Imatges de pàgina


Original Account of the Fire of London. [July; down great store of houses there to One of the Templars, seeing gunpow. stop it, being grown to a great head. der brought, came to the Duke, and Lords of the Privy Council rid about told him it was against the rules and to every place, to get pipes opened charter of the Temple that any

should that they may not want water, as blow that with gunpowder, therefore Lord Chamberlain, Lord Ashley, and desired the Duke to consider of it, others, so that by Wednesday towards with more impertinence ;' upon which the evening we supposed the fire every Mr. Germaine, the Duke's Master of where quenched, excepting that about the Horse, took a good cudgel and Cripplegate, which we hoped well of. beat the young lawyer to the purpose.

No sooner was the Duke come to There is no hopes of knowing who Whitehall but a new alarm—50,000 this lawyer is, but the hope that he French and Dutch" in arms, and the will bring an action of battery against Temple on fire again.' Immediately we Mr. Germaine. About one o'clock the repaired to the Temple again. When fire was quenched, and saved the chawe came there, found a great fire oc- pel and the hall; so the Duke went casioned by the carelessness of the home to take some rest, not having Templars, who would not open the slept above two or three hours from gates to let people in to quench it; Sunday night. The next morning betold the Duke unless there was a bar- ing Thursday, the King went to see rister there they durst not open any

how the fire was, and found it over in door. The Duke found no way of sav- all places. It burnt down to the very ing the Temple Chapel, and the Hall moat of the Tower. They were very by the Chapel, but blowing up the fearful of the Tower, carried out all Paper house in that court, which ex- the gunpowder, and brought out all periment, if it had been used at first, the goldsmiths' money (which was at might have saved a great many houses.k first carried thither), to Whitehall,


houses which were nearest, and by which the fire climbed to go further (the doing whereof at that time might probably have prevented much of the mischief that succeeded), he thought it not safe counsel, and made no other answer than that he durst not do it without the consent of the owners."

h« In the midst of all this calamity and confu on, there was, I know not how, an alarm begun that the French and Dutch, with whom we were now in hostility, were not only landed, but were entering the city. There was, in truth, some days before, great suspicion of those two nations joining; and now that they had been the occasion of firing the town. This report did so terrify, that on a sudden there was such an uproar and tumult, that they ran from their goods, and taking what weapons they could come at, they could not be stopped from falling upon some of those nations whom they usually met, without sense or

The clamour and peril grew so excessive, that it made the whole Court amazed, and they did with infinite pains and great difficulty reduce and appease the people, sending troops of soldiers and guards to cause them to retire into the fields again, where they were watched all this night.”—Evelyn.

1. “About four in the afternoon (Wednesday Sept. 5) it broke out again in the Temple, (it is thought) by a luking spark that had lain concealed ever since the morning, which, happening amoug Paper-buildings, quickly increased, and had baffled two engines, if the blowing up some lodgings had not prevented its diffusion, which was before midnight. The Duke of York was here three or four hours, showing much diligeoce, as he had done in several parts of the city that day, where he had seen, as he said, above a hundred houses blown up."-Letter dated“ Middle Temple, Sept 24, 1666,” in Malcolm, iv. 76.

* To what has been quoted from Evelyn on this poiut may be added a paragraph from the letter-writer of the Temple, showing the great assistance derived from gunpowder. “In pulling down houses, they always began too near the fire, by which they were forced from iheir work ere finished. It was, indeed, almost impossible, after it had made such a large circle, to make a larger round it by any other means than that of blowing up houses, which had been proposed the first day by more experienced persons, then esteemed a desperate cure, but afterwards practised with very good success. For, by putting a barrel of gunpowder, or thereabout, under each house, it was first lift up a yard or two, and then fell down flat, without any dangers to the bystanders.”--Malcolin, iv. 77.

1 Clarendon continues, where we last broke off : “ His (the Lord Mayor's) want of skill was the less wondered at, when it was known afterwards that some gentlemen of the Ioner Temple would not endeavour to preserve the goods which were in the lodgings of absent persons, por suffer others to do it, because, they said, it was against the law to break up any man's chamber,"



1831.] New Churches.-St. Barnabas Chapel, Kensington. 9 above 1,200,0001. The King saw all tecture, which found their claims to Moorfields filled with goods and peo- admiration on very opposite prinple. He told them it was immediate ciples ; the one endeavours to excite from the hand of God, and no plot; attention by a display of ornament, assured them he had examined seve- the other by the harmony of its proral himself which were spoken of upon portions and the simplicity of the suspicion, and found no

decorations. suspect anything of that nature; de- The Chapel, of which a north-west sired them to take no more alarms; view is given in the upper division of he had strength enough to defend the engraving, is situated on the east them from any enemy, and assured side of the Addison road, in the parish them he would, by the grace of God, of St. Mary Abbots, Kensington. It live and die with them; and told them is built of white brick, with stone dresshe would take a particular care of ings, the light tint of the brick harmothem all. 5001. worth of bread he nizing with the hue of the Bath stone. intends to send them to-morrow, and - The plan is not divided into nave next day intends to send them as much and ailes, but gives a parallelogram more, and set out a proclamation in for the body of the Church, with a favour of them." Gresham College projection at each end; that to the is to be the new Exchange, nothing east being a chancel. At the west end remaining in the old Exchange but the and in each of the flanks are porches. statue of him that built it." There is The west front has a façade, ap25,0001. worth of cloth burnt, which proached by a flight of steps, and conwill be well for the wool, and the poor. sisting of three arched entrances dividLord Generalo will be here to-morrow, ed by piers, with attached buttresses and the fleet sets sail from Portsinouth ending in pinnacles ; the central ento-morrow. One of our ships burnt trance has a sweeping cornice, and by the French.

above it the parapet is finished pediThe fire being all within the city, is mentally, and enriched with quaterlooked upon as a judgment to the city.

foils. On the apex is a handsome Griffin, of the Common Council in cross. The lateral arches have square Hereford, has lost 16001. in houses. headed weather cornices ; the parapet The Lord Mayor undone.

above them is horizontal, and decoMy Lord,

rated with quaterfoils as before. In Your Lordship’s most obed' servant, the flanks are windows of a single

Wind. SANDYS. light. Above the porch is a large winTo Lord Viscount Scudamore,

dow of seven lights ; the head of the Homme Lacy, near Hereford.

arch, which is low and obtuse, instead of being occupied by the per

pendicular tracery coeval with this NEW CHURCHES.-No. XXXII. form of arch, is filled with quaterfoil St. BARNABAS’s CHAPEL, KENSING

and cinquefoil tracery fantastically

arranged: the head of the arch is TON. Architect, Vulliamy.

bounded with an ogee canopy crock

etted. The elevation is finished pediTHE accompanying engraving (See mentally, the parapet being pierced the Frontispiece) exhibits two struc- with trefoils. At the angles are pintures in the pointed style of archi- nacles, and in the centre is an open

- This is an interesting and important part of the letter; the judicious address of Charles, who “never said a foolish thing,” pot appearing in other places. The proclamation is printed as a note in Evelyn's Diary, 8vo. edit. vol. ij. p. 272.

A “Sir Tho. Gresham's statue, though fallen from its niche in the Royal Exchange, remained entire, when all those of the Kings since the Conquest were broken to pieces; also the standard in Corohill, and Queen Elizabeth's effigies, with some arms on Ludgate, continued with but little detriment, whilst the vast iron chains of the city streets, hinges, bars, and gates


prisons, were many of them melted and reduced to cinders by the vehement heat.” Evelyn.—The statue of Queen Elizabeth which escaped the fire at Ludgate is the same which now stands looking down Fleet-street, from the east end of St. Dunstan's church.

• George Monk, Duke of Albemarle, wbosé military skill had achieved the Restoration; he was probably generally spoken of as the Lord General, but at this time he was specially commissioned as Commander-in-chief against the Dutch. Gent. Mag. July, 1831.


New Churches.-St. Barnabas Chapel, Kensington. [July, hexagonal turret, ending in a dwarf interior succeed to an exceedingly spire, and finial. The portions which plain outside ; and in this the good have been described, as will be seen by

taste of the architect is shewn. In the engraving, project beyond the body such an instance the spectator, as of the Chapel, which forms a small he proceeds in the contemplation of wing at each side, and is finished with the building, finds his admiration ina parapet pierced as before. At the crease; but not so with a structure angles are octagonal tower-shaped like the present; here he is disapbuttresses broken by strings into five pointed by the contrast which the stories ; they are carried up plain to part of the building last seen affords the parapet, where an open story to that he first viewed. grounded on a basement of quaterfoils The ceiling is horizontal, and diinclosing shields, succeeds; each face vided into compartments corresponof this superstructure is pierced with dent with the windows, by ribs a narrow light, with cinquefoil head, stretching across from wall to wall; over which are quaterfoils and a cor- and again in breadth into three divi. nice; the whole is crowned with a sions, by bands running the whole ribbed hemispherical cupola, ending length of the interior. The principal in a finial which has more of an

ribs are trussed, and spring from Italian than an English character. corbels, the spandrils being pierced

The Aanks are uniform. They are with trefoils. Such a ceiling as this each made into eight divisions by somewhat resembles the flat timber slender buttresses which rise to a ceilings of old churches, and had it cornice, the elevation being finished been constructed of wood, or tinted to with a pierced parapet continued from resemble oak, it would have been the west front; above the buttresses tolerable ; but here the ribs are stoneare pinnacles of a very diminutive and coloured, the pannels being plain insignificant character. Every division plaster. It is therefore intended for an has an obtusely arched window of imitation of stone; but an imitation, three lights, divided into two stories to be correct, should be capable of by a transom, the head occupied by being constructed in the material intersecting tracery and quaterfoils. which it represents; yet such a ceilThe second division from the west ing as this, of stone, would scarcely has a porch, the door-way of which be attempted. The principal ribs are is arched and bounded by a sweeping perfectly horizontal, and only apcornice, the finish a parapet pierced proach to the arch at the side walls, with quaterfoils, pedimental in the where, as before remarked, they are front and horizontal in the flanks; on trussed, and the longitudinal bands the apex is a cross, and at the angles are so slender that if the whole were are buttresses ending in pinnacles. stone it would never stand for a week;

The eastern end corresponds with how absurd then is such an imitation! the western ; a vestry supplies the We may be told the whole is but lath place of the porches, the central win- and plaster; true, it may be so, but dow and the octagon buttresses as it ought at least to bear the semblance before described.

of reality ; it should either represent

stone or wood ceiling, for a lath and The INTERIOR

plaster structure was unknown to our is a large unbroken arca, more re- ancestors, who despised false apsembling a hall than a church, the pearances. The trusses at the ends, gallery at the west end supporting where the design is narrower, are the idea. The architect having be- fantastically ornamented; and over stowed so much ornament on the out- the chancel is some lozenge work of a side of the building, we are led to expect purely modern character. On the an equally ornamented interior ; here centre band are some attempts at orthe spectator is disappointed by find- naments in foliage ; such flimsy things ing a quaker-like plainness. This is in had better be omitted, as the chains the worst possible taste; in an an- of the two chandeliers used for lightcient building a highly enriched out- ing the church have nearly demolished side always leads the spectator to

the two bosses they pass through. a gorgeous display in the interior At the west end is a gallery, the finishings, and he is often agree.

front ornamented with perpendicular ably surprized by finding a splendid tracery, and above it a secondary gal. 1831.] New CHURCHES.- Trinity Chapel, Tottenham. .11 lery, containing the organ in a fine ornaments are of a flimsy character, case, and seats for the charity children. the architect being too fond of piercing

The altar is rather uncommon, in and hollowing out every solid part of being formed of, or in imitation of them, so that instead of their resembstone. The architect has taken an ling the decorations of antiquity, they altar tomb of the fifteenth century have much more the appearance of as his model; it commences with the very pretty toys which are sold by a platform pierced with quarter- Mr. Ackermann and other fancy stafoils, which is surmounted by a pe- tioners. destal, also pierced with quaterfoils This church was built by the parish elaborately enriched, each enclosing with the aid of a grant from the Royal a quadruple flower, the ends being Commissioners of 50001. It will acsimilarly ornamented; the back of commodate 1330 persons, 818 being the pierced work is painted black to in pews and 512 in free seats. The give a false effect of hollowness, which building was commenced in January, only adds a flimsy puerile look to a 1827, and the chapel was consecrated composition which would otherwise on the 8th June, 1830.* be a judicious and handsome design. The screen is very commonplace; it consists of three arches, the centre

Trinity CHAPEL, TOTTENHAM. broader than the others, and like

Architect, Savage. many modern works displaying arches This Chapel may rank among the of a different angle, the centre being best structures in the Pointed style more obtuse than the side ones. which we have met with in the course As a proof of the want of atten- of our surveys. It is situated on the tion to propriety so often visible in west side of the high road at the modern buildings, the altar window is entrance to the village, and not far disfigured by air-traps, the strings for from the well-known Seven Sisters. working which hang down very grace- The materials are brick and stone, fully over the altar screen.

of the same nature as those of the last On each side of the altar are doors

described structure. leading into the vestry; these, as well In the adoption of the early, or as the other entrances, are surrounded

lancet style of architecture, Mr. Saby pannelling somewhat in the car

vage has displayed good taste, and penter's Gothic style.

better taste in keeping, with some The pulpit and reading-desk are alike, exceptions, to one style in his buildand are placed opposite to each other at ing; the contrary practice being a fault a short distance from the altar rails; which in another structure of this they are hexagonal, and not orna- architect we felt bound to deprecate. mented. The font is an octagon ha- The plan shews a nave, or body, with sin, on a pedestal of the same form, side ailes, which at their extremities and closely resembles many in the fall short of the central part of the new churches ; they are probably cast building, making a small chancel at in the same mould. The windows internally are finished bules at that which is opposite.

one extremity, and a space for vestiwith sweeping cornices, a very unusual

The building being in accordance mode of decoration.

with the usual ecclesiastical arrangeUpon the whole this chapel, though ment, the principal front is furthest it is not among the worst, is far from

from the road. This portion of the a good specimen of architecture. The building, which is shewn in the

engraving, may be described as conI take this opportunity of adverting to an error, if it be one, pointed out with much sisting of a centre, guarded at the angry feeling by Mr. Bedford.

It seems

angles by octagonal buttresses, and

two side aisles, which, as observed that I complained of three arches of different angles in one line, and that I represented in describing the plan, recede behind the centre to be more obtuse ihan the the line of the principal elevation, lateral ones ; Mr. Bedford says it is quite The central portion contains the enthe reverse, i. e. the centre is acute, and trance, à simple pointed arch of good the others obtuse. It may lie so, yet the fault, which arose from the juxtaposition For a description of the Church of the of arches of different angles, is not mended Holy Trinity, built in this parish, vide by the correction.

E. 1, C. vol. C. part i. p. 580.


New CHURCHES.—Trinity Chapel, Tottenham. [July,
proportions, above which is a lancet portions, and the chasteness of the
window of three lights; the elevation decorations which it possesses, has an
is finished by a gable, having in the exceedingly pleasing appearance. The
tympanum a circle filled with wheel roof is not sufficiently acute or lofty
tracery, consisting of eight radiating for the style of the Chapel; this has a
mullions ending in arche3. On each bad effect, the more so as the gables
side is a quaterfoil, and on the apex rise to a greater height. The parapet
of the gable a simple but elegant cross. is graduated at the eastern end to con-
The angular buttresses are carried up ceal the clock, and this takes off from
to the spring of the gable in several the bad effect on that side; but the
stories, with loop-hole lights at inter- western gable in particular has, in
vals; the portion which is clear of consequence of the lowness of the
the building is pierced with eight roof, an awkward and incomplete
lancet lights, and finished with a spire appearance.
ribbed at the angles. The side aisles The enclosure in which the Chapel
have each a lancet window of two stands is surrounded with a brick
lights, and are finished with an in- wall, finished with a coping; far better
clining parapet. At the exterior angle than an iron railing, which, by its
on each side, the architect has intro- proximity to the main building, de-
duced a pinnacle utterly at variance stroys the effect of many handsome
with the general style of the buildin str ires,
and of a period when lancet archi-
tecture had entirely disappeared. His

pinnacle is square in plan, and crock- is marked by the same simplicity
etted at the angles—the shaft finished which characterizes the appearance of
with an embattled cornice; in its form the outside. The nave and aisles are
therefore it differs from the other divided by five pointed arches which
spires, which are octagonal, and being spring from piers, to each of which
a copy of the pinnacles of Wykeham's are attached four small columns,
works at Winchester, belongs to the two being carried up above the im-
reign of Richard II., the present post for the purpose of sustaining the
Chapel being in imitation of the archi- trusses of the roof. · The arch is not
tecture of the period of Henry III. sufficiently acute, and the columns
If these obnoxious pinnacles were are too slender for the period, being,
thrown down the front would be in fact, imitations of the architecture
much improved. The flanks are divided of a much later period; but the effect
by pilaster-formed buttresses into is not bad. The roof is sustained on
seven divisions ; the two nearest the oaken trusses, the space between the
ends of the aisles have arched door. rafters and tie beams filled in with
ways and lancet lights above, and the upright divisions with trefoil arched
others have lancet windows of two heads, another portion of Tudor archi-
lights in the style of the west end. tecture. The roof is plastered between
The buttresses end under the parapet, the timbers, which is a senseless mo-
below which is a block cornice com- dern innovation, and would have been
posed of portions of a continuous far better had it been entirely of wood.
series of hollows and rounds. The The trusses rest, as before observed,
clerestory has five lancet windows of on the capitals of the interior columns
three lights each, and is also finished of the principal piers, and the other
with a parapet. The east end agrees with timbers on a bold cornice, applied as
the western already described, except a finish to the walls, the timbers pass-
in regard to the entrance, which is not ing through the upper moulding. The
used here, and in having a dial in lieu of side aisles have similarly formed
the wheel tracery of the opposite side. trusses, which consist of one half of
The piers which divide the several the principal truss; they rest on cor-
lancet windows are worked in brick, bels on the side of the wall, and on
and there is but little stone used in the other on the columns. The
the building. The ornaments roof is partly plastered, as in the
simple and sparingly applied, and centre. A gallery crosses the west
want perhaps the entire boldness of end of the Chapel, which is ap-
works of the thirteenth century, but proached by two staircases in
taken as a whole the building, from lobby formed at the west end. The
the neatness and harmony of its pro- altar screen, occupying the dado of



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