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"He took the human body, and through sin destroyed sin; who is grieved for us, and bears our infirmities..... for all the people of the For earth, that is, for the whole human race. he is the Saviour of all men, and chiefly of the faithful; and he is the propitiation for our sins, and not for ours only, but for the whole world."Vol. 3. p. 1044.
""Out of the heart proceed evil thoughts, murders, adulteries, fornications, thefts, false witness, blasphemies; these are the things which defile a man; but to eat with unwashen hands, defileth not a man (c);' Evil thoughts, he says, proceed from be the heart; and from this expression they may refuted, who think that thoughts are sent by the devil, and do not arise from our own will. The devil may be the promoter and inflamer of bad thoughts; he cannot be the author of them,"Vol. 4. part 1. p. 69.
"The Son of man came to give his life a ransom for many (d),' when he took the form of a servant, that he might shed his blood for the : world. He did not say to give his soul a redemption for all, but for many, that is for those who should be willing to believe."-Vol. 4. part 1. p. 93.
"He gave them free-will; he gave them the liberty
(f) Matt, c, 15. v, 19, 20. (d) Matt. c. 20. v. 28,
liberty of their own mind, and that every one might live, not under the absolute command of God, but under his own direction; that is, not by necessity, but by will, that there might be room for virtue, that we might be distinguished from other animals, while, after the example of God, it was permitted us to do what we will. Whence both the judgement against sinners is equitable, and a just reward is given to the holy or just."Vol. 4. part 1. p. 151.
"God alone is incapable of sin; other beings, having free-will (in which respect man was made after the image and likeness of God), may turn their will either way."-Vol. 4. part 1. p. 159.
"What does that reasoning of the Apostle mean, in his Epistle to the Romans; 'What shall we say then? Is there unrighteousness with God? God forbid!' down to that passage where he says 'Except the Lord of Sabaoth had left us a seed, we had been as Sodoma, and been made like unto Gomorrha (e).' Indeed the whole Epistle to the Romans stands in need of explanation, and is involved in so great obscurities, that to understand it we have need of the Holy Ghost, who dictated these things by the Apostle; but particularly this passage, in which some, wishing to preserve the justice of God, say, that, from antecedent
(e) Rom. c. 9. v. 14-29.
antecedent causes, Jacob was chosen in the womb of Rebecca, and Esau rejected (ƒ): as Jeremiah also, and John the Baptist, are chosen in the womb (g), and the Apostle Paul himself is predestinated to the Gospel before he is born. But nothing satisfies us, except what has the authority of the church, and what we do not scruple to say publicly in the church....... Let us therefore speak as well as we can, and, following the steps of the Apostle's will, let us not depart from his sentiments a point, or the breadth of a finger, as the saying is. He had wept above, and had called upon the Holy Spirit to witness his sorrow and conscience, that his brethren and kinsmen according to the flesh, that is, the Israelites, had not received the Son of God: to whom pertaineth the adoption, and the glory, and the covenants, and the giving of the law, and the service of God, and the promises (h):' from whom also Christ himself was born according to the flesh, of the Virgin Mary; and he is so tortured by the constant grief of heart, that he wishes himself to be accursed from Christ; that is, to perish alone, that all the nation of the Israelites might not perish. And because he had said this, he immediately foresaw a question which would be brought
(ƒ) Gen. c. 25.
(g) Jer. c. 1. Luke, 1.
(h) Rom. c. 9. v. 4.
brought against him. What then do you say? Have all who are of Israel perished? And how have you yourself, and the rest of the Apostles, and an infinite multitude of the Jewish people, received Christ the Son of God? Which he thus solves. In the Holy Scriptures Israel is mentioned in a twofold manner, and is divided into two sons; into one which is according to the flesh, and into another which is according to the promise and the Spirit. Abraham had two sons, Ishmael and Isaac; Ishmael, who was born according to the flesh, did not receive the inheritance of his father: Isaac, who was born of Sarah, according to the promise, is called the Seed of God. For it is written, In Isaac shall thy seed be called (i);' that is, those who are the sons of the flesh, are not the sons of God; but those who are the sons of promise, they are reckoned in the seed. And we prove that this happened not only in Ishmael and Isaac, but also in the two sons of Rebecca, Esau and Jacob, one of whom was rejected, and the other chosen. And he says all this, that he inay shew that the people of the Jews were rejected in the two elder brothers, Ishinael and Esau; but that in the two younger, Isaac and Jacob, the Gentiles were chosen, or those of the Jews who were about to believe in Christ. And because,
(i) Gen. c. 21. v. 12.
because, in wishing to prove this, he had proposed the testimony of twins at their birth, Esau and Jacob, of whom it is written, The elder shall serve the younger (k);' and in Malachi we read, I loved Jacob, and I hated Esau;' according to his manner, he proposes and discusses a collateral question; and having solved it, he returns to that which he had begun to discuss. If Esau and Jacob were not yet born, and had done neither good nor evil, so as either to please or offend God, and their election and rejection do not shew the merits of the individuals, but the will of him who chooses and rejects; what then shall we say Is God unjust, according to what he says to Moses, I will have mercy on whom I will have mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I will have compassion (1) If, says be, we admit this, that God does whatever he wills, and either elects or condemns a person without merit or works, then it is not of him that willeth, nor of him that runneth, but of God that sheweth mercy:' (m) particularly since the same Scripture, that is, the same God, says to Pharaoh, 'Even for this same purpose have I raised thee up, that I might shew my power in thee, and that my name might be declared through all the earth (n).' If this is so, and he pities Israel, and hardens
(k) Gen. c. 25. v. 23. (m) Rom. c. 9. v. 16.
(1) Rom. c. 9. v. 15. (n) Rom. c. 9. v. 17.