rapidity of his composition, Charles V., cxxxi. 362
315; his separation from his wife, *Comus,' Milton's masque of, cxi.
ib.; dismissed from the École 338; first publication and acting
Polytechnique, ib. ; supported by

of, ib.
English friends, 316 ; his passion Comyn, Scottish family of, cxxvi.
for Madame Clotilde de Vaux, 265, 266
317; origin of his religious specu- Conches (M. Feuillet de), bis Letters
lations, ib. ; his works on the re- relating to Louis XVI. and Marie
ligion of humanity, 318; his Antoinette, cxxii. 423; their
closing years and death, 319 ; in- authenticity impeached by M. von
tellectual and religious positivism, Sybel, 424; his qualifications as
320; M. Littré's charge of incon- editor, 437; his materials, 438;
sistency, ib. ; basis of science com- his critical sagacity, ib.; bis ser-
mon to both systems, 321; bis law vices to the secret history of the
of evolution, 322; his positive Revolution, 448; letters of Ma-
method, ib.; anticipated by Hume dame Elizabeth, 450
therein, 323; his attack on scien-

his 'Causeries d'un Curieux :
tific hypotheses, 324; on pheno- Variétés d'Histoire et d'Art,'cxxiv,
mena and their laws, 325; he ex- 341 ; his title untranslatable, ib. ;
pands the inductive method, ib.; interest of his work, 342; his
his classification of sciences, 326; masterly preface, ib.; anecdotes of
on psychology as a science, 329; authors, 343, 344; on the preda-
his Sociology, 330; on the rela- tory habits of collectors, 345; his
tions of history and society, 333; charge against Lord Brougham, ib.;
his loi des trois états, 334; his false on original autographs, 346; his
distinction between Order and criticisin of the forged letter as-
Will in nature, 336; negative es- cribed to Lentulus, 348; on Pom-
sence of Positive Philosophy, 337, pey's statue at Rome, 352; on the
338; its conflict with Theism, ib; writing paper of the Romans, 354;
its exaltation of science to a philo- on veneration paid to writing by
sophy, ib.; his attempt to divest the Chinese, 358, 360; on the
science of metaphysics, 341; and Chinese style of painting, ib.; on
of theology, 343; denies the spirit- varieties of collections, ib.; his
ual nature of man, 318; his po- mistake as to the Order of the
sitivism must be treated

Garter, 366; his Femmes
whole, 349; his conception of Blondes,' 367 note; his specimens
Humanity as a religion, ib. ; posi- of historical gloves, 370; auto-
tivist idea of God, 350; idealisa- graphs his master-passion, 372;
tion of woman, ib.; his seven his collection of letters, 373–376;
sacraments of domestic worship of on the personal qualities of authors,
humanity, 351; public worship 379; his clever ending, 382
of humanity, 353; his calendar, Concordats, cxvi. 285
354; wild impiety of his Religion Condamine (M. de la), his attempt
of humanity, ib. 357

to transport the chinchona plant to
his theory of the stages of Europe, cxviii. 509; his main
religion, cxxxix. 437 note

object, 512

as

а

Condé, House of, pedigree of, traced

to Robert the Strong, cxxx. 3:17; James, Count de la Marche, ib. ; John II. 358

(Louis de Bourbon, Prince de, 1530–1569); founder of the House of Condé, cxxx. 359; his parentage and early life, ib.; marriage, 360; military service, ib.; his conduct at the battle of St. Quentin, 361; alienation from the French Court, ib.; conspiracy of Amboise, 362; condemned to death at Orleans, 363; his liberation, 364 ; leader of the Huguenots, 366; unfitted for his post, 368; campaign with Coligny, 369; the Edict of Amboise and Isabella de Limeuil, 370; his dissipation, 372; intrigues of Catherine and the Guises, ib. ; quarrels with the Court, 373; battle of St. Denis, ib.; the Duc D'Aumale on his strategic talents, 374; his death, 376; character, 377

(Henry I. of Bourbon, 2nd Prince de, d. 1588), his education, cxxx. 377; early relations with the Court, 378; leads the extreme Reformers, ib. ; relations with Henry of Navarre, 380; wounded at Coutras, 382 ; his death, 383 ; bis character by the Duc d'Aumale, ib.; captivity of his widow and

Confetti, origin of the practice at the

Carnival, cxxxii. 305 Confucius, his works translated by

Dr. Legge, cxxix. 303 ; state of China when he was born, 306; legends of his childhood, 307; his marriage, ib. ; takes pupils, 308; he removes from Loo to Tsée, 309; chief magistrate of Chung-Too, 310; his attention to social reforms and to court etiquette, ib.; compared with Pythagoras, 131 ; his exile, ib.; his revision of the ancient Books, 312 ; his death and burial-place, 313; devotion of his pupils, 314; his appearance and habits, 315; his recorded conversations, 316; his high conceptions of morality, 317; a restorer, not an original teacher, ib. 318; his system denounced by Dr. Legge, 319; his precepts on the attributes of God, ib. ; relations with Laoutsze, 322; his view of filial duties, 323; of death, 326; on the Supernatural, 328; a typical Chinese, 330; his cold and colourless philosophy, 331 ; national benefits

of his system, 332 Coniferous trees, cxx. 345; the

• Pinetum Britannicum' of Messrs. Lawson, 346 ; fossilised remains of, 317 ; the Scotch fir and spruce, 348; the stone pine, 349; value of the pinaster for plantations, ib.; origin of its name · Pouch fir,'351; introduction of the larch, ib. ; the larch-disease, 352; the silver fir brought from Germany, 353; the American deciduous cypress, ib.; cedar of Goa, 354; cedars of Lebanon, ib.; specimen formerly in the Jardin des Plantes, 355 ; the grove on Mount Lebanon, ib. ; the deodar introduced for ship-building, 357; its supposed specific identity with the cedar, 358; American species of pines introduced, 359 note; the Weymouth

son, ib.

(Henry II. of Bourbon, 3rd Prince de, 1588-1646), his captivity in youth, cxxx. 383; acknowledged by Henry IV., 384; brought up as a Catholic, ib.; his angraceful appearance, 385; character of his wife, 385; his quarrel

with Henry IV., 386 Confederates, the, gloomy prospects

of, in 1864, cxxi. 259. See

American War of Secession "Confession of Faith,' the, flexible

language of, at the Reformation in Scotland, cxiv. 407

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