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Charles V. On Charles declining to fulfil this bargain, | It was said, I constrained not her faith, but wished her not some overtures of a Scottish marriage followed in Septein as a king to rule, but as a subject to obey; and that her ber, 1524. Finally, in April, 1527, it was agreed that the example might breed too much inconvenience.' In fact princess should be given in marriage either to the French throughout this reign the princess Mary was the centre of king Francis, or to his second son, the duke of Orleans; the intrigues of the Catholic party, and the hope of her sucbut before it was determined whether she should be married cession their main strength and support. In the summer of to the father or the son, the affair of her mother's divorce, this same year a project was entered into by her friends at implying her own illegitimacy, came to be agitated, and home and abroad for removing her from England, where stopped all match-making for some years.

her faith at least, if not her person, was probably supposed Mary was brought up from her infancy in a strong at- to be in some danger. On the 29th of August, her brother tachment to the antient religion, under the care of her writes: 'Certain pinnaces were prepared to see that there mother, and Margaret, countess of Salisbury, the effect of should be no conveyance over sea of the Lady Mary secretly whose instructions was not impaired by the subsequent done. Also appointed that the lord chancellor, lord chamlessons of the learned Ludovicus Vives, who, though some berlain, the vice-chamberlain, and the secretary Petre what inclined to the reformed opinions, was appointed by should see by all means they could whether she used the Henry to be her Latin tutor. After her mother's divorce, mass; and if she did, that the laws should be executed on Mary was deprived of her title of princess of Wales, which her chaplains.' was transferred to the Princess Elizabeth soon after she Mary's firm adherence to the Roman faith finally induced came into the world; and during all the time that Anne Edward, under the interested advice of his minister NorthBoleyn lived, Mary, who clung to her mother's cause and umberland, to attempt at the close of his life to exclude her own, remained in a state of estrangement from her her from the succession, and to make over the crown by father. In the mean time, according to Lord Herbert, ne- will to the Lady Jane Grey, an act which was certainly gotiations for disposing of her in marriage were twice without any shadow of legal force. [EDWARD V1.] Although entered into by her near relation the emperor, without her Lady Jane however was actually proclaimed, scarrely any father's consent having been asked; in 1533 he offered her resistance was made to the accession of Mary, the con10 James V. of Scotland, and in 1535 to her old suitor the mencement of whose reign accordingly is dated from the dauphin. But immediately after the execution of Queen 6th of July, 1553, the day of her brother's death. [GREY, Anne in 1536, a reconcilement took place between Henry LADY JANE.] and his eldest daughter, who, with great reluctance, was now Mary was scarcely seated on the throne when she proprevailed upon to make a formal acknowledgement both of ceeded to re-establish the antient religion. In the course Henry's ecclesiastical supremacy~utterly refusing the of the month of August, Bonner, Gardiner, and three other bishop of Rome's pretended authority, power, and jurisdic- bishops, who had been deposed for nonconformity in the tion within this realm heretofore usurped '—and of the late reign, were restored to their sees, and the mass began nullity of the marriage of her father and mother, which again to be celebrated in many churches. In the following she declared was ‘by God's law and man's law incestuous month archbishop Cranmer and bishop Latimer were coniand unlawful.' (See the Confession of me, the Lady Mary,' mitted to the Tower; and in November the parliament as printed by Burnet, “Hist. Ref.,' from the original, 'all passed an act repealing all the acts, nine in number, rewritten with her own hand.') By the new act of succession lating to religion, that had been passed in the late reign, however, passed this year, she was again, as well as her and replacing the church in the same position in which it had sister Elizabeth, declared illegitimate, and for ever excluded stood at the death of Henry VIII. These measures, and from claiming the inheritance of the crown as the king's the other indications given by the court of a determination lawful heir by lineal descent. While she was thus circum- to be completely reconciled with Rome, were followed by stanced, 'excluded,' as Lord Herbert expresses it, ' by act of the insurrection, commonly known as that of Sir Thomas parliament from all claim to the succession except such as Wyatt, its principal leader, which broke out in the end of i be king shall give her' by the powers reserved to him of January, 1554, but was in a few days effectually put down; nominating his own successor after failure of the issue of its suppression being signalised by the executions of the unQueen Jane, or of any other queen whom he might after fortunate Lady Jane Grey and her husband the Lord Guildwards marry, she was in 1538 offered to Don Louis, prince ford Dudley, of her father the duke of Suffolk, and finally, of of Portugal, and the next year to William, son of the duke Wyatt himself. of Cleves. Meanwhile continuing to yield an outward con- On the 25th of July, Mary was married in the cathedral formity to all her father's capricious movements in the church of Winchester to the prince of Spain, afterwards matter of religion, she so far succeeded in regaining his Philip II., the son of the emperor Charles V.; and the refavour, that in the new act of succession, passed in 1544, union with Rome was speedily completed by a parliament the inheritance to the crown was expressly secured to her which assembled in the beginning of November, and which next after her brother Edward and his heirs, and any issue passed acts repealing the attainder of cardinal Pole, who the king might have by his then wife Catherine Parr. immediately after arrived in England with the dignity of

Mary's compliance with the innovations in religion in her papal legate, restoring the authority of the pope, repealing father's time had been dictated merely by fear or self- all laws made against the see of Rome since the 20th of interest; and when, after the accession of her brother, his Henry VIII., reviving the antient statutes against heresy, mninisters proceeded to place the whole doctrine, as well as and in short re-establishing the whole national system of discipline, of the national church upon a new foundation, religious policy as it had existed previous to the first innovashe openly refused to go along with them; nor could all tions made by Henry VIII. By one of the acts of this sestheir persuasions and threats

, aided by those of her brother sion of parliament also Philip was authorised to take the himself, move her from her ground. Full details of the title of king of England during the queen’s life. All these various attempts that were made to prevail upon her may acts appear to have been passed with scarcely any debate be found in Burnet's 'History, and in King Edward's or opposition in either house, except occasionally upon * Journal.' Mention is made in the latter, under date of mere points of detail and form. April, 1549, of a demand for the band of the Lady Mary The remainder of the history of the reign of Mary is occaby the duke of Brunswick, who was informed by the council pied chietly with the sanguinary persecutions of ihe adhethat there was talk for her marriage with the infant of ients to the reformed doctrines. The Protestant writers Portugal, which being determined, he should have answer.' reckon that about two hundred and eighty victims perished About the same time it is noted that whereas the em at the stake, from the 4th of February, 1555, on which day peror's ambassador desired leave, by letters patents, that John Rogers was burnt at Smithfield, to the 10th of Nomy Lady Mary might have mass, it was denied him.' On vember, 1558, when the last auto-du-of the reign took the 18th of March of the following year, the king writes: place by the execution in the same manner of three men • The Lady Mary, my sister, came to me at Westminster, and two women at Colchester. Dr. Lingard admits that where, after salutations, she was called, with my council, after expunging from the Protestant lists the names of all into a chamber; where was declared how long I had suf- who were condemned as felons or traitors, or who died fered her mass

, in hope of her reconciliation, and how now peaceably in their beds, or who survived the publication of being no hope, which I perceived by her letters, except I their martyrdom, or who would for their heterodoxy have saw some short amendment, I could not bear it. She an- been sent to the stake by the reformed prelates themselves, swered, that her soul was God's, and her faith she would had they been in possession of the power,' and making nut change, noc dissemble her opinion with contrary doings. I every other reasonable allowance, it will still be found that


in the space of four years almost two hundred persons pe- or Roman Catholic party obtained the ascendancy. The first rished in the flames for religious opinion. Among the two years of Mary's life were spent at Linlithigow, in the most distinguished sufferers were Hooper bishop of Glou- royal palace of which she was born; she was then removed cester, Ferrar of St. David's, Latimer of Worcester, Ridley to Stirling castle ; and when the disputes of parties in ito of London, and Cranmer archbishop of Canterbury. Gar country rendered this a somewhat dangerous residence, sle diner, bishop of Winchester and lord chancellor, was Mary's was carried to Inchmahome, a sequestered island in the chief minister till his death in November, 1555, after which lake of Monteith, where she remained about two years. In the direction of affairs fell mostly into the hands of cardinal the meantime a treaty of marriage had been concluded Pole, who after Cranmer's deposition was made archbishop of between her and the dauphin Francis; and in terms of the Canterbury; but the notorious Bonner, Ridley's successor treaty it was resolved she should be sent into France to be in the see of London, has the credit of having been the educated at the French court, until the nuptials could be principal instigator of these atrocities, which, it may be re. solemnized. Accordingly in the fifth year of her age she marked, so far from contributing to put down the reformed was taken to Dumbarton, where she was put on board the doctrines, appear to have had a greater effect in disgusting French fleet; and setting sail towards the end of July, 1948, the nation with the restored church: than all other causes she was, after a tempestuous voyage, landed on the 14th of together.

August at Brest, whence she proceeded by easy stages to At the same time that the new opinions in religion were the palace at St. Germaine-en-Laye. At every town in her thus attempted to be extinguished by committing the progress she was received with all the honours due to ber bodies of those who believed in them io the flames, the royal rank, and as a mark of respect and joy the prisons queen gave a further proof of the sincerity of her own faith were thrown open and the prisoners set free. by restoring to the church the tenths and first-fruits, with Soon after her arrival at her destination Mary was placed all the rectories, glebe-lands, and tithes that had been an with the French king's own daughters in one of the first nexed to the crown in the times of her father and brother. convents of the kingdom, where she made such rapid proShe also re established several of the old religious houses, gress in the acquisition of the literature and accomplishand endowed them as liberally as her means enabled her. ments of the age, that when visiting her in the end of the

Tired both of the country and of his wife, Pbilip left year 1550, her mother, Mary of Guise, with her Scottish England, in the beginning of September, 1555, and con- attendants, burst into tears of joy. She did not however tinued absent for about a year and a half. The bond remain long in this situation. Perceiving the bent of her however by which this marriage attached the English court mind to the society and occupations of a nunnery, which to Spain and the Empire remained the same as ever; and did not accord with the ambitious projects entertained by when, after a short cessation of hostilities, war recommenced her uncles of Lorraine, they soon brought her to the in the spring of 1557 between Spain and France, Mary was court, which, as Robertson observes, was one of the prevailed upon to join the former against the latter power. politest but most corrupt in Europe. Here Mary became The principal consequence of this step, in so far as this the envy of her sex, surpassing the most accomplished in country was concerned, was the loss of the only remaining the elegance and fluency of her language, the grace and English continental possession, the town and territory of liveliness of her movements, and the charm of her whole Calais, which surrendered to the duke of Guise, in January, manner and behaviour. The youthful Francis, to whom sbe 1558, after a siege of a few days. This event, which was was betrothed, and was soon to be united in wedlock, was regarded as a national disgrace worse than any mere loss, about her own age, and they had been playmates from early excited the bitterest feelings of dissatisfaction with the years: there appears also to have grown up a mutual afree policy of the court; and Mary herself is said never to have tion between them; but the dauphin bad little of her viverecovered from the blow. Some ineffectual efforts were city, and was altogether considerably her inferior both in made to retaliate upon France by force of arms; but at last mental endowments and personal appearance. The marnegotiations for a peace between the three belligerent riage, which took place on the 24th of April, 1558, was powers were opened at Cambray, in the midst of which celebrated with great pomp; and when the dauphin, taking queen Mary died, worn out with bodily and mental suffer- a ring from his finger, presented it to the cardinal Bourbou, ing, on the 17th of November, 1558, in the forty-third year archbishop of Rouen, who, pronouncing the benediction, of ner age and the sixth of her reign. She is affirmed to placed it on the finger of the lovely and youthful bride, the have said on her deathbed, that if her breast should be vaulted roof of the cathedral rung with the shouts am opened after her decease, Calais would be found to be written congratulations of the assembled multitude. on her heart. Mary left no issue, and was succeeded on the The solemnities being over, the married pair retired to throne by her half-sister Elizabeth. [ELIZABETH.]

one of their princely retreats for the summer ; but that MARÝ STUART, queen of Scotland, was born on the season was hardly gone when, a vacancy having oecurred on 7th of December, 1542. She was the third child of king the throne of England by the death of Queen Mary, claims James V. of Scotland, by his wife Mary of Lorraine, were put forth on behalf of the queen of Scots through ber daughter of the duke of Guise, who had previously borne grandmother, who was eldest daughter of King Henry VII her husband two sons, both of whom died in infancy. A of England; and notwithstanding Elizabeth had ascended report prevailed that Mary too was not likely to live; but the throne, and was, like her sister Mary (both daughter being unswaddled by her nurse at the desire of her anxious of King Henry VIII.), queen both de facto and by the mother, in presence of the English ambassador, the latter declaration of the parliament of England, yet this claim wrote to his court that she was as goodly a child as he had for the Scottish princess was made and continued to le seen of her age. At the time of her birth her father lay sick urged with great pertinacity by her ambitious uncles the in the palace of Falkland; and in the course of a few days princes of Lorraine. On every occasion on which the after he expired, at the early age of thirty, his death being dauphin and dauphiness appeared in public, they were hastened by distress of mind occasioned by the defeats ostentatiously greeted as the king and queen of England; which his nobles had sustained at Fala and Solway Moss. the English arms were engraved upon their plate, emJames was naturally a person of considerable energy and broidered on their banners, and painted on their furniture; vigour both of mind and body, but previous to his death he and Mary's own favourite device at the time was, the two fell into a state of listlessness and despondency, and after his crowns of France and Scotland, with the motto Aliamque decease it was found that he had made no provision for the moratur, meaning that of England. Henri II. died in care of the infant princess, or for the administration of the July, 1559, and in September of the same year Francis was government. The ambitious Beatoun seized this opportu. solemnly crowned at Rheims. Mary was now at the height nity, and producing a testament which he pretended was of her splendour; it was doomed however to be coly of that of the late king, immediately assumed the office and sort continuance. In June, 1560, her mother died; and title of regent. The fraud was soon discovered; but by in December of the same year, her husband, who had been the haste and imprudence of the regent Arran and Henry wasting away for some months, expired. By this latter VIII. of England, who wished a marriage agreed to between event, Catherine de' Medici rose again into power in the his son and the young queen, Beatoun regained his influence French court, and Mary, who did not relish being second in the country; and on the 9th of September, 1543, Mary where she had been the first, immediately determined on was crowned by the archbishop, who was also immediately quitting France and returning to her native country. afterwards appointed lord high chancellor of the kingdom. The queen of England however interposed; and because He had even the address to win over the regent Arran to Mary would not abandon all claim to the English thro his views, both political and religious; and thus the French refused to grant her a free passage, being moved to this


piece of discourtesy not less perhaps by, envy than by This popularity however was the result of adventit10449 jealousy.. Mary notwithstanding resolved to go, and at circumstances only. There existed no real sympathy of lengtlı, after repeated delays, still lingering on the soil where opinion between Mary and the great body of her people ; fortune had smiled upon her, she reached Calais. Here and whatever led to the manifestation of her religious senshe bade adieu to her attendants, and sailed for Scotland;timents dissolved in the same degree the fascination which but as long as the French coast remained in view, she con- her other qualities had created. It is in this way we may tinued involuntarily to exclaim,· Farewell, France! Fare- account for the assistance given to Darnley in the assasWell, beloved country!' She landed at Leith on the 19th sination of Rizzio—an attendant on Mary, who seems to August

, 1561, in the 19th year of her age, and after an have come in place of Chatelard. The latter was a French absence from Scotland of nearly 13 years. She was now, in poet who sailed in Mary's retinue when she came over the language of Robertson, 'a stranger to her subjects, with from the Continent; and having gained the queen's attenout experience, without allies, and almost without a friend.' | tion by his poetical effusions, he proceeded, in the indul

A great change had taken place in Scotland since gence of a foolish attachment for her, to a boldness and Mary was last in the country. The Roman Catholic reli- audacity of behaviour which demanded at last the intergion was then supreme; and under the direction of cardinal position of the law, and he was condemned and executed. Beatoun the Romish clergy displayed a fierceness of into- Rizzio, a Piedmontese by birth, came to Edinburgh in the lerance which seemed to aim at nothing short of the utter train of the ambassador from Savoy, a year or so before extirpation of every seed of dissent and reform. The same Chatelard's execution. He was skilled in music, had a causes however which gave strength to the ecclesiastics gave polished and ready wit, and, like Chatelard, wrote with strength also, though more slowly, to the great body of the ease in French and Italian. His first employment at court people; and at length, after the repeated losses of Floddon was in his character of a musician; but Mary soon advanced and Fala, and Solway Moss and Pinkey,-- which, by the him to be her French secretary; and in this situation lie fall of nearly the whole lay nobility and leading men of the was conceived to possess an intluence over the queen which kingdom, brought all classes within the intluence of public was equally hateful to Darnley and the Reformers, though events,—the energies, physical and mental, of the entire on very different grounds. Both therefore concurred in nation were drawn out, and under the guidance of the his destruction, and he was assassinated accordingly. Darnreformer Knox expended themselves with the fury of ley afterwards disclaimed all concern in the conspiracy ;: awakened indignation upon the whole fabric of the antient but it was plain the queen did not believe and could not. religion. The work of destruction was just completed, and forgive him; and having but few qualities to secure her the Presbyterian government established on the ruins of regard, her growing contempt of him terminated in disgust.. the Roman Catholic, when Mary returned to her native in the mean time the well-known earl of Bothwell was, land. She knew little of all this, and had been taught rapidly advancing in the queen's favour, and at length no in France to shrink at the avowal of Protestant opinions : business was concluded, no grace bestowed, without his. her habits and sentiments were therefore utterly at variance assent and participation. Meanwhile also Mary bore a with those of her subjects; and, nurtured in the lap of ease, son to Darnley; and after great preparations for the event, she was wholly unprepared for the shock which was inevi- the baptism of the young prince was performed according tably to result from her being thrown among them. to the rites of the Romish church. Darnley himself was

Accordingly the very first Sunday after her arrival she soon after seized with the smallpox, or some dangerous discommanded a solemn mass to be celebrated in the chapel of temper, the nature and cause of which are not very clear. the palace; and, as might have been expected, an uproar He was at Glasgow when he was taken ill, baving retired ensued, the servants of the chapel were insulted and abused, thither to his father somewhat bastily and unexpectedly and had not some of the lay nobility of the Protestant party Mary was not with him, nor did she visit him for a fortinterpuse!, the riot might have become general. The next night. After a short stay they returned to Edinburgh Sunday Knox had a thundering sermon against idolatry, and together, when Darnley was lodged, not in the palace of in his discourse he took occasion to say that a single mass Holyrood, as heretofore, but in the house of the Kirk of was, in his estimation, more to be feared than ten ihousand Field, a mansion standing by itself in an open and solitary armed men. Upon this, Mary sent for the reformer, desir- part of the town. Ten days after, the house was blown up ing to have an interview with him. The interview took by gunpowder, and Darnley and his servants buried in the place, as well as one or two subsequent ones from a like ruins. Whether Mary knew of the intended murder is not cause; but the only result was to exhibit the parties more certain, and different views of the circumstances have been plainly at variance with each other. In one of these fruit- taken by different historians. The author of the horrid deed less conferences the young queen was bathed in tears was Bothwell, and the public voice was unanimous in his before his stern rebukes. Her youth however, her beauty reprobation. Bothwell was brought before the privy-council and accomplishmerts, and her affability, interested many in for the crime; but in consequence of the shortness of the her favour; and as slie had from the first continued the notice, Lennox, his accuser, did not appear. The trial government in the hands of the Protestants, the general nevertheless proceeded, or rather the verdict and sentence; peace of the country remained unbroken.

for, without a single witness being examined, Bothwell was, A remarkable proof of the popular farour which she had acquitted. He was upon this not only continued in all his won, appeared in the circunstances attending her marriage intiuence and employments, but he actually attained the with Darnley. Various proposals had been made to her great end which he had in view by the perpetration of the from different quarters; but at length she gave up all foul act. This was no other than to marry the queen herthoughts of a foreign alliance, and her affections became self, which he did in three months after; having in the fixed on her cousin Henry Stuart, lord Darnley, the youthful interval met the queen, and carried her off a prisoner. to dis heir of ibe noble house of Lennox, to whom she was united castle of Dunbar, and also raised a process of divorce against on Sunday, 29th July, 1565, the ceremony of marriage the lady Bothwell, his wife, on the ground of consanguinity, being performed in the chapel of Holyrood-house, accord- and got a decree in the cause just nine days before the ing to ihe rites of the Romish church. Whether the queen marriage. Before the marriage, also, Mary created Bottom had any right to choose a husband without consent of par- well duke of Orkney; and the marriage itself was solenaliament, was in that age, as Robertson observes, a matter nized at Holyrood-house by Adam Bothwell, bishop of of some dispute ; but that she had no right to confer upon Orkney, according to the forms both of the Romish and him, by her private authority, the title and dignity of king, Protestant religions. (BOTHWELL.] or by a simple proclamation invest him with the character Public indignation could no longer be restrained. The of a sovereign, was beyond all doubt: yet so entirely did she nobles rose against Bothwell and Mary, who fled before possess the favourable regard of the nation, that notwith an armed and indignant people from fortress to fortress. standing the clamours of the malecontents, her conduct in At length, after they had collected some followers, a pitched this respect produced no symptom of general dissatisfaction. battle near Carbery Hill was about to ensue, when Mary The queen's marriage was particularly obnoxious to Queen abandoned Bothwell, and threw herself on the mercy of her Elizabeth, whose jealous eye had never been withdrawn subjects. They conducted her first to Edinburgh, and from her rival. Knox also did not look favourably on it. thence to the castle of Lochleven, where, as slie siill perNevertheless the current of popular opi ran decidedly sisted to regard Both well as lier husband, it was determined in Mary's favour, and it was even remarked that the pros she should at once abdicate in favour of the prince her son perous situation of her affairs began to work some change James Instruments of abdication to that effect were in favour of her religion.

accordingly prepared, and she was at last constrained to

affix her signature to them; upon which the prince was shores for 35 miles; and by the state of Delaware, solemnly crowned at Stirling, 29th July, 1567, when little extends 36 miles along its northern and 91 miles along as more than a year old. Mary continued a prisoner at Loch- eastern boundary. Pennsylvania forms the whole northern leven; but by the aid of friends, in less than twelve months boundary of this state, for 200 miles, along the parallel of she effected her escape, and collected a considerable 39° 42'. The western portion of Maryland is divided fr. army. The battle of Langside ensued, where she was com. Virginia by a straight line running north and south for pletely routed; upon which she fled towards Galloway, and about 36 miles, which constitutes the western boundary. he ibence passed into England, hoping to secure the favour of of Maryland. On the south, where it also borders on Vir Elizabeth. In this however she was mistaken. Elizabeth ginia, the Potomac river, with its numerous windings and refused her an audience, but declared her readiness to act large astuary, forms the boundary-line for 320 miles. The as umpire between her and her subjects. Mary would not surface is calculated to be 10,000 square miles, or somewhat yield to this, or consent to be regarded in any other light less than double the area of Yorkshire. ihan as queen of Scotland. The consequence was, that Surface and Soil. The country east of Chesapeake Bay being now in the hands of her great rival, Elizabeth con- has a level surface as far north as Chester Bay, where ii trived to detain her a captive in her dominions till the begins to be undulating, and towards the boundary of Pennend of the year 1586,-a period of about nineteen years, - sylvania isolated hills make their appearance. The soil is vewhen she was accused of being accessary to Babington's nerally thin and sandy, but tolerably well cultivated. Along conspiracy against the queen of England. To try this the shores both of the Atlantic and Chesapeake Bay marshy accusation a commission was appointed by Elizabeth, but tracts of some extent occur. The largest is the Cypress Mary refused to acknowledge its jurisdiction. 'I came into Swamp, near the northern extremity of Sinepuxent Bay, a the kingdom,' she said, 'an independent sovereign, to im- shallow arm of the sea, separated from the ocean by a ridge plore the queen's assistance, not to subject myself to her of low sand-hills, which however are intersected by some authority. Nor is my spirit so broken by past misfortunes, channels which form a communication between the bay and or so intimidated by present dangers, as to stoop to any- the ocean. Cypress Swamp partly belongs to Delaware, and thing unbecoming a crowned head, or that will disgrace the is wooded. Along the eastern side of Chesapeake Bay ancestors from whom I am descended, or the son to whom several indentations occur, forming harbours for vessels of I leave my throne. If I must be tried, princes alone can moderate size, as Pocomoke Bay, Fishing Bay, Choptank try me: they aro my peers; and the queen of England's Bay, and Chester Bay. There are also several islands besubjects, however noble, are of a rank inferior to mine. longing to Maryland in Chesapeake Bay, of which the Ever since my arrival in this kingdom I have been confined largest is Kent Island. as a prisoner. Its laws never afforded me protection : let The country on the opposite shore of Chesapeake Bay is them not be perverted now, to take away my life.' Deluded of the same description, but rather less fertile, its surface however by the pretext that she would thus vindicate her being mostly composed of a quartzose sand, without a suficharacter, Mary consented to be tried. The commission cient quantity of clay to render it productive. But there accordingly proceeded : Mary was condemned, and, on are some productive tracts of considerable extent, as in the Wednesday the 8th of February, 1587, beheaded at Fother- neighbourhood of Annapolis. North of the river Pataprco ingay castle, in the 45th year of her age. When about the country along the Chesapeake Bay is undulating, and to enter the great hall which was prepared for her exe possessed of a greater degree of natural fertility. About cution, she was allowed to stop and take farewell of twenty miles from the shore the country rises into bills, the master of her household, Sir Andrew Melville, whom which extend westward to the foot of the Blue Ridge, a her keepers had not suffered to come into her presence part of the Appalachian range, a distance of about funy for some weeks before. Melville kissed her hand, and miles. In this hilly tract the fertility of the soil varies kneeling down before her with tears in his eyes, declared greatly; the extremes of fertility and sterility are frequently this was the heaviest hour of his life. Not so to me,' found in a very limited space. The country west of 77° 30' said Mary: ‘I now feel, my good Melville, that all this W. Jong. is mountainous, being traversed from south to world is vanity. When you speak of me hereafter, say that north by six or seven of the ranges which compose the I died firm in my faith, willing to forgive my enemies, con- Appalachian system. The valleys which are enclosed by scious that I never disgraced my native country, and re- these ridges are generally wide and fertile; they are from joicing in the thought that I had always been true to France, 500 to 800 feet above the level of the sea. The ranges the land of my happiest years. Tell my son' and here themselves are rather narrow, but they rise to an eleration she burst into a flood of tears, overcome by her feelings of from 2000 to 2500 feet. when she thought of her only child, the son of whom she Rivers. — The Potomac rises within the Appalachian had been so proud in his infancy, and whom she still loved Mountains, with two branches: the northern branch rises notwithstanding his coldness and ingratitude, - Tell my in 39° 12' N. lat., on the eastern declivity of the Backbone son, I thought of him in my last moments

, and that I said 1 Range, and runs in a valley in a north-eastern direction never yielded, by word or deed, to aught that might lead to thirty miles, when it suddenly turns sonth-east, and breaks his prejudice: tell him to remember his unfortunate parent; through two chains of mountains in about ten miles of its and may he be a thousand times more happy and prosperous course; it then runs again north-east to Cumberland, and than she ever was.' [ELIZABETH; James I. of England.] has a course of twenty miles in a valley; deflecting She died professing the religion in which she had been again to the south-east, it traverses a mountain range, and brought up, and to her adherence to which many of her twenty miles below Cumberland it is joined by the South miseries may be traced.

Branch, which rises in the centre of Virginia, about 35' 25' For further particulars concerning Mary, and the love- N. lat., and runs north-east for about 100 miles in a valley letters, &c. which she is said to have written to Bothwell, enclosed, between the Alleghany and Kittatinny chains, we must refer to the writers who have minutely discussed before it unites with the northern branch. After thus the events of Mary's life. These writers are not few in junction the Potomac continues to flow in an eastern direcnumber, from the time of Buchanan and Knox on the one tion through mountain ranges with great rapidity, until hand, and Lesley, bishop of Ross, on the other, down to the it turns south-east, and before it breaks through the Blue present day, when Mr. Tytler’s ‘History of Scotland' is in Ridge, the most eastern chain of the Appalachian system, course of issuing from the press. We may notice however is joined from the south by the Shenandoah, the largest Jebb's works on the subject, Anderson's Collections,' of its atiluents, which rises in Virginia, near 3* N. lai, Goodall's “Examination,' Tytler's · Enquiry,' Whittaker, and flows over limestone rocks, in a wide and fertile varier Laing, and Chalmers, and the 'Life of Mary,' by Henry between the Kittatinny and Blue Ridge, for about 1.30 Glassford Bell, which forms vol. 24 of Constable's · Mis- miles. The united stream passes through the Blue Rrige cellany."

at Harper's Ferry, by a gap which has all the appearance MARY, wife of William III. (William III.)

of being the effect of a violent disruption in the continuity MARYBOROUGH. (Queen's County.]

of the mountain-chain. The river now enters the plaja MARYLAND, one of the United States of North Ame- country, through which it flows in a south-east directon, rica, lies between 38° 3' and 39° 42' N. lat. and 75° 10' and with rather à rapid course: the last falls occur , tew 79 25' W. long. It is divided into two portions by Chesa- miles above Georgetown, to which place the tide ascends.

ike Bay and the Susquehanna river. That portion which Below the head of tide-water the Potomac becomes a deep ist of the bay is bounded on the south by Virginia for 15 and wide river, and, passing Washington and Alexandra, s; on the east by the Atlantic Ocean, which washes its it has a general east-south-east course to the Chesapeake

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Bay, which it enters in 30° N. lat. At the falls above but it had not yet reached the coal region west of CumGeorgetown it is ten feet deep, and at Alexandria three berland. The difficulties in carrying the canal over the fathoms; so that vessels of any burden can ascend to the mountain-ridges suggested the construction of a railroal, latter place, and large vessels as far as Washington navy- which begins at Baltimore, and in 1834 was finished as far yard. The whole course of the river exceeds 320 miles: as Harper's Ferry; it is still in progress, but we are not large boats ascend it 50 or 60 miles above Harper's Ferry, informed how far it has advanced westward. Chesapeake and smaller ones much higher.

Bay is united by a canal to Delaware River. This canal The Patuxent, the second largest river, rises on the east begins in Maryland, on the Elk river, which flows into the ern border of the hilly country, in 39° 20' N. lat. Its general most north-eastern corner of Chesapeake Bay, at some discourse varies between south-east and south, and it flows tance south of Elkton, and runs about sixteen miles to the about 100 miles; towards its mouth it becomes a bay, from Delaware river, where it terminates some miles south of two to three miles wide. It is navigable for vessels of 250 tons Newcastle. It is calculated for sloop navigation, and bas to Nottingham, forty-six miles from its outlet, and boats been more expensive than other canals, in consequence of ascend fourteen miles higher, to Queen Anne's Town. a deep cut of about seventy feet for a considerable dis

The Patapsco forms the harbour of Baltimore. This river tance. A railroad connecting Baltimore with York in likewise rises in the eastern portion of the hilly region, Pennsylvania is in progress; when terminated it will be 76 north-west of the source of the Patuxent; after a course miles long. A branch of the Chesapeake and Ohio railof about thirty miles in an east-south-east direction, it falls road runs to Washington; it is 33 miles long. over a ledge of rocks, and before it enters Chesapeake Bay Political Division and Towns.—Maryland is divided into it widens into an estuary ten or twelve miles in length. nineteen counties, of which eight are situated on the peninVessels of 600 tons can sail to Fell's Point, the lower har- sula between Chesapeake and Delaware bays. The capital bour of Baltimore, and boats may ascend to Elkridge Land- and seat of government is Annapolis (ANNAPOLIS), but the ing, eight miles above Baltimore.

most commercial town is Baltimore. (BALTIMORE.) Other The Susquehanna river traverses the northern part of places of some importance are, Fredericktown, near the foot Maryland for fifteen miles, before it falls into Chesapeake of the Blue Ridge, with 5000 inhabitants and a considerable Bay.

trade in the produce of the country, it being situated on the Climate.-The climate is rather mild in the level part of turnpike road to Wheeling; Cumberland on the Potomac, the country, but the winter is severe enough to block up in the centre of the mountain-region, has 3000 inhabitants, the harbour of Baltimore with ice for some weeks. In this who carry on trade in iron, lead, and coal. In the eastern town the range of the thermometer is from 9° to 92°; the districts the largest town is Easton, with 1500 inhabitants mean annual temperature exceeds 53°, being about three de- and some commerce. Chester and Snowhill are still less grees higher than that of London. In the level and hilly dis- important. tricts the summer-heat is modified by sea-breezes; but in the Education.—The institutions for the education of the valleys between the mountains it is frequently insupport. bigher classes are rather numerous. As to those in Baltiable. These valleys experience very severe winters, being more, see BALTIMORE, vol. iii., p. 310. There are also St. from 500 to 800 feet above the sea level. The prevailing John's College at Annapolis, and Mount St. Mary's College winds blow from north-west and south-east. Rain is rather in Frederick county. The schools for the lower classes are abundant, the mean annual fall amounting to about forty also numerous, and the State has granted considerable inches, and it occurs nearly in equal proportions throughout sums for their support. the year. Drought is rare.

Manufactures are rather numerous, but chiefly concenProductions.-Wheat, Indian corn, and tobacco are trated in the neighbourhood of Baltimore. The principal chictly cultivated; and rye, oats, and barley less exten- articles made are iron utensils, woollen and cotton goods, sively. Vegetables of various kinds are abundant. The hats, paper, ropes, leather, sugar, and tobacco. Vessels are common fruits of England, as apples, pears, plums, and built at Baltimore and Annapolis. peaches, succeed in most places, and are of good quality. Commerce.-The maritime commerce is almost entirely Hemp and flax are raised to a considerable extent in the in the hands of the inhabitants of Baltimore, Annapolis and upper valleys. The whole country was originally covered Easton having only a small portion of it. The exports conwith a dense forest, of which a considerable part still sist of flour, wheat, rye, and Indian corn, flax-seed and flaxremains, composed of a great variety of trees, especially seed oil, salt beef and pork, butter, hog's lard, whiskey, oak, hickory, ash, walnut, pine, and the tulip-tree. Along lumber, and a considerable quantity of tobacco, which is the coasts of the Atlantic and the adjacent swamps a wild greatly esteemed in the European market. The imports grape grows, the fruit of which yields a pleasant wine. are colonial merchandise from the West Indies, wines and

The common domestic animals succeed well in Maryland. spirituons liquors, tea and spices, hardware and some other The wild animals have nearly disappeared from the plains, manufactured goods. The value of the imports from 1st but in the forests on the mountains wolves, bears, and deer of October, 1832, to the 30th of September, 1833, amounted are still found. The wild turkey is still seen in the western to 5,437,057 dollars, and the exports to 4,062,467. This districts. The land-tortoise is also common. Fish is abun- commerce employed 156,323 tons of shipping, of wbich dant, especially in the Potomac.

83,643 entered the ports, and 72,680 cleared out. TwoThe principal minerals are coal and limestone. Coal thirds of this amount of shipping belonged to the United does not occur to the eastward of Cumberland, but west of States, and the remainder were foreign vessels. The shipthat town it is abundant. It is found in beds which vary ping of Maryland is more than 80,000 tons, of which nearly in thickness from one inch to several inches, and sometimes 50,000 belong to Baltimore. ten feet. Limestone occurs in the whole range of the History.-Maryland was first settled as a place of refuge mountains, and is used for different purposes; sometimes for the persecuted Roman Catholics of England by Lord Balit supplies a good building-marble. Iron-ore is met with in timore BALTIMORE, LORD] in 1634, when 200 Roman Cathoseveral places, and there are also indications of copper and lies established themselves at St. Mary's, and the country lead.

received the name of Maryland from Henrietta Maria, the Inhabitants. The native tribes have long since disap- wife of Charles I. The numbers of settlers soon increased, not peared in Maryland. The present population consists of only by emigration from England, but also by the addition of whites and negroes. In 1820 it was composed of 260,222 non-conformists from New England and Virginia. During whites, 39,730 free people of colour, and 107,398 slaves: in the commonwealth the oppression of the Catholics retardei all, of 107.350 individuals. In 1830 it consisted of 343,320 the growth of Maryland, though it enjoyed a more liberal confree people, whites and coloured, and of 102,480 slaves; or stitution than the other colonies. In 1699 the seat of governof 446,200 suuls. Since the importation of slaves into the ment was fixed at Annapolis, where it has ever since remained. United States bas ceased, Maryland supplies slaves for the The constitution of the state was adopted in 1776, and has market of the southern states,

since been often amended. The legislative body consists oi Routs and Canuls.-A turnpike-roadl has been made two assemblies, a senate and house of delegates. The acroes the country from Baltimore to Haterstown, and members of the senate, fisteen in number, are chosen by forty thence to Cumberland and Wheeling in Virginia. The electors. These electors, who are two for each county, and Chesapeake and Ohio canal is to connect Georgetown in one for each of the cities of Annapolis and Baltimore, the district of Ci lumbia with Pitt-burg on the Ohio, in are chosen by the citizens, and elect the senators by ballot Pennsylvania. It chietly follows the course of the Potomac, out of their own body, or from the mass of citizens. The and in 1834 one hundred and ninety miles were completed, senators serve for five years. The members of {he house of

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