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delegates are annually chosen by all the citizens, four for MASCLEF, FRANCIS, was born at Amiens, in the each county, and two for each of the cities of Annapolis and year 1662. He very early devoted himself to the study of Baltimore. The executive power is vested in a governor Oriental languages, in which he attained an extraordinary and council, consisting of five members, who are elected degree of proficiency. Having been brought up to the annually by the joint ballot of the two legislative bodies. churclı, he became first a curate in the diocese of Amiens, Maryland sends iwo senators and eight representatives to and afterwards obtained the confidence of De Brou, bishop congress.
of Amiens, who placed him at the head of the theological (Darby's View of the United States; Warden's Account seminary of the district and made him a canon. De Brou of the United States of North America; Keating's Expedi- died in 1706, and Masclef, whose opinions on the Jansenist tion to the Source of St. Peter's River ; Pitkin's Statistical controversy were not in accordance with those of the new View of the Commerce of the United States of America.) prelate Sabbatier, was compelled to resign bis place in the MARYLEBONE. LONDON.]
theological seminary and to retire from public life. From MARY PORT. [CUMBERLAND.]
this time he devoted himself to study with such close apMASA'CCIO, called MASO DA SAN GIOVANNI, plication as to bring on a disease, of which he died, on the one of the earliest painters of the Florentine school, was 24th of November, 1728, at the age of sixty-six. Though born at San Giovanni in Val d'Arno, in the year 1401, and austere in his habits, he was amiable and pious. died in 1443. He was a disciple of Masolino da Panicali, Masclef's chief work is the “Grammatica Hebraica, à to whom he proved as much superior as his master was to punctis aliisque inventis Massorethicis libera,' in which he all his contemporaries. He had great readiness of inven- embodied an elaborate argument against the use of the tion, with unusual truth and elegance of design. He made vowel points. The first edition was published in 1716, and nature his constant study; and he gave in his works examples speedily called forth a defence of the points from the Abbé of that beauty which arises from a judicious and pleasing Guarin, a learned Benedictine monk. In the year 1731 a choice of attitudes, accompanied with spirit, boldness, and second edition of- Masclef's work was published at Paris, relief. He was the first who studied to give more dignity containing an answer to Guarin's objections, with the ad. to his draperies, by designing them with greater breadth and dition of grammars of the Syriac, Chaldee, and Samaritan fulness, and omitting the multitude of small folds. He was languages. This work still ranks as the best Hebrew gramalso the first who endeavoured to adapt the colour of his mar without points. The other works of Masclef were, draperies to the tints of his carnations, so that they might Ecclesiastical Conferences of the Diocese of Amiens ;" harmonise with each other.
Catechism of Amiens;' and, in MS., Courses of PhiloHe was remarkably well skilled in perspective, which he sophy and Divinity. The last-mentioned work was not was taught by P. Brunelleschi. His works procured him printed, on account of its being thought to contain Jangreat reputation, but excited the envy of his competitors. senist opinions. He died, to the regret of all lovers of the art, not without
MASCULINE and NEUTER. (GENDER.] strong suspicions of having been poisoned. Fuseli says of MASERES, FRANCIS. The dates and facts in the him — Masaccio was a genius, and the head of an epoch in following account are taken from 'The Gentleman's Magathe art. He may be considered as the precursor of Raphael
, zine' for June, 1824. who imitated his principles, and sometimes transcribed his He was born in London, December 15, 1731. His father figures. He had seen what could be seen of the antique in was a physician, descended of a family which was drives his time at Rome, but his most perfect works are the out of France by the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. frescos of S. Pietro del Carmine at Florence, where vigour He was educated at Clare Hall, Cambridge, and took the of conception, truth and vivacity of expression, correctness degree of B.A. in 1752, obtaining the highest place, both of design, and breadth of manner, are supported by truth in classics and mathematics. He then (having first oband surprising harmony of colour.'
tained a fellowship in his college) removed to the Temple, MASANIELLO. (ANIELLO.
was in due time called to the bar, and went the WestMASCAGNI, PAUL, was born in 1752. He studied ern circuit for some years with little success. He was medicine in the university of Siena, and in 1774 succeeded then appointed (the date is not mentioned) attorneyhis master, Tabarani, in the professorship of anatomy in general for Canada, in which province he remained till that institution. He is chiefly celebrated for his admirable 1773, distinguished by his loyalty during the American work on the absorbent system, and the beauty of his ana- contest, and his zeal for the interests of the province. On tomical preparations, of which the greater part are pre- his return in 1773 he was appointed cursitor baron of the served in the Anatomical Museum of Florence. An outline Exchequer, which office he held till his death. He was of his great work was published in 1784 in French, under also at different times deputy recorder of London and senior the title, “Prodrome d'un Ouvrage sur le Système des judge of the sheriff's court. He died May 19, 1824, at Vaisseaux Lymphatiques,' and was sent to the Académie Reigate, in the 93rd year of his age. des Sciences in competition for a prize offered for the best Baron Masères (as he was commonly called) has left be essay on the subject. In 1787 the more complete work, hind him a celebrity arising partly from his own writings • Vasorum Lymphaticorum Corporis Humani Historia et and partly from the munificence with which he devoted a Ichnographia,' was published in folio at Siena. It contains part of his income to reprinting such works as he thought twenty-seven large plates, finished and in outline, of the useful, either in illustration of mathematical history or of lymphatics in different parts of the body, engraved with that of his own country. These were the objects of his extreme delicacy by Cyro Sancti. It was dedicated to the private studies, and a peculiarity of his mathematical views reigning duke of Tuscany, under whose patronage Mas- which tinctured the whole of his writings, as well as his cagni afterwards rapidly advanced in reputation. In 1800 he selection of works to be reprinted, requires some explaleft the university of Siena for that of Pisa, and the year
nation. after went to that of Florence. He died in 1815.
It is well known that the art of algebra grew faster than After his death two large works were published from the science, and that, at the time when Masères began tuis his papers, “Anatomia per uso degli Studiosi di Scultura studies, a branch of knowledge which is essentially distinct e Pittura, Florence, 1816, and Prodromo della Grande from arithmetic, or rather of which arithmetic is one partiAnatomia, Florence, 1819, by Antommarchi. Mascagni cular case, had been pushed beyond the simple science of also published works of some celebrity on the lagunes and numbers in its methods, reasonings, and results, while its hot-springs of Tuscany, and on the cultivation of the potato fundamental definitions were allowed to be expressed in and other branches of agriculture, to which he devoted all arithmetical language, and restricted by arithmetical conhis leisure time.
ceptions. [NEGATIVE AND IMPOSSIBLE QUANTITIES.) The MASCAGNIN, volcanic sulphate of ammonia, occurs consequence was, that the algebraical books were anything stalactitic and pulverulent. Colour yellowish or greyish; but logical ; and while those who could make for thonfaste acrid and bitter; translucent or opaque. Volatilized selves the requisite generalization at the proper time were entirely at a high temperature. Occurs among the lavas of more likely to employ themselves in extending the boundary Etna and Vesuvius, &c.
of the science than in writing elementary works, all other By the analysis of Gmelin it contains
students had to take a large part of algebra on trust, their Sulphuric acid
faith being built partly on authority, partly on continually Ammonia
seeing verifiable truthis produced by its operations. Va Water
sères, when a young man, rejected all of algebra which is 100•
not arithmetic, as being what he could not comprehend him
self, though he admitted that others might do so. In his university he took the degree of B.A., with distinction, in earliest publication but one ("Dissertation on the Use of the 1751. In 1755 he took orders, but he had previously been Negative Sign in Algebra,' London, 1758), which is in i led to turn his attention to astronomy by the solar eclipse fact a treatise on the elements of algebra, after rejecting of 1748, and by becoming acquainted with Bradley, whom an equation in which negative quantities occur, he adds: he assisted in the formation of his tables of refraction. In 'I
speak according to the foregoing definition, by which the 1761 he went to St. Helena, to observe the transit of Venus, affirmativeness or negativeness of any quantity implies a and to detect, if possible, the parallax of the fixed stars. relation to another quantity of the same kind, to which it In this voyage, and in one undertaken to Barbadoes in is added, or from which it is subtracted; for it may perhaps 1764, to try the merits of Harrison's new chronometers, he be very clear and intelligible to those who have formed to acquired that knowledge of the wants of nautical astronomy, themselves some other idea of affirmative and negative which afterwards led to the formation of the Nautical Alquantities different from that above defined.'
manac. In 1765 he was appointed to succeed Mr. Bliss as The other works of Masères are, `Elements of Plane astronomer royal, and from this time, with the exception of Trigonometry,' London, 1750 ; 'Principles of the Doctrine his voyage to Scotland in 1772, to determine the mean of Life Annuities, London, 1783; Appendix to Frend's density of the earth by observing the effect of the mountain Principles of Algebra, 1799; tracts on the Resolution Schehallien upon the plumb-line, his life was one unvaried of Equations, 1800; various remarks on the tracts pub application to the practical improvement of astronomical lished in the . Scriptores Logarithmici, presently to be observation. He died February 9, 1811. noticed; papers in the Philosophical Transactions ;' and Delambre dates the commencement of modern astronopolitical writings, a list of which will be found in the 'Gen- mical observation, in its most perfect form, from Maskelyne, leman's Magazine' above cited. The characteristic of all who was the first who gave what is now called a standard these writings is an extreme prolixity, occasioned by his catalogue (A.D. 1790) of stars; that is, a number of stars rejection of algebra, and the consequent multiplication of observed with such frequency and accuracy, that their particular cases. In his . Dissertation,' &c. above noticed, places serve as standard points of the heavens. His suggesthe four rules, and the solution of equations of the second tion of the Nautical Almanac, and his superintendence of and third degree, occupy three hundred quarto pages. it to the end of his life, from its first publication in 1767,
Of the reprints which Barun Masères made at his own are mentioned in ALMANAC (vol. i., p. 36-1); his Schebalexpense, the most important is the 'Scriptores Logarith- lien experiment, ATTRACTION (vol. iii., p. 69); and the mici,' a collection, in six volumes quarto, published in vari character of his Greenwich 'observations, in GREENWICH ous years from 1791 to 1807, of writings on the subject of OBSERVATORY (vol. xi., p. 442). logarithms. Here we find the works of Kepler, Napier, Dr. Maskelyne, as arbitrator on the part of the gorernSnell, &c., interspersed with original tracts on kindred ment of the merits of the chronometers which were subsubjects. The republication of these old writings has put mitted by their makers as competitors for the prize, had them in the way of many students to whom they would more than one public accusation of partiality to bear. The otherwise have been inaccessible, and has thus tended to now celebrated Harrison was one of his oppugners, and Mr. promote historical knowledge and to excite inquiry. The Mudge, junior, on the part of his father, another. The only Scriptores Optici,' 1823, a reprint of the optical writings of publication (as far as we know) which he ever made out of James Gregory, Descartes, Schooten, Huyghens, Halley, his official capacity (with the exception of papers in the and Barrow, has a merit of the same kind : it was begun at : Philosophical Transactions'), was a reply to a pamphlet by an earlier period, but having been delayed by circumstances, the latter, London, 1792. He edited Mayer's lunar tables, was completed under the superintendence of Mr. Babbage. and was the means of five thousand pounds being awarded Besides these, he also reprinted the tract of James Ber- to the widow of the author. noulli on Permutations and Combinations, and discovered MASON, WILLIAM, born in 1725, was the son of a and printed Colson's translation of Agnesi's · Analytical In- clergyman at Hull. He took his B.A. degree at Cambridge in stitutions.' He also reprinted a large number of tracts on 1745, after which he removed from St. John's College to PemEnglish history. The expense of Hales's Latin treatise on broke, of which college he was elected fellow in 1747. Fluxions, 1800, was defrayed by him, and we understand Having taken orders, he was presented to the rectory of that more than one other author was indebted to him for Aston in Yorkshire, and became chaplain to the king. His assistance of the same kind.
political principles strongly opposed him to the American MASHAM, ABIGAIL, the favourite of Queen Anne, war, and he was a member of the Yorkshire association for noted in the history of the time for her political intrigues, obtaining reform of parliament. The horrors of the French was the daughter of Francis Hill, a Levant merchant of Revolution however are said to have caused a change in his London, who married the sister of Mr. Jennings, the father opinions, but as he was growing an old man when it broke of the Duchess of Marlborough. Upon the bankruptcy of out, the timidity of age probably worked as strongly as the her father she became the attendant of a baronet's lady, reign of terror. He died in 1797, aged 72; having been whence she removed into the service of her relative, then for years precentor and canon-residentiary of Yuk. There Lady Churchill, who procured her the place of waiting is a tablet to his memory in Poets' Corner, Westminster maid to the Princess Anne. She retained her situation Abbey. after the princess ascended the throne, and by laer assiduity Mason's Poems are now almost forgotten. Two tragedies, and complaisance acquired a great degree of influence over Elfrida' and 'Caractacus,' a descriptive poem called . The her. The high church principles in which she had been English Garden,' and some odes, are his principal produceducated contributed to increase her credit with the queen, tions, but he is now perhaps best remembered as Gray's who was secretly attached to the tory party, though obliged, biographer and friend. His style is that of an imitator of in the beginning of her reign, to favour the whigs. The Gray, and not being so perfect an artist in language as his marriage of Miss Hill with Mr. Masham (son of Sir Francis master, lie has been proportionally less successful. In addiMasham, of Oles in Essex) in 1707, occasioned an open quar- tion to his poetical reputation he possessed considerable rel with the Duchess of Marlborough, who was, in consequence skill in painting and music, and in the latter subject enterof it, deprived of her majesty's confidence. Harley, after tained opinions not at all consonant to those of musicians in wards earl of Oxford, connected himself with the new general." He wished to reduce church music to the most favourite; a change of ministry took place, and in 1711 Mr. dry and mechanical style possible, excluding all such exMasham was raised to the peorage. He and his wife ap- pression as should depend on the powers and taste of the pear to have been actively engaged in the intrigues of the organist. (Mason's Compendium of the History of Churc! tories in favour of the exiled House of Stuart. Lady Ma- Music.) sham lived a long time in retirement after the death of the MASONRY (from the French maison and maçon) sigqueen, and died herself at an advanced age, December 6, nifies both the operation of constructing with stone and the 1734.
parts of a building consisting of such material. It is a (Life of Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough, 8vo., London, most important branch of architectural practice, because 1745, p: 48; Polit. State of Brit., vol. xlviii., p. 656; see much, both of the durability and beauty of an edifice so also a character of Mr. Masham in Manley's Secret Memoirs constructed, depends upon the excellence of the workmanfrom the New Atalantis, 12mo., London, 1709, vol. ii., p. 147.) ship and the quality and colour of the stone. Owing to its
MASKELYNE. NEVIL, was born in London, Octo- expense, masonry is comparatively rarely employed in this ber 6, 1732, was educated at Westminster, and afterwards country, except for public buildings or oihers of the bigliest at Catherine Hall and Trinity College, Cambridge, in which class, the mason's work being in other cases restricted to su, P. C., No. 911.
parts as steps to doors, string-courses, facias, and plain cor- temple of Solomon. If we are to believe them, the institu. nices externally, and to pavements and stairs in the interior. tion has been continued down in uninterrupted succession Yet that degree of stone-work does not constitute what is from that very remote time to the present day, through all termed a brick and stone building, because such term im- the changes of governments, religion, civilization, and knowplies a considerable mixture of stone and brick, namely, ledge. Against this there exists one very simple, yet fatal. that the doorways, window dressings, columns, parapets, argument, namely, that were this really the case, such an angle-quoins, and all the ornamental parts are of stone, uninterrupted series of tradition must have kept alive and the nude or plain face of the wall only being of brick. handed down to us much information that has, on the conBut such mode is now fallen into disuse, except for buildings trary, been utterly lost. Instead of accumulated knowledge, in some of the later Gothic styles, the brick-work being now we find that even a technical knowledge of architecture itself covered with stucco, cement, or mortar, to resemble as far has not been so preserved; else how are we to account for the as possible the stone, when the latter is used for columns, ignorance which everywhere prevailed with respect to Gothic pilasters, and ornamental parts; or, as is now more fre architecture and its principles almost as soon as the style itstif quently the case, the whole, even the columns themselves fell into disuse? That there may have been many points are formed of brick, and afterwards stuccoed. In other in- of resemblance between the fraternities of masons in the stances, while the building itself is entirely faced with middle ages, and such institutions as those of the Eleusioinn stone, all the richer and more elaborate decorations, such mysteries, and the corporation of Ionian architects, is not as capitals, carved mouldings, and other sculptured orna. only possible, but highly probable, because similarity of curment, are composed of ferra-cotta, or burnt artificial com- cumstances would almost necessarily lead to it. Before the position, which is said to be not only more economical, but invention of printing, when the means of communicating far more durable than stone itself, owing to its being to a knowledge were few and imperfect, no readier mode precertain extent vitrified. This mode has been resorted to sented itself of extending and keeping up the speculative with great success for the Ionic capitals of St. Pancras and practical information spread among any profession, than Church, London,
by establishing the profession itself into a community or order, Of all our freestones, Portland stone is perhaps the very all the members of which would have one object and one best yet discovered, both for durability and colour; but its interest in common. This would be more particularly the high price and the expense of working it prevent its being case with regard to architecture, which calls for the co-opeso often employed as could be wished. Of late years there- ration of various branches of science and the mechanical fore Bath stone is the kind more generally made use of arts, and was moreover for several ages the paramount art, for building purposes, it being soft when first taken out of all the other arts of decoration being, as far as they then the quarry, and very easily worked. Neither its texture nor existed, subservient to it. tint however is so good; and when discoloured by time, The importance of architecture to the church, on account as is quickly the case, it has a certain shabbiness of appear- of the impressive dignity it conferred upon religious ries
In fact a living architect (Mr. A. Bartholomew) de- and the ministers of religion, naturally induced the clergy scribes it, in his ‘Hints on Fire-proof Buildings,' as 'the to take it under their especial protection. For a long time vilest of material, which, when new, is mean and swarthy, not only were ecclesiastics the chief patrons but almost the and which decays before I myself am old;' and he further chief professors of the art; yet as they had occasion for the mentions St. Bartholomew's Hospital as the earliest instance assistance of practical artificers in various branches, they of the extensive use in London of Bath stone. Ketton admitted them into fellowship with themselves, establishstone, which has been used for the tower of St. Dunstan's ing a kind of order of a mixed character, just as tho in the West, Fleet Street, is, though not equal to Portland, orders of chivalry combined at their origin the principles of greatly superior to Bath stone. Cornwall granites and military and religious discipline. Hence some have sup Dundee stone are now in great requisition for constructions posed freemasonry to have been a branch of chivalry, and demanding strength and solidity, and have been used in io liave been established at the time of the Crusades. The several of the docks and new bridges.
more probable hypothesis perhaps is that they were related Walls which are not of solid masonry throughout, but to each other only in emanating from the same sourcebuilt either of brick or inferior stone and rubble, with only from the influence of ecclesiastical power; and their bein; an external facing of squared stone laid in courses, are so derived would alone account for the mystery and secre", termed ashler, or ashlering. [ASHLER.]
which the guilds of masons affected; and, together wat Rusticated ashler or stone work is that where the separate their zeal in accumulating knowledge for themselves, ther stones are divided at their seams or joints, which is done desire to confine it to their own body. either by bevelling off or chamfering their arrises or edges By means of these associations the inventions and im to a certain depth, or sinking them by cutting each stone provements made in architecture were communicated from so that it has a general projecting surface, by which means, one country to another, a circumstance which at once acwhen united together, those surfaces are flush with the counts for the sudden spread of pointed or Gothic architecplane of the wall, and the sunk margin round each forms ture throughout the whole of the west of Europe; and at the rectangular grooves or channels between them. This latter same time renders it so exceedingly difficult to determin mode is always adopted when horizontal rustics alone are at all satisfactorily where that style actually originated, us used, as is now too frequently the practice, for it is not what nation contributed most towards its advancement only poor and monotonous, in comparison with rusticating Owing also to the jealousy with which the masons kept their with both vertical and horizontal joints, but unmeaning in knowledge to themselves, it is not at all surprising that the itself, and therefore justly condemned by Sir W. Chambers. history of the art during the middle ages should be involved Though generally made quite smooth, the faces of the rustics in so much obscurity that it can now be traced only by its are sometimes tooled, or else, though very rarely, hatched, monuments, all documents relative to the study of it bavina vermiculated, or frosted; all which varieties may likewise been concealed as much as possible, even when someibuk be combined, with exceedingly good effect and great di- of the kind must have been in existence. Among the caus versity, with smooth-faced rustics. Such rough rustics are which led afterwards to the decline of these instituticos sometimes distinguished by the name of bossages.
was, on the one hand, the suspicion with which the course Stones inserted quite through a wall, in order to bind itself began to regard them as societies that might in time it firmly together (in the absence of which the ashlering acquire an influence not easily watched, and which me would be a mere external coating, adhering to the brick- be turned against itself; and on the other, the spread :: work only by mortar), are called bond stones; and those information, together with the revival of the arts, obras at the base of the wall, projecting beyond its general plane, deprived such bodies of their utility and importance, and renfor the purpose of giving greater solidity just above the dered it impossible for them to confine their knowledge foundation, are termed footings.
exclusively within their own pale. Walls built with unhewn stones, either with or without In this country an act was passed against Masonry in the mortar, are called rubble walls, and the stone itself rubble. third year of Henry VI., at the instigation of the bishup sa
MASONS, FREE. According to the extravagant and Winchester. It was however never enforced, and Heers whimsical hypotheses entertained by some of those who have himself afterwards countenanced the brethren by his present written upon the subject of freemasonry, it is an institution of at lodges of masons. It was also patronised by James I. . almost incredible antiquity. We are told by some that it Scotland: but it was no longer indispensable to the churcón originated with the builders of the tower of Babel, though which accordingly withdrew its protection-an event the bers are content with tracing it no farther back than the would otherwise have been occasioned by the Reformativa
Freemasonry revived again in this country about the of the carth, their weight towards the earth, which is then time of the civil war, yet merely in semblance, being alto called the attraction of the earth, depends upon their disgether dillerent in object and character from what it had tance from the earth, as well as their absolute constitution. been, and becoming merely 'speculative' or modern Masonry, If we imagine two planets at the same distance from the an institution in nowise connected with architectural prac-earth, the attractions of the earth upon the two will then tice. From this country it was first introduced into France be in a proportion which depends, not on that distance, but about the year 1725; into Spain in 1728, and into Italy in on the amount of matter in the two planets. 1733, when the first masonic lodge was established at Flo- When we say that Jupiter has only the 1047th part of the rence. It was afterwards however the object of persecution mass of the sun, we express—1, a fact of which observation not only in France and Italy, but also in Holland and Ger- and deduction make us certain, namely, that at the same many. Some writers, more especially Abbé Baruel and Pro- distances the attraction of the sun upon the earth is 1047 fe-sor Robison, have made it a charge against freemasonry times as great as that of Jupiter upon the earth; 2, an that it has been converted into an organised secret con- hypothesis of the following kind, that the sun contains 1047 spiracy against religion and existing governments. If the times as much matter as Jupiter. The hypothesis is a concharge has been unjustly made, it must be owned that the venience, not affecting the truth or falsehood of results; the profound mystery in which it has cloaked itself gave some fact represented remains, that at the same distances the colouring to such charges, it being but natural to infer that sun does 1047 times as much towards detlecting the earth if there was anything to call for such extraordinary degree as is done by Jupiter. of secrecy, it could hardly be aught for good, or in accordance In the application of mechanics, the following equations with the interests of society at large. The greater probabi- frequently occur :lity is that there is nothing either good or bad to conceal;
Weight = mass X force of gravity. that the mystery of freemasonry is nothing more than an
Mass = volume X density. innocent mystification; and that its symbols and instruc- These equations, like others of the same kind, are to be tions, whatever meaning or purpose they may originally have understood with tacit reference to the units employed; they had, are now become mere forms and sigus retained by the spring from the following proportions. Any two masses are brethren or free and accepted masons,' as they style them- to one another in the ratio compounded of that of the selves, for the purpose of conferring peculiar importance on volumes and that of the densities; thus the two bodies their harmless social meetings.
being eight cubic feet three times as dense as water, and MASORITES. [HEBREW LANGUAGE.]
seven cubic feet four times as dense, the masses are in the MASOVIA. [POLAND.]
proportion of 8 X 3 to 7 X 4, or of 24 to 28. Again, if two MASQUE. [English DRAMA.]
different masses be acted upon by pressures which would, MASQUERADE (from the Italian mascherata and in a unit of time, create different amounts of velocity, the French mascurade), an amusement introduced into England pressures are to one another in the ratio compounded of in the sixteenth century from Italy. Hall, in his . Chro- lihat of the masses and that of the velocities which would be niele,' says, 'On the daie of the epiphaine, at night (A.D. generated in the unit of time. Thus if the preceding masses, 1512-13), the king (Henry VIII.) with eleven others were which are as 24 to 28, were subjected to attractions which disguised after the manner of Italie, called a maske, a thing would produce in single particles velocities of 10 and 11 feet, not seen afore in England: thei were appareled in gar- if allowed to act uniformly for one second, the pressures mentes long and brode, wrought all with golde, with visers requisite to prevent motion at the outset would be as and cappes of golde; and after the banket doen, these 24 X 10 to 28 x 11, or as 240 to 308. maskers came in with the six gentlemen disguised in silke, To convert these proportions into equations, let the unit beryng staffe torches, and desired the ladies to daunce: some of time be one second, that of volume one cubic foot, and were content; and some that knew the fashion of it refused, let water be the substance which has the unit of density; because it was not a thing commonly seen: and after thei also let the unit of length be one foot. Then if the unit of daunced and commoned together, as the fashion of the mass be one cubic foot of water, and the unit of weight the maskes is, thei toke their leave and departed, and so did pressure necessary to restrain a unit of mass acted on by an the quiene and all the ladies.'
attraction which would, in one second, give a velocity of The distinction between this species of amusement and one foot per second - the preceding equations are true. the disguisings and mummings of the middle ages appears [Weight; SPECIFIC GRAVITY; ACCELERATION.] to have been the general mingling of the company in dance MASS (Missa, in Latin). The derivation of the word and conversation, in lieu of the execution of a particular missa' has been variously accounted for; some derive it dance or preconcerted action by certain individuals for the from missio or dimissio, dismissal, because in the early entertainment of the guests, the latter being as old at least ages of the church the catechumeni, or new converts who as the time of Edward III. in England, and the precursors were not yei admitted to partake of the sacrament, were of the dramatic masque of the sixteenth century. In the sent out of the church after the liturgy was read, and before garmentes long and brode,' and disguisings of silke,' we the consecration of the Host. Others derive it from the inay perceive the present domino, so called, according to Hebrew word ‘Missab,'i.e.oblation or sacrifice in commemo. some authorities, from an ecclesiastical vestment (a black ration of the sacrifice of our Redeemer for the sins of man hood worn by canons of cathedrals), dominus being a title kind. Ducange, in his . Glossarium,' art. ‘Missa,' gives the applied to dignified clergymen in the middle ages. Others various opinions on the etymology of the word. The word derive it from the ordinary robe or gown worn by Venetian missa, signifying the ceremony or rite of consecrating the noblemen at that period. Granacci, who died in 1543, is Host, is found in the epistles of St. Ambrose, St. Augustine, said to have been the inventor of masquerades: at what and Cesarius, bishop of Arles. See also Baronius, in his particular date does not appear; but from the above · Annals.' evidence of Hall, they had become fashionable in Italy as The mass is a church service which forms an essential part early as 1512.
of the ritual of both the Roman Catholic and Greek or MASS. By the mass of a body is meant the quantity of Eastern churches, and in which the consecration of the matter which it contains, upon the supposition that differ- sacramental bread and wine takes place. It is performed ences of weight are always the consequence of different entirely by the officiating priest standing before the altar, quantities of matter. This involves an hypothesis ; for in- and attended by a clerk who says the responses. The siance, if gold be, bulk for bulk, nineteen times as heavy as prayers of the mass are all in Latin in the Roman Catholic water, it is presumed that a given bulk of gold contains church, in antient Greek in the Eastern church, and in nineteen times as much matter as the same bulk of water. Syriac among the Maronites and Jacobites, but never in But it is possible that if we were better acquainted with the the vulgar or vernacular tongue of the country. The con constitution of these bodies, it might appear that we are gregation take no ostensible part in the service, but they wrong in supposing difference of quantity to be the cause follow it mentally or in their prayer-books, in which the of difference of density.
text of the prayers is occasionally accompanied by a transThe fact is, that mass means weight, so that of two bodies, lation in the vulgar tongue. The priest does not address the the lieavier is that which has the more mass; why then is conregation, but has his back turned to them, except at the this word introduced at all? If we had only to considerand of certain prayers, when he turns round, and says, bodies at the surface of the earth, we might in all cases / D minus vobiscum' (^ The Lord be with you'), and at the substitute weights for masses, but when we have occasion to 1.0i te Fratres,' &c. ('Brethren, pray,' &c.), which are respeak of bodies at very different distances from the centre padded to, on the part of the congregation, by the clerk.
3 Q 2
The mass consists of various parts--1, the Introitus, or pre- | merous inflexions and inlets are taken into account. On the paration, consisting of several prayers, psalms, the 'Gloria in south, Massachusetts is bounded by Rhode Island, with excelsis,' the.epistle and gospel for the day, the Creed, &c., which it has a common boundary-line of 69 miles, and by which the priest recites with a loud voice. 2, The consecration, Connecticut, which forms its boundary for 85 miles. On the in which the priest consecrates the bread and wine, repeating west the boundary-line formed by New York rather exceeds the words, . Hoc est corpus meum, et hic est calix sanguinis 50 miles. North of Massachusetts are Vermont and New mei,' and then shows to the people both the bread and the Hampshire, which respectively form its boundary for 38 chalice containing the wine, upon which all the congrega- and 85 miles. Its length from Plymouth harbour on tion kneel down. 3, The Communion. The priest, after Cape Cod Bay, along the southern border to New York, is reciting more prayers, accompanied by an invocation of the about 145 miles, and its mean width about 50 miles. Its apostles and other saints, the Lord's Prayer, &c., takes the surface is 7335 miles, or nearly the area of Wales. sacrament under both forms; if any of the congregation are Shores and Islands.- Narraganset Bay, which lies chiefly disposed to take the sacrament, the priest then descends within the state of Rhode Island (Rhode ISLAND), enters from the altar and administers it to them in the shape of by its most north-eastern inlet into Massachusetts, where it the consecrated wafers or bread only. 4, The post com- receives the Taunton river, the most considerable of all the munio, which consists of a few more prayers, and of the bless-streams which fall into that bay; the tide ascends this ing which the priest gives turning towards the congregation, river to Dighton, eight miles above its mouth. Farther after which he reads the first chapter of the gospel of St. east is Buzzards Bay, a deep indentation stretching in a John down to the fourteenth verse, and the mass is over. north-eastern direction into the mainland. From its en
The low or ordinary mass, Missa brevis, lasts in ge- trance between Seaconet Point and the south-western of neral about half an hour, and every Roman Catholic is the Elizabeth Islands, to its innermost corner, it is 35 miles bound, by what are styled the Commandments of the long, but it lessens in width from ten miles to one mile. Church, to attend it once at least on Sundays and other The innermost corner is divided from Cape Cod Bay by an holidays, unless prevented by illness. The transgression of isthmus five miles in width. This bay is very much mthis precept is reckoned a sin. Pious persons hear several dented by small bays on both shores, but it is shallow, espemasses in succession, and many attend mass every day in cially towards its inner part; yet vessels of considerable the week, for it is celebrated every day in each parish church. draught may ascend to New Bedford, 16 or 17 miles from A priest must not break his fast either by food or drink from its entrance. The shores are low and sandy: On the east the previous midnight until he has said mass, out of respect of Buzzards Bay begins Barnstable Peninsula, which first for the real presence of Jesus Christ in the sacrament. The stretches from the mainland, a little north of east, 35 miles, service of the mass is indeed essentially connected with and varying in width from 3 to 20 miles: it then changes its depends on the doctrine of transubstantiation. [TRANSUB- direction to north and north-west, for about 30 miles, with STANTIATION.]
a mean width of 2} miles, and terminates in Cape Cod. On great festivals and other solemn occasions the mass is The difference in the rise of the tide, south and north performed by a priest or prelate, attended by a deacon and of the peninsula, is remarkable. In Buzzards Bay and in subdeacon, who says the responses and chants the epistle and Nantucket Bay it rises from 34 to 4 feet, and in Cape Cod gospel of the day. On those occasions the mass, or at least Bay to 16 feet. Barnstable Peninsula encloses the southern parts of it are sung by a choir, accompanied by the organ and portion of a large bay, which is generally called Massaother musical instruments. This is called 'high mass,’and chusetts Bay, though at present that name is limited to the is a long and pompous service. Both for the low and northern portion of it, and the southern, which is enclosed the high masses the officiating priest is dressed in peculiar by the peninsula, is called Barnstable Bay or Cape Cod various-coloured garments appropriated to the occasion, Bay. This large bay extends northwards to Cape Anne in which he afterwards takes off in the vestry-room.
the form of a parallelogram, 55 miles long from southThe “Missale' is the name of the book which contains south-east to north-north-west, and 25 miles in width. From the ritual of the mass, and which the priest holds open Cape Cod to Cape Anne it is open 44 miles to the Atlantic. before him on the altar. Some of the old Missals, whether It contains the important harbours of Plyinouth, Bostophe MSS. or printed, are beautifully ornamented with paintings, and Salem. North of Cape Anne the shores are somewhat and are valued as bibliographic curiosities.
high and rocky. The Protestant and reformed churches have no mass, as South of Barnstable Peninsula are the islands of Nan they do not believe in the doctrine of transubstantiation; tucket and Martha's Vineyard. Nantucket is about 15 but several of the detached . Oremus,' or prayers of that | miles in length and 4 in breadth, rises to a very moderate service, which are very fine, have been retained in the height, and is level. Its sandy soil is almost entirely sterile, Liturgy of the Church of England translated in the vulgar and the inhabitants live by fishing. it constitates a sepatongue.
rate county, inhabited by 7286 souls in 1820. Martha's MASSA, DUCHY OF, a small territory on the west Vineyard is about 16 miles in length and 8 in its greatest coast of Italy, which, with the annexed territory of Carrara, breadth; the surface is level and the soil sandy, but pro constituted for a long time a sovereign principality under ductive in some places. Together with some smaller islands the family of Cibo. It now belongs to the duke of Modena. lying near it, Martha's Vineyard constitutes Dukes County, [CARRARA.] The territory of Massa extends about eight which in 1820 contained 3295 inhabitants. The wide bar miles from the sea-coast to the Alpe Apuana or mountain- which is enclosed by these islands on the south, and by group which divides it from the province of Garfagnana, Barnstable Peninsula on the north, is called Nantucket Bay. part of which also belongs to Modena. [GARFAGNANA.] Surface and Soil. The surface of the Barnstable PeninTo the south-east Massa borders upon the territory of Pietra- sula is level, or rather consists of two inclined plains, whuch santa, belonging to Tuscany; and on the north-west it attain some elevation where they meet. Be.ween Hyannas adjoins Carrara : its breadth between these two limits hardly harbour and Barnstable, the highest level is about so feat exceeds six miles. The small river Frigido tlows through above low-water in Nantucket Bay; but on the isthmus the territory of Massa from the mountains of Carrara to the which unites the peninsula to the continent, it is only 4U sea. The town of Massa is in the lower part of the country, feet. The soil of this tract is sandy and light, and of an 10 not far from the sea, on the high road from Genoa to ferior quality, but cultivated with great industry. The Lucca and Pisa. It is surrounded by fine gardens and country along the western side of Buzzards Bay and tbe plantations of fruit-trees. Massa is a neat town: it is also shores of Massachusetts Bay is similar in soil. But this fiat a bishop's see, has a cathedral with some good paintings, a country rises rapidly inland, so that the tide, thought town-house, a fine public garden with orange-trees, and a amounts to 16 or 18 feet, is only perceptible from 5 to 10 miles handsome marble bridge over the Frigido. It is the residence from the sea in the rivers. At the back of this level tract of the governor sent from Modena, and has a court of appeal is a hilly region, which in the north-eastern districts Tfor the duchy of Massa and Carrara. Massa and its terri- tends nearly to the shores of the sea, and westward to i tory contain from 9000 to 10,000 inhabitants.
valley of the Connecticut river. Its surface is agreeab's MASSACHUSETTS, one of the United States of North diversified by hills and depressions; the soil of the latter a America, lies between 41° 31' and 42° 52' N. lat. and 69° deep and strong, and cultivated with considerable est 50' and 73° 50' W. long ; but the two islands of Martha's In ibis part some hills rise to a considerable elevation, ? ** Vineyard and Nantucket, which belong to it, extend as far highest, Mount Wachuset, attaining nearly 400 feet. B south as 41° 12'. The Atlantic Ocean washes its eastern of smaller elevation extend towards the Conncticut me. and southern shores to the extent of 270 miles, if the nu-l but they approach the banks of the river only near orthamp