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of the Codex, ib. ; his Icelandic
studies commen

enced, 238; his Ice-
landic teacher Gislason, ib.; first
project of a Dictionary, 239; cor-
respondence with Schmeller, ib.;
letters to Kemble and Sir J.
Lefevre, 240; his intended Lexi-
icon of ancient Scandinavian,
241, 242; flying visits to Copen-
hagen, 243; Grimm's encourage-
ment, ib. ; last illness and death,
244 ; his character, ib.; ill-treat-
ment of bis MSS., 245; the Copen-
hagen Committee of Editors, ib.;
Mr. Vigfusson’s labours, ib. ; value

of the joint Dictionary, 246
Clement of Alexandria, on early

Egyptian writing, cxvi. 105
Clement VI. (Pope, d. 1352), his

memory strengthened by concus-

sion of the brain, cxii. 535
Clement VII. (Pope Julian dei Me-

dici, d. 1394), destroys the Flo-
rentine republic, cxii. 121

-his relationswith Guicciardini,
cxxx. 11

siege of, in St. Angelo, des-
cribed by Heemskerck, cxxxii.

80_84
Clement XIII. (Pope, d. 1769), his

policy to the Jesuits in Portugal,
cxxxvi. 206, 207; his rupture with

King Joseph, 208
Clement XIV. (Pope, 1705-1774),

dissolves the Society of Jesuits,

cxxxvi. 209
Clements (Mr.), his invention of the

planing-machine, cxxi. 604
Cleopatra (B.C. 69-30), Pascal's
remark her

nose, cxxiv.
342
Clerels (of Tocqueville), family of,

cxiii. 433
Clergy, parochial, alienation of their
incomes, cxvii. 363

former satires on, cxxxv.
377-380 ; vast improvement of,
in modern times, 381; present
voluntary efforts of, ib.

Clerk (Sir George), on native go-

vernment in India, cxvii. 18
Clerk of Eldin (John), his Essay on

Naval Tactics, cxxxvi. 559; his
valuable studies, 579; his system

of reform, 580
Cleveland (John, 1613-1659), the

ballad-monger of the Royalists,
cxiii. 95

verses on Strafford, ascribed
to, cxxxvii. 195
Cleves, Duchy of, rival claims to,

cxl. 108; conduct of Henry IV.
respecting, 109
Climate, in the Post-Pliocene period

of man, cxviii. 267; effect of
changes in, on geology, 301

comprehensive meaning of
the word, cxx. 473; imperfect
knowledge of its phenomena, 474,
475; limits to human control over,
ib.; local influences of forests upon,
478, 479; early condition of, in
England, 498

M. Taine on its influence on
English character, cxxi. 306

theories of, during the qua-
ternary period, cxxxii. 445
Clive (Robert, Lord, 1725-1774), his
treaty with Oude, cxvii. 9

obtains the cession of Bengal,
cxxix. 207 ; his makeshift double

government, ib. 208
Clode (Mr. C. M.), his Military

Forces of the Crown,' cxxxiii. 207;

his views on army government,235
Clodius (B.C. 52), challenged by Milo,

cxxiv. 416; his enmity to Cicero,

417
Clôture, the, in the French Chamber,

cxxxiii. 73; recommended for the

House of Commons, ib. 80
Clouds, their phenomena illustrated,

cxxii. 432
Clovio (Giulio), copies of Heem-

skerck's designs ascribed to, cxxxii.

71
Coaches, early travelling by, in

England, cxix. 362

on

Coal, distribution of annual yield in

1854 over Great Britain, cxi. 87 note; exports of British coal to America, 90; high price of cannel coal there, ib.; anthracite chiefly used in American cities, ib. 91; defects of highly-bituminous coal, 92; use of anthracite for steam ships, 93;.it must be mixed for locomotive engines, ib.; good steam coal rare on the Continent, 94

use of, in the working of iron, cxvi. 205

geological period required for its formation, cxviii. 299

high price of, during winter of 1872-3, cxxxvii. 456; causes examined, 457; ubiquitous demand, 462; increase of population, ib.; recent rate of extraction, 463 ; foreign consumers, 465; former fluctuations in prices, 466 ; Parliamentary inquiry, 467; coal-owners, colliers, and coal-merchants, ib. 469 ; diminished output, ib.; corrective influences on high prices, 471; vast quantity of coal, at present inaccessible, 472; researches as to probable duration of available coal, 473; culpable waste of, 476; “pit heaps,' 477 and note ; economy in fuel, 478; obstipacy of present pitmen, 480; co-operative system at the Whitwood Collieries, 481; mechanical coalcutters, 483; prospects of coalimportation, 486; coal-resources of Belgium, 487; of Westphalia, ib.; British North America, ib. ; India, 488; China, ib.; United States, 489; importance of the coal-ques

tion, 490 Coalbrookdale, first iron bridge at,

cxvi. 207 Coal-fields (North American and

British), cxi. 68 ; latent mechanical strength of, 69; their national importance, ib. ; Carboniferous rocks in Britain, 70; composed of

primeval vegetation, 71; fossil trees discovered, 72; theories of climate deduced from, 73; growth of seams, 74; vast periods required for their formation, ib.; chief elements of vegetation, ib.; mode of vegetable accumulation, 76; drifttimber in the Slave Lake, ib.; question of transportation, 77; the drift and peat-bog theories, ib. 78; theory of Professor Rogers, ib. 79; natural disposition of coalbasins, 80; convenient distribution of coal-fields in England, 81; their effect on population, ib.; need of survey of, in England, 82; estimate of their contents, ib. ; lowest working seams, 83 ; fears of future scarcity, ib. various estimates thereon, ib. 84; the Newcastle field, ib.; immense drain on Staffordshire field, 85; resources of the South Wales field, ib. ; total annual yield of British mines, 86; estimated areas of coal in different countries, 88 note; unbounded resources of America, ib. 89 (see Coal); the South Wales field described, 91; energy of American surveys, 94; neglect of

inquiry in England, ib. 95 Coal-fields in Vancouver Island, cxix. 455

in Central India, cxxxv. 218 Coal-mines, difficulties of deep-work

ing in, cxxxvii. 474 ; question of temperature, 475; Dr. Thudicum's investigations thereon, ib.

(British), scenes at the smelting furnace, cxvii. 409; waste of coal dust,' 412; dangers of the miners, ib.; mode of lowering, 413; choke-damp and fire-damp, 415; dangers of blasting, 417; abandoned workings, ib.; methods of ventilation, 418; accidents from falls of rock, 420; precautions against irruptions of water, 421;

recklessness must be remedied by
improvement of the collier, 423 ;
effects of the education clause,'
424; causes of the strike of 1842,
425; evils of the charter master'
system of contracts, ib. ; mining
colleges, 427; fluctuations of
wages, 431; habits of the miners,
432; prevalence of drunkenness,
433; the pitgirls, 435; spiritual
provision for the mining popula-

tion, 439
Coal-mines, annual drain on, cxx.

481; invention for cutting coal, ib.;
immense depth of, 485; increase
of heat in, ib.

alarming mortality in, cxxv.
549, 550; fatal accidents from
1856 to 1866, 551; explosions of
fire-damp, ib.; the old Wallsend
pit, ib.; nature of coal-gas, 552 ;
ventilation of, ib. 553 ; the furnace-
system, ib.; fans, 554; evils of
single shafts, ib. ; blowers, 555;
the Davy lamp, 556; Clanny's
lamp, 558; gunpowder-blasting,
ib. ; Mr. Ansell's improved lamp,
559; experiment of an electric
light, 561 ; exhibitions of mining
implements proposed, 562; deaths
from after-damp, 563; defective
timber-propping, 564; the long-
wall' and 'pillar and stall’ modes
of excavation, 565; dangers of
drawing the props,' 566; need of
coal-cutting machines, ib.; pre-
ventible accidents in shafts, 567;
miscellaneous accidents, 568;
question of inspection, ib.; bene-
fits of the Duplicate Shaft Act of
1862, 569; inadequate number of
inspectors, 570; responsibility of
managers, 572; petition of “under-
miners' to Parliament, ib.; they
propose local sub-inspectors, 574;
need of greater supervision of man-
agers, 575; scheme of a Mining
College, 570; ignorance of over-
seers, 577; Select Committee on

recent explosions, ib.; present rate

of mortality, ib.
Coal-trade, strike in Staffordshire in

1864, cxx. 420, 421
Cobden (Richard, 1804-1865), his

negotiation of the French Com-

mercial Treaty, cxi. 279
Cobham, Lord. See Oldcastle, Sir

John
Cochin-China, French settlement

abandoned, cxxxvii. 322–324
Cockburn (Henry, Lord, 1772-1854),

his discussion with Sir C. Bell on
the study of science, cxxxv. 418

Journal of,' being a con-
tinuation of his Memorials,' cxl.
259; previous article referred to,
ib.; praiseworthy editorship of,
260; his burning of private letters
not intended for publication, ib.;
on the influence of London on
Scotch society, 261; he laments
the change, ib.; on the shortening
of the holidays of the Court of
Session, 262; his intense love of
nature, ib.; his ‘Letter to the Lord
Provost' on Edinburgh, 263; his
character as shown in his writings,
264; prepares the Reform Bill for
Scotland, ib.; his account of the
Reform crisis, 266; his political
predictions, ib.; raised to the Bench,
267 ; his dislike of Brougham, ib.;
friendship with Scott, 269; his
estimate of Macaulay, ib.; sketches
of contemporaries, ib. 271; his
Evangelical Scotch sympathies,
273; contest as to Church patron-
aye, ib.; his account of the seces-

sion from the Scotch Church, 279
Cockburn (Sir A., Chief Justice, b.

1802), representative of England
at the Geneva arbitration, cxxxvii.
265; his protest against the deci-
sion, 266 ; his masterly disserta-
tion, 275; his dignified rebuke of
American invectives, 276; his

vindication of Earl Russell, ib.
Codification of Law, its importance
illustrated by the evils of judicial legislation, cxviii. 467 ; Mr. Austin on the difficulties of, ib.; his analysis of objections, 468; supposed failure of, abroad, 469 note; preliminary conditions of success,

470 Codification of Law,cxxvi. 347; Codes

of Roman Law under Constantine, 350; the Code of Theodosius, 351; Code and Pandects of Justinian,353, 354; the Basilica of Leo, ib.; Edict of Theodoric, 355; the Breviarium of Alaric, ib. ; the Lex Romana Visigothorum, ib.; the Papiani Responsa, ib. ; Teutonic codes, 356; collections of local customs, etc. in foreign countries, 357, 358; improvements inherited from the Romans, ib.; further requirements, ib.; movement began in Italy in the last century, 359 ; the 'Code Frédéric,' ib.; codes in France, 360, 361; codes in Germany, etc., ib. (see Germany, etc.); in the British Colonies, 363; tardy reforms in England, 365 (see Statute Law); need of a Code, 368; a Code distinguished from a Digest, ib.; supposed flexibility of judge-made law, 369; fallacious objections to codification, ib.; its value in popularising the knowledge of law, 370; it would facilitate legislation, 371; required union of common and statute law in an English code, 372; conditions of a statute-code, ib.; a Digest defined, 374; preliminaries of codification of statute law, ib.; additional need of revision, 375; note on above article, respecting Mr. Colebrooke's compilation of Hindoo

Law, 585 Cod-liver oil, its value in consump

tive cases, cxxxvi. 242 Cæcilian (Bishop of Carthage, 4th

century), his trial, cxi. 439, 440

Coena Domini, Papal Bull, rival esti

mates of, cxxx. 330 Coffee, tradition of its first introduc

tion into India, cxix. 109 Coggia's Comet, cxl. 409 Coinage, heresies concerning depreciation of, cxv. 40. See Currency

International, cxxiv. 383 ; circulating medium deranged by a double standard, 384 note; position of silver in the coinage, 385; disturbance produced by excess of gold, 386 ; depreciation of monetary units in America, ib.; British system recommended in France, ib.; foreign reductions in standard of small coin, 387; Italian principle adopted by France, ib. ; Paris Conference of 1865, proposed by Belgium, ib.; principles established by the Convention, 388, 389; their design of a monetary union, ib.; composition of lower coinage abroad, 390; system of the Convention adopted by the Pope, ib.; scheme of a more extended union, 391 ; the decimal scale a step to uniformity, ib. ; important results of the Convention, ib.; Australian sovereigns legalised in England, 392 ; need of a common form, ib.; isolation of British method, ib. ; proposed assimilation with the French system of numeration, 393; gold pieces of two florins suggested, 394; the fivefranc piece in France, ib. 395.; want of gold medium in Germany, ib.; objections to change of English sovereign, 396; precedents for re-adjustmentof Mintexchange, ib. 397; importance of a complete

decimal system, 398 Coins, earliest appearance of, cxxxii.

477 Coke (Sir Edward, 1549-1634), his

condemnation of judicial torture, cxiii. 336

on the illegality of forced

loans, cxx. 21; denounces the

Duke of Buckingham, 26
Coke (Sir Edward), his course of

legal study, cxxxiv. 490
Colbert (John Baptist, 1619-1683),

his supervision of roads in France,
cxix. 357

his foundation of lace-manu-
facture at Alençon, cxxxv. 51
Colby (Colonel), bis invention of

compensation bars for triangula-
tion, cxviii. 385 ; his organisation
of the Survey Department, 388;

his survey of Ireland, 389
Colchester (Lord). See Abbot, Charles
Cold Harbour (U.S.), Confederate
victory at (1864), cxxi. 283

irregular tactics of Grant at
the battle, cxxix. 260
Cold Harbour (now Cole Harbour

Lane), ancient liberty of, in London,

cxxxi. 170
Coldstream Guards, origin of, cxl.

477
Colenso (Dr., Bishop of Natal), his

suit before the Privy Council one

of pure discipline, cxxi. 178
Coleridge (IIenry Thomas, 1765-

1837), his compilation of Hindoo
Law, cxxvi. 585; note to article
on · Codification'

essays of, with memoir by his
son, cxxxvi. 461; his foreign re-
putation, ib.; true foundation of
his fame, 462; his services to
Sanskrit scholarship, 463; his first
connexion with the East India
Company, 464; arrival in India,
465; Revenue appointment at Tir-
hut, ib.; his Oriental studies, ib.;
essay on 'Indian Weights and Mea-
sures,' 466; transferred to Purneah,
468; letters on Indian antiquities,
469; papers to the 'Asiatic Socie-
ty,' ib.; opposition to the new
charter, 470; removed to the ju-
dicial branch, 471; his digest of
Hindoo laws, ib.; his theory of
caste, 472-475; diplomatic missin

to Nagpur, ib.; appointments at
Calcutta, 476; his study of com-
parative philology, ib.; his un-
finished Sanskrit Grammar, ib.;
miscellaneous works, 478; Presi-
dent of the Court of Appeal and
of the Asiatic Society,' i.; re-
searches on the Vedas, 479; long
career in India, 480; services to
Indian jurisprudence, 481; pro-
moted to the Council, 482 ; Presi-
dent of the Astronomical Society,
ib.; his • Algebra' from the Sans-
krit, ib.; collection of Sanskrit
MSS., 483; founds the Royal
Asiatic Society, ib. ; treatises on
Hindoo philosophy, 484; later
sufferings and death, 485; facile
princeps of Sanskrit scholars, ib.;
compared with Sir W. Jones, 486;

bis appreciation of his rival, 487
Coleridge (Hartley, 1797-1849), his

character and poetical remains,

cxxxix. 64
Coleridge (Henry Nelson, d. 1843),

his career, cxxxix. 51; his mar-
riage, ib.; his ‘Six Months in the
West Indies,'ib.; his . Introduction
to the Study of the Greek Classic
Poets,' 52; his learned letters to
his wife, 53 (see Coleridge, Sara);
his editorship of his brother's

works, 56 ; death, ib.
Coleridge (Herbert, d. 1861); edu-

cation by his mother Sara, cxxxix.
54, 58; his successful career and

premature death, 67, 68
Coleridge (Samuel Taylor, 1772-

1834); his Germanising influence
on English theology, cxii. 480

his view of Jacobinism in the
• Friend,' cxviii. 461, 462

his intimacy with Lamb,
cxxiv. 264; his influence on con-
temporary thought, 274

his friendship with Crabb
Robinson, cxxx. 523, 527; Lamb's
remark on his married life, 528

his Lectures at the Royal

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