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637 pon the approach of an invading country, as the Ward or Vord Hills of Orkinstantly put to sea,
more north ney were named, who were required, under sound of Papa Stronsa. This lar- the severest penalties, to be constantly on in, which lies due south of Elsness the alert to transmit a signal of alarm to a y, being divided from it by a chan- feet, or to the chain of beacons of which it ague and a half across, must, froin might form a link. Accordingly, to the y, have been selected as the ancient
porth of the small island of Papa Stroosa, a suth of Orkney.
No other situation higher cairn than common, intended as a ave been so eligible for instant em- look-out place, appears, with the evident on into the Northern Ocean ;- which foundations of a building near it, which, no or advantage is even acknowledged at
doubt, was the residence of the watchman esent day, by its being the only har. whose office it was, upoo the fires of Elso the isles of Orkney which is deemed ness being kindled, to instantly warn the revient ope for the prosecution of the
fleet which was anchored in the contiguous Sea Fishery of the Herring.
sound. e site of the ancient Portsmouth of
Dr. Hibbert visited several of the more ey being thus established, che next ob. common wart or ward hills of Orkney, but is to shew through what medium tele
observed the beacon cairns upon them to hic signals, which consisted of beacon- show little inore than discoloration from fire,
were conveyed to the feet thus an- with the exception of one ward hill only, red in the sound of Papa Stronsa.
namely, that of Sanday, which is situated Sa shetland, which yielded a more willing about two miles north of Elsness. Three va dience to Norway,
was frequently in of the cairns on this height were consider?! gue with this power against Orkney, aud
ably vitrified. 2 hostile fleets were often reinforced in the Such is the general history of the vitrified pre loyal province, the intermediate island,
cairns of Orkney, which may serve to set at *mmed Fair Isle, of difficult access except to rest questions which have been agitated for
Jats, was firinly retained by the Orcadians, more than half a century. The first is,
ad converted into their most northerly sig- To what uses or observances is the effect of r.al station. From this site, an aların fire,
vitrification attributable? While the secoud psihich would he first hailed in North Ro- is, To what people is the effect attributable? 5.1.jaldsay, would be answered by its inhabi- In a tone of confidence, therefore, we are
cants kindling a fresh Hame in order that now entitled to reply, - That vitrification the intelligence might spread to Papa Wes
was merely incidental to the fires which 2. tray and Westray on the west, and to San- were kindled upon beacon stations ; and that day on the south. Sanday would propagate
the people who in every country which they the alarm to the fleet which was anchored occupied or colonized, organized systems of in Papa Stronsa, with particulars of the beacon stations, were of Scandinavian origin. number of hostile vessels approaching the That, from the tenth to the fourteenth cenOrcadian shores. These particulars, as we tury, a considerable part of Scotland was are assured by divers writers so late even as overrun by the Scandinavians, under the vathe time of Wallace, were usually signified rious names of Northmen and Danes," who by the number of fires which were lighted; reciprocally became themselves liable to inand hence the many vitrified cairns with vasion from other piratical tribes of the same which the signal station of Elsness in San- northern origin as themselves, and were day now appears studded.
therefore induced to institute systems of In order also to complete the efficiency of beacon fires, in imitation of those with this telegraphic system, every Scandinavian which they had been familiar in Norway. province had its laws whereby watchmen
* See our Review, p. 605. placed at the various wart bills of the
in honour of Minerva, the patroness of Dec. 7. At the meeting of the Royal Athens, and celebrated every three years. Society of Literature, a paper was read, com- They were originally instituted by Erichmunicated by Chevalier Brönsted, on the theus ; and subsequently renewed by Thesubject of Panathenaic Vases, a collection of
seus. The result of M. Brönsted's researches which are now exhibiting in London. The inay be thus shortly summed up. official inscription found on these remarka- 1. The common official formula inscribed ble monuments formed the chief object of
on these vases attention. This inscription has never hi
(ΤΟΝΑΘΕΝΕΘΕΝΑΘΛΩΝ) therto been satisfactorily explained, because merely states, that the monument on which the question has never been considered in it
appears is “ (One) OF THE PRIZES FROM its real extent and bearings, which embrace Athens,” which is strictly conformable to a view of the principal institutions connected the simple language of remote antiquity, and with the Papachebaic laws and festivals. to the oature of the Panathepaic contests, to These festivals or games were anciently held which every Greek was admitted.
(VOL. ci. 2. The inscription had a particular refer- The woodwork has all disappeared: ence to the sacred oil contained in these windows are many, subject to no particis vases, which was the principal object of the arrangement, being merely small eirra contest, and the prominent part of the prize. aud square perforations. Human figures This oil was always, in all Panathenaic alto relievo are frequent on small pulla). games, the produce of the holy trees dedi- and filagree work, imitasiog boozlis 24 cated to Minerva ; and, of course, was not feathers, is perceptible in places. Sane si to be obtained any where but at Athens. the sculptured ornaments look very like the
3. In consequence of the universal creed Corinthian foliage of the ancient archiert. of the Greeks with regard to the sacred olive- The ruins are buried in a thick forest, at trees, and of the oil obtained from them the adjacent country, for leagues, coatairs being exclusively Panathenaic, the Athenian remains of the ancient labours of the people government, and especially the Areopagus- — bridges, reservoirs, monumental isser to whom all legal power in that respect be- tions, &c. The natives say these edics longed- took the greatest care, by issuing were built by the devil." severe laws, by appointing responsible farmers, under annual and monthly control of
THE RIVER QUORRA IN AFRICA. officers specially appointed, to protect and promote the proper culture of the sacred
Whether the river Quorra, which he olive-groves, and to render their produce excited so much attention from the recess profitable to the state.
discoveries of Lander, was known to the as4. The writer, lastly, established the pro- cients, is a problem of much interest, which bability, that among the regulations con
has frequently called forth the speculatise cerning the traffic in the holy oil (for which
of the learned. article there was constant and considerable
At a late Meeting of the Royal Geagtademand at Athens from every country where phical Society, a paper by Col. Leake sa Panathedæa were celebrated), was this in
read on the subject, voticed in p. 418; particular--that none but the victors in which we present a brief analysis. those games should have a right to export
Col. Leake commenced by remarking the the Panathenaic oil to foreign countries. the only passage in history anterior in the The existence of such a law seems to be in time of the Roman empire, from which is harmony with the public rewards granted
may be concluded that the Quorra was then by the slate to Athenian victors in other known, is a description given by Herodotus public games at Olympia, Delphi, Ne- of a journey of discovery undertaken in bis
time by some of the Nasamones, a tribe which dwelt near the Syrtes. An associe
tion having been formed of the chief met e RUINS OF PALENQUE IN SOUTH AMERICA.
this trihe to prosecute discoveries in the The ruins of this ancient city, said to be Libyan Desert, five young men were choses discovered by Lieut.-Col. Galindo, Governor for the adventure; and after having passed of Poten, in Central America ; but which the inhabited region (oixionirn), and the our correspondent Mr. Clarkson had pre- country of wild beasts (Angions), which lay viously noticed in our pages (see p. 351) beyond it, they traversed during nany days extend for more than twenty miles along the great sandy desert in a westerly direction the summit of the ridge which separates the após sé quçov öve jor), until they arrived in country of the wild Maya Indians (included a country inhabited by men of low stature, in the district of Poten) from the state of who conducted them through extensive Chiapas. These, in the words of the disco- marshes (probably a local inundation to a
“must anciently have embraced a river that produced crocodiles, and flowed city and its suburbs. The principal build towards the rising sun. And that this really ings are erected on the most prominent was the Quorra seeins certaia, when it is heights, and to several of them, if not to all, considered, not only that it agrees with the stairs were constructed. From the hollows description thus given, but also that it is beneath, the steps, as well as all the ves- the only river in North Africa wbich does tiges which time has left, are wholly of agree in points. It has been argued, instone and plaster.” The stones of which all deed, that this narrative is a fable, and that the edifices are built, are about eighteen the account of the river was merely picked inches long, nine broad, and two thick, up by these young Nasamones, or by some cemented by mortar, and gradually inclining others, in one of the oases of the deserts, when they form a roof, but always placed But even in this case, a knowledge of its horizontally; the outside eaves are support
existence is thus demonstrated. ed by large stones, which project about two There would be great difficulty, indeed, in feet. These are precisely similar, from the any way to believe that such civilised and description, to the stone-roofed chapels, coininercial people as the Cyrenæan Greeks thred or four in number, at Cashel, Glenda- and Carthaginians should have remained to lough, St. Doologh's, near Dublin, and we the last period of their independence ignobelieve one other, still existing in Ireland.) raut of the Sudán, whence many mose im
639 icles of their commerce were de- Africa so well as they did, their descriptions ecially as we pow know from Den- of the Niger, which are altogether inappliClapperton that no great natural cable to any other river, should not have reats to communication exist on the garded it. It is true that their koowledge ween Fezzan and Bornú. And it of it was imperfect, even as our own has ore improbable that the Egyptians been till within the last few months; and ave been ignorant of the existence they were certainly ignorant of its ultimately a river as the Quorra, when it is in- turning south, and joining the western ocean. ble, from their monuments, that On the contrary, they frequently speak of it rried their arms to a considerable dis- as a “river of the interior," which may be 1 the Sudán ; and an extensive com- understood to mean beginning and ending
intercourse between the two coun- without communication with the sea. And eems on inevitable consequence of this none of them thought it joined the Nile of istance, considering the advanced state Egypt, a magnificent idea especially patroiety and of the arts in Egypt at this nised by the poets, –
-as Claudian, when he
represeuts both the Girrbæi and Garamantes to the Romano, besides that they in- drioking of its waters : ed the learning of the Greeks, the fre
“Hunc bibit insrænis Garamas, domitorque fenecessity of chastising the lawless of the Libyan deserts inevitably led Girrhæus, qui vasta colit sub rupibus antra,
Qui ramos ebeni, qui dentes vellit eburuos.' 2 to make frequent excursions into their itories; and existing monuments abun- But the better informed were aware that this tly prove the extent to which these were was not the case ; even Claudian himself, in fied. In the year 19 of the Christian a graver composition_his poem on the first
for example, Cornelius Balbus triumphed consulship of Stilicho-rejects the idea : Rome for his conquest of the Garamantes ;
“Gir, notissimus amnis <l among numerous places of which repre- Æthiopum, simili mentitus gurgite Nilum." "ntative images were borne in the proces- And it seems most probable that they, for on, Phenania now Fezzan, Garenna uow the most part, thought it was absorbed in iherma, and Cydamus now Gerdames, are one or more great central lakes, of the exisnumerated. Besides which, two several tence of which they were certainly aware, Expeditions are on record of extreme interest having named several, and in particular Lake in this investigation. Their date is uncer- Libya, which appears to be the Tchad. tain, but they are cited by Ptolemy, on the authority of Mariuus of Tyre, and are curiously illustrated by the discoveries of Goverpor Pownall relates that in his time Horneman, Lyon, Denham, and Clapperton. (1778), the men employed in fishing at the
Of the firsi, under the command of Sep- back of Margate Sands, in the Queen's timius Flaccus, it is only related that a three Channel, frequently drew up in their nets 1 months march from the country of the some coarse and rudely-formed earthen ves
Garamantes into that of the Ethiopians was sels, and that it was coipnion to find such accomplished by it. The second, of which pans in the cottages of these fishermen. the particulars are given by Julius Maternus, It was for some time believed that a Roman who accompanied it, was an expedition sent trading vessel, freighted with pottery, had by the king of the Garamantes to reduce his been wrecked bere; but on more particurebellious subjects in Ethiopia, which left larly examining the spot, called by the fisherLeplis Major (now Lebeda, near Tripoli), Pudding-pan Sand," some Roman and after a march of four months arrived at bricks were also discovered, cemented toAgisymba. In both instances the direction gether, so as to prove that they had formed of the route is stated to have been due south, part of some building. Further researches and in both the distance attained must have showed, that in Ptolemy's second book of been very great. Most probably Agisymba Geography, an island was desigoated as exwas the present Bornú. From the expres- isting in the immediate vicinity. Such sions used, the road appears to have been paus as were recovered in a sound state, well known and frequented. And the so. were of coarse materials and rude workvereignty of the Garamantes was familiarly manship, many having very neatly imrecognised along its whole extent, compre- pressed upon them the name of " Ateiliahending, as there is reason to believe, the ” but fragments of a finer and more present Waday, and extending even to lati- fragile description of pottery were likewise tude 10° N., where a mountain was known brought to the surface; and little doubt by the name of ή Γαραμαντίκη Φάραγξ, or remains that, during the time of the Roman the Garamantic Ravine.
ascendancy in England, a pottery was estaWith these opportunities of acquiring a blished here upon an island which has long knowledge of the existence of the Quorra, since disappeared, and that the persou whose then, it is scarcely possible to imagine that rame bas been thus singularly preserved, the Romans were ignorant of it; or that, was engaged in its management.- Dr. Larda knowing the remaining portions of North uer's Cutinet Cyclopædia, Vol. XXVI.
ANCIENT ENGLISH POTTERY.
(VOL. CL. SELECT POETRY. THE EMPRESS OF THE WAVES. (Men skill’d to wrestle with disease
Vers'd in the touch of pulse—and feesWritten for Music, by Dr. Booker.
Yet holding, on this sad occasion, ROLL, Ocean, roll thy myriad waves A striking diff'renee of persuasion) On every shore where man enslaves
And much she marvell'i at such statement, His fellow man in guile,
As follow- though with some abaterpecasTo tell the habitants of earth
“ Some say, in language most empbazi, That freedom, from a Briton's birth, The pest is clearly Asiatic; Lives in Britannia's Isle.
And will, they fear, spread desolation The proud to crush-the fall'n to raise Through this, no longer favor'd, oatia. These are her trophies--this her praise,
Contagious some have always thought i Who blesses whom she saves.
Some hold chat winds maligoant brought isThen, Ocean! let thy billows roll,
While some assert-Would it were true:
'Tis nothing terrible nor new ; Proclaiming Her, from pole to pole, The EMPRESS OF THE Waves.
But, simply, what, in ev'ry year,
They've found or more or less severe. Tyrants may forge the ignoble chain,
“ Thus puzzled by our men of science But all their efforts will be vain,
Uncertain where to place relianceAnd plunge them in despair :
We stand in doubt and consternation, Before Britannia shall they quail ;
Like Mr. Irving's congregation, And nat freed, their guardian hail, When ladies scream, in tongue uokvors,
' If she the Trident bear.
What might souod strangely in their ows. That Sceptre-Trident of command,
“ Yet, in the midst of this confusios, Confided to her righteous hand,
We come, at least, to one conclusionMortals need not be slaves.
That cleanliness, and wholesome diet, Roll, Ocean; roll, then, while enthron'd Warm-clothing, temperance, and quiet Britannia be for ever own'd
Are, of all human means, the best The EMPRESS OF THE Waves.
To check the progress of the pest.”.
Lucinda pausd, with thoughtful brow, “So, child, it seems you're frighten'd 007."
“ Not for myself, dear aunt, believeWritten at Midnight Dec. 31, 1831.
'Tis for the helpless poor I grieve ; EIGHTEEN hundred thirty one,
For how shall chose, condemn'd to koor Now thy twelve-month's work is done! Th' extremes of human want and woe, Eighteen hundred thirty two,
Find succour in the fearful hour, Thy twelve-month's work is yet to do!
When fell disease exerts its pox'r? God only knows what change may be,
For them what hope? And, then, 'tis said, In eighteen hundred thirty three !
The pestilence will quickly spread Theo let us whilst our breath shall last, From
:-“Oh, child, forbear Praise Him for all His bounties past :
You shock me—but we must prepare And, till His fiat calls us home,
To meet the worst."-She rang the bell
. Trust Him for blessings yet to come.
“ Order my carriage, George, and tell Exeler.
E. T. PILGRIM.
The coachman that I mean to call
She went—and told the fearful tale « OUT OF EVIL COMETH GOOD." While many a rosy cheek turn'd paleBy Mrs. Carey.
Purse-strings were drawn — subscriptions
made, “ LAY by your book, Lucinda, pray.- The neighb'ring poor, in time, to aidHere comes the paper of to-day
gave from sympathy sincere, The *****-Now read distinct and clear; Many for shame, and more for fear. For I have not the quickest ear.
And, when the siuking orb of day Lucinda read" We understand,
Shot from the west his parting ray, The Cholera's in Sunderland."
Fatigued, the lady homeward wended « Preserve us, Heav'n! What, come so Told what was done, and what intended,
By those, who had resolv'd to take Then the next mail may bring it here. Such measures, for precaution's sake, What shall we do?” Lucinda smild
As might, they hoped (should Hear'n be “ Ah! you are but a thoughtless child.
friend 'em) You're not afraid ?"-"No, aunt, indeed From the dread pestilence defend 'em. But do you wish me to proceed?"
“ 'Tis well, dear aunt," Luciada said “ Yes, child, go on.'
."-She did, and read “While Want's pale victims pine for bread What sage physicians thought and said, 'Tis well the rich should interpose
Relieve their wants, and soothe their woes : • Parcere subjectis et debellare superbos.
And give the suff'rers cause to say-
Pests may prove blessings, in their way."
poor to rich."
prospers, the merchant prospers, and, though
last not least, the labourer prospers : in from statistical returns, that
short the universal people are in a state of 2 free trade system of Great Britain ito a law, the exports per annum
prosperity perhaps unparalleled in the hise were,
tory of the world.
The finances of the 814
country are equally satisfactory. Since the
enacting of the tariff her revenue has in..1,419,504
creased from about 17 millions of dollars to 1825.
..1,171,615 the Free-Trade system was com
27 millions of dollars a year, and the national
debt of the United States is on the eve of ?, the annual amount diminished as
extinction. The revenue of the country 1827. ...
for the present year (says the President) will £550,229
not fall short of 27,700,000 dollars; and 1830.
the expenditure for all objects, other than e imports from France into this coun- the public debt, will not exceed 14,700,000; ere,
the payment on account of the principal and .£740,226
inteiest of the debt, during the year, will 1821
exceed sixteen millions and a balf of dollars ;
..1,835,984 a greater sum than has been applied to that 1827
object, out of the revenue, in any year since .....2,328,483
the enlargement of the sinking fund, except iaris was the scene of some partial riots
the two years following immediately there
after. The amount which will have been Ix Dec. 19, originating in an order made
the city authorities for clearing one of applied to the public debt from the 4th of e bridges of some street-merchants, whose
March, 1829, to the 1st of January dext, ade was deemed prejudical to the settled
which is less than three years since the ad
ministratiou has been placed in my hands, jop-keepers. The malcontent hucksters ere joined by some of the ever-ready stu
will exceed forty millions of dollars. From
the large importations of the present year, ents. Three thousand students of the
it schools of Law and Medicine had assembled
may be safely estimated that the revenue at the Place du Pantheon, and were pro
which will be received into the Treasury from
that source during the next year, with the ceeding with an address to General Ramorino, on his conduct in Poland, when they will considerably exceed the amount of the
aid of that received from the public lands, were stopped on the Pont Neuf by Commissaries of Police, supported by a large force
present year; and it is believed that with
the means which the Government will have of cavalry (Carbineers and MunicipalGuards), and after some difficulty dispersed.
at its disposal, from various sources, which
will be fully stated by the proper department, In Paris, a very extraordinary Law-cause !*** has been going forward, in which the
the whole of the public debt may be extin1. 13. family of Rohan are endeavouring to set
guished, either by redemption or purchase, aside the will of the old Duke of Bourbon,
within the four years of my administration.
We shall then exhibit the rare example of a upon the grounds that there was an understanding between his mistress and Louis Phi
great nation, abounding in all the means of lippe, to induce hiin to leave bis immense
happiness and security, altogether free from
Adverting to Great Britain, the Preestates to one of the Orleans family. x 23
sident observes :- The amicable relations ITALY.
which now subsisted between the United In Italy, discontent continues to prevail
States and Great Britain, the increasing interSepete in the Papal States. The legations of Ro
course between their citizens, and the rapid magna having refused to wear the Pope's
obliteration of unfriendly prejuilices to which cockade, and to return to their allegiance,
former events naturally gave rise-concurred the French government has sent instructions
to present this as a fit period for renewing our to their Ambassador at Rome, to urge his
endeavours to provide against the recurrence Holiness to comply with the demands of his
of causes of irritation, which, in the event
of war between Great Britain and subjects.
other UNITED STATES.
power would inevitably endanger our peace.
The relations of the United States with On the 5th Dec. the Congress opened, the European Powers, as well as with those and on the 6th the President transmitted
of South America, are stated to be in the his annual message. It gives a most flat- most favourable position. tering account of the prosperity of the Republic. It states that every branch of in
CANADA. dustry is in the most flourishiug condition- The English Goveroment (says the Monthat the farmer prospers, the manufacturer treal Vindicator) has given the disposal of
Gent. Mag. Suppl. CI. Part II.