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582 Offa's Dyke, near St. Briarels, co. Gloucester. [VOL.C. was then mentioned, but the builder Nicholson * says, “When the Romans questioned the existence of any such made their inroads into this island, instrument, saying that he had been about the commencement of the Chris. 50 years in the service, and never tian æra, many of the Britons were heard of it. Neither did the worthy said to have retreated into Wales, at successor of that officer ever hear of it which time the river Dee, in the neigh. until the day when it was shown him bourhood of Chester, and the Severn in the library of the Royal Artillery, divided the two countries. All to the where your Correspondent may in- east was England, and to the West spect it, through the Rev. Librarian, Wales. This division continued about if he does not meet with another copy. 600 years, when the ambitious Ofa,

Nor is it improbable that the late coveting the fertile lands of his neigh. Lord Melville and his immediate suc- bours, easily raised a quarrel and an cessor at the Admiralty, were equally army. He then drove them west unacquainted with the patent, when among the mountains, formed this they abandoned the project of a grand vast Dyke, and ordained that neither Dock Yard at North tleet, after having English nor Welch should pass it.” purchased a large track of land, and I shall not attempt to decide which diverted their views and the public way it went, because such an attempt purse to the mouth of the Thames at as exploration of the track, which Sheerness, contrary to the reasoning would alone be satisfactory, is by me of the First Lord of the Admiralty in impracticable. his published pamphlets.

Nevertheless, without committing Sic vos non vobis.

myself, for the reasons just given, it Yours, &c.

may be hypothetically and yet fairly stated, that it did not cross the river

until it arrived at Monmouth, but folMr. URBAN,

Dec. 7.

lowed the Gloucestershire bank of the OFFA'S Dyke is known to have

Wye, as far as that town. In favour

of this hypothesis it may be observed, commenced at Tiddenham in Glou

that two-thirds of the Dyke from Mold cestershire, near Chepstow; but its

in Flintshire to Old Radnor (nearly line from thence to Old Radnor is unknown, or undetermined. St. Bria

eighty miles by the scale on the map), vel's in Gloucestershire is only a very

have been clearly ascertained. From few miles from Tiddenham, and I was

Mold to Llangollen it is a gentle

curve, and from thence to Old Radnor greatly surprised, when on a visit there for change of air, I was asked

nearly as straight as a Roman road. whether I had seen the remains of

If we assume that the remaining third

assimilated in form and direction the Offa's Dyke in that parish. Upon my reply in the negative, I was informed

two others, it would proceed from Old that it ran through a wood called the

Radnor to Clifford, thence to LlanFence near Bigsweir Bridge. I was

thony, Crickhowell, Abergavenny, and most anxious to visit the spot. The

Pontypool, and have entered the mouth

of the Severn somewhere between gout having, however, placed me in Caerphilly and Newport ; but, had it Schedule A, by disfranchising my lo

done so, it would have been twenty comotive members, and the brush

miles to the westward of either the wood rendering it impracticable to ride to it, I was obliged to forego the

Old or New Passages. Not to lose pleasure. But Charles Ransford Court,

this connexion appears to have been esq. of St. Briavel's, assured

me that Tiddenham, and of deviating from the

the object of commencing the Dyke at he had often crossed it, when shootand the Fence Wood forms one (the lech, Grosmount, and Bradwardine, ing: The Dyke overhangs the Wye, preceding line. The direct line from

Radnor to Tiddenham is through Trenorthern) horn of the crescent, in the

in which direction it must have crosscentre of which stands the Castle of

ed the river twice. But as the remains St. Briavel. Hence arise two questions; (1)

of St. Briavel's show the line of con

tinuation, it must have followed the Did it cross the Wye to reach Monmouthshire or Herefordshire ? or (2)

river down to Monmouth, and perdid it take a circuitous route along haps have crossed the Wye at that the Gloucestershire side of the river ? * Cambrian Traveller's Guide, p. 910.

PART 11.)
Roman Camps near Offa's Dyke.

583 place; for the deviation from the di- Rocking-stone, and a Roman way, rect line between Tiddenham and and other indicia not found at MonMonmouth along the river, is very mouth, was to all appearance the trifling, and from thence by Grosmont Blestrum of Antoninus. About three and Bradwardine to Old Radnor, ac- miles further, on the same Gloucescording to the map, the line is straight. tershire side of the river, is a Roman

Another circumstance is observable. encampment at Symond's Yat, and Where the course of the Dyke is somewhat diverging to the east, the

nown, there are old Roman or Bri- Roman camp on Ross Chase, and Aritish camps in contiguity, or in the conium. On the known line of the vicinity, besides mounts or small forts Dyke commencing in Herefordshire, upon the line itself. Offa seemingly at or near Lentwardine, are the two imitated the valla of Hadrian or Se- famous camps of Coxsall Hill, and verus; the mounts being substituted Brampton Brian, one of Caractacus, for towers, and the camps used for the other of Ostorius; and so fortresses garrisons or reserves. A similar coin- continue to skirt it along the whole of cidence occurs in the line now under its course. It is not, however, imdiscussion. There is a camp in Cas- possible but that, instead of crossing well wood, not far from St. Briavel's, the Wye at or about Monmouth, it and the Devil's pulpit, (a rock visited actually accompanied the circuit of by tourists, on account of the fine the Wye by Ross and Hereford to bird's-eye view of Tintern Abbey be- Bradwardine; for the visible course of neath it, on the Monmouthshire side the Dyke runs in a straight line, and of the river,) is within the entrench- ceases to be discoverable at Old Radment. There is a line or mound from nor, which, according to the scale, is this camp, which can be traced nearly only as one ten miles, in a straight to a tumulus on the west side of the line N. to S. the uniform direction of road, and situated near the mansion the Dyke, from Bradwardine. Nicholoccupied by Mr. Trotter. This line son says, KNIGHTON, also called Trefappears to have communicated with Y-CLAWD, i. e. the town upon the Dyke; St. Briavel's. This information I re. for Offa's Dyke enters this parish on ceived from a very intelligent gentle. the north from the county of Salop, man engaged in the Ordnance survey; and after running for two miles in aland I have visited the Devil's pulpit, most a straight line to the south, it is passed Mr. Trotter's gate up a straight plainly to be traced through the paRoman-road - looking wide lane, and rishes of Norton, Whitton, Discoed, observed every indication of the accu- and Old Radnor, into the county of racy of the account. The part of St. Hereford, i. e. to Lentwardine, which Briavel's under discussion is a lofty is situated at the end of the ninth mile elevation, of a form, part of which on the road from Ludlow to Knighthe Greeks would have scooped out ton. It is also to be observed, that for a theatre. The straight side of the the Dyke running in a straight line N. e is the river towards the west; the to S. bisects Wales longitudinally, adjacent lower area resembles the pit; hough not in equal proportions. It and the ascending semi-circular sides may, therefore, be assumed that it conthe boxes and galleries. In the cen- tinued to proceed in the same straight tre of what we should call in a play- line N. and S. from Old Radnor to house the upper gallery, is the castle. Tiddenham. That straight line has But the piece of Offa's Dyke lies in been before noted, as going by Bradthe Fence-wood, and has no commu- wardine, Crickhowel, Abergavenny, nication with the castle; but runs Pontypool, and Newport, which diacross the extremity of the northern rection does not bring it to Tiddenend of the semicircle. I have heard ham, as, if the map be correct, accordthat there are still remains of a verying to the straight line from N. to S. ancient lane from Bigsweir, which it ought to do. As no further remains pointed towards Monmouth.

have been discoverable beyond Old From the castle and village an old Radnor, it might, therefore, ' (I do not road passes by a camp called Stow- say that it did,) have accompanied the green, towards Clearwell, a hamlet of river from Tiddenham to BradwarNewland. This parish is adjacent to dine, and thus made boundaries of Staunton and Bury-hill, where, from both the Wye and the Severn; for inclusion in Bletislan hundred, the otherwise the Wye could have been a

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584 Goodrich Castle.

[VOL. CI. boundary only for a comparatively m. 4, that the abbot of Winchcombe few miles, as will be plain from the is certified as having two knights' positions of the places upon a map, fees, which I presumed to be those of both in straight line and round the Godrich, as above. I have abstracts river.

made by myself of the two registers It might not be difficult for a sturdy of Winchcombe Abbey (now or latels pedestrian to start from Old Radnor in the possession of Lord Sherborne), in a N. and S. direction, by the places but neither in the extracts nor in the mentioned, and so try the straight Monasticon (the old edition, i. 187), line for remains, duly observing the could I find any elucidation, because bearings of aberrations (if any) from all their “ antiqua testimonia” of the the straight line, and following such endowment of the abbey, were de. deviations to their extremity. If no- stroyed by fire in the reign of Ste. thing be discovered, and there will be phen. I then gave up the inquiry, as nothing in such a direction, as the being much like that of the lost course Dyke passes through St. Briavel's,- of Offa's Dyke. But I was agaia re. let him make a second attempt by vived, by finding that the same Orfa, going from Monmouth by Grosmont, who expelled the Britons from the and from thence to Bradwardine in a track between the Severn and the N. W. or N.N.W. direction. If both Wye, of which Godrich was part, these fail, it is possible, though not was founder of the nunnery at Finck. certain, that the Dyke accompanied combe, which preceded the famous the river as far as Bradwardine. mitred abbey, and of course might

I have made these hypotheses from have endowed that nunnery with part the map, because there being no other of the acquired British property. Now remains known than those specified, the Conqueror ejected a Godric, abbot the map was my only resource. Hav. of Winchcombe, from his monastery, ing only a wish, as an antiquary, to and imprisoned him in Gloucester have the real line discovered, I heed Castle. Whether this Godric founded not the tenability of any of the hypo- the castle or not, let others decide ; theses. I only in my own defence but it is certain that the Earls Marsay, that, if the line does not go in one shall did succeed in the estate, and or other of the above directions, the that the abbot of Winchcombe in the map is either inaccurate, or the line reign of Henry II. certifies that Wilfrom Old Radnor to Tiddenham is liam Marshall Earl of Pembroke did anomalous to the straight N. and S. not only hold of him the two fees of direction of the known parts. By the Godrich, but also lxv fees and a half Dyke going from Tiddenham tó St. of the honor of Striguil. If so, Offa Briavel's, and probably to Monmouth, might have given that immense estate Grosmont, and Bradwardine, there to the monks, out of which the Conis an aberration to the East, but it is queror might have ousted them, and the shortest line of any, according to transferred it to the Earls Marshall. the map, and on that account may be It may be further observed that God. the exploratory direction most likely rich Castle had in more recent times a to succeed.

large extent of jurisdiction. I shall end this account with ano

Yours, &c. T. D. FOSBROKE. ther puzzle connected with the banks of the Wye, viz. Goodrich Castle. Nobody knows who was the founder

Mr. URBAN,

Dec. 10. that gave name to the fortress and village. In the Liber Niger Scaccar. IN a note to Collins's Peerage, vol. (by Hearne), i. 160, is a charter of vii. p. 455, ed. 1812, is a confused acthe abbot of Winchcombe, saying, count of the family of Gunning, some that William Marshall, Earl of Pem- of the female branches of which broke, owed two knights' fees to the daughters of John Gunning, esq. and abbot for Castle Godric. I treated it the Hon. Bridget Bourke, daughter of as a return wrongly entered, until I Theobald sixth Viscount Bourke of found in the Rot. Marescall,* 13 Ed. II. Mayo,) became so celebrated in the

latter half of the last century, no less * Palgrave's Parl. Writs, vol. ii. Div. ii. on account of their personal attracp. 529.

tions, than alliances. Perhaps, there.

« Sir,

PART II.] The beautiful Daughters of J. Gunning, Esq.

585 - ore, the annexed letter (which I con- vel (marble) which lies in our Chancel, as sider a curiosity, from its style and

follows : -- orthography,) written by a person who “Sophia Gunding, the youngest of 4

appears to have been the parish clerk Daughters, all Born at Hemingford, in of Hemingford Grey, in Huntingdon- Huntingdonshire, to John Gunning, esq., shire, in reply to some queries made

Died an Infant, 1737. Lissy Gunning, his on the subject by James Madden, esq.

5 Daughter, Born in Ireld. Died Dec. 31, of Cole Hill house, Fulham, may be

1752. Aged 8 years, 10 m. considered worth preserving.

Suffer little Children and forbid them not, It is

to Come unto me, for of such is the Kingcopied verbatim et literatim as follows:

dome of Heaven.—Mach. 19, 14.”

this, sir, is the Truest and Best InformaI Take the Fredom in wrighting to you, tion I Can Give, or you Can Get; and if from an Iufurmation of Mr. Warrinton, that

this is of any use to you, I should be much you would be Glad to have the account of my oblig'd to you to let me have a lioe or two Townswoman (sic) the Notefied, the Famis,

from you, that I may be satisfid that it was
Beautifull Miss Gunninys, Born at Heming- not in vain.
ford Grey, tho they left the parish before I And am, Sir, your most obedient and
had knolege Enough to Remember them, Humble Servant, WM, CRISWELL.
and I was Born in 32.* But I will Give

Fleming ford Grey, Aug. 141h, -96.
you the best account I Can, which I Belive
is Better then any man in the Country be-

The writer of the above epistle is sides myself, tho I have uot the Birth Re- wrong in calling Elizabeth the eldest Jester

for

so long a Date, and since Dr. daughter, since she was the second, Dickens is dead, I dont know where it is, and also wrong in styling the Earl of but the Best account ! Can Give you is, Coventry Viscount. With regard to Elizth the Eldestt Married to his Grace the

the portrait referred to by him, I beDuke of Hamilton, after his Decrase, to the Duke of Arguile ; the seccond mary{ed]

lieve his memory deceived him, so far to the Viscount of Coventree; the third

as the lines are concerned. The print I never knew Ritely to home [whom], but

in question is an oval, painted by I beleeve to some privett Gentleman. I

Cotes, and engraved by Spooner. BeRember (remember] a many years ago, at

neath, is the name Miss Gunning,” Jeast 30, seeing her picture in a print shop,

and a little lower the following lines : I beleeve in St. Pouls Church yard, as fol- “This youngest Grace, so like her Sisters lows :

Frame! the youngest of these Beauties here we have

Her kindred Features tell from whepce She so like io person to the other two,

"Tis needless once to mention Gunning's ho Ever views her Features and her fame, will see at once that Gunning is her Name. If this be the same, it is a curious Which is the Best account I. Can Give you by oral recitation, and may serve to

instance how poetry may be changed of them three ; but then there was more, which perhaps you dont know any explain the perpetual variations in our thing about, which I will Give you the 'True old ballads. Of the two elder sisters Mortalick Regester off, from a Black mar- there are numerous portraits, and in

in vue,

came,

name."

1732.

+ Elizabeth, the second (vot the eldest) daughter, baptised at Hemingford Grey, 17 Dec. 1793; married 14 Feb. 1752, to James Duke of Hamilton and Brandon, who died 17 Jan. 1758: and 2dly, 3 March, 1759, to Colonel John Campbell, whuse father became Duke of Argyle in 1761, and who afterwards succeeded to that title in 1776 ; she died before his Grace, 20 Dec. 1790. She was mother of three Dukes, the seventh and eighth Dukes of Harnilton, and the present Duke of Argyle; and as the heir presumptive to the latter is his brother, it may be hereafter said that she was mother of four Dukes.

1 Mare (called in the Peerages Maria), the eldest daughter, baptised at Hemingford Grey, 15 Aug. 1792 ; married 5 March, 1752, to George-William Earl of Coventry; ob. at Croume, co. Worcester, 30 Sept. 1760. She was mother of the late and graudinother of the present Earls of Coventry.

CATHARINE, the third daughter, baptised at Hemingford Grey, 12 June, 1735, married 6 May, 1769, at Somerset House Chapel, to Robert Travis, esq. She was upper housekeep.er at that palace, and died there, 26 May, 1773. The oame is often mis-spelt Trevor and Travers. The original Somerset Chapel Register is now in the possession of Sir Tho. Phillipps, Bart.

Gent. Mag. Suppl. Vol. CI. Pars II,

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586 History of Printing.Lignamine's Chronicon. [VOL. C1. a scarce engraving by Houston, the The above notice is from the Origiheads of all three appear, with some nal and Contemporary part of the verses in Latin and English beneath. Chronicon of John Philip de Ligna

With regard to the fourth and fifth mine, a Messenian, a knight of Sicily, daughters, the following entries occur and typographer of Rome, and famiin the parish register of Hemingford liar friend of Pope Sixtus the Fourth Grey, for a copy of which, as well as (printed at Rome, and dedicated to for the other baptismal notices, in- Sixtus.) He hints that he had inserted in the notes, I am indebted to creased the work of some other authe kindness of a gentleman resident thor, but does not say whose. With in the parish :

the exception of whole periods, lines, “ 1736. Nov. 24th, Sophia, ye daughter and words omitted, whereby it is ajof Johu Gunning, esq. and his wife," bap

most unintelligible, Eccard (the editor tised.

of the “ Corpus Historicum Medii “1737. Jan, 11th, Sophia, an infant Evi") found it in all else the same daughter of John Gunning, esq." buried. with a Chronicle by a Ferrarese,

1753. Jan. 5th, Lissy, the daughter of seemingly Ricobaldi, as far down as John Gooning, esq. and his wife," buried. the year 1312. Thenceforward it is No other notices of this family oc

continued down to 1473, the third of cur in the registers; and it is probable Pope Sixtus. In which year, after they removed not long after to Bath, the spoiling of Spoletum, Indertum, and thence to London, where we find

and Castellum, it ends thus :-“ Of them in 1769.

F. M.

this most worthy pontiff, in the third year of whose pontificate we know

other famous things, we leave the Mr. URBAN,

Dec. 16.

feats to be commemorated by others I DO not know whether the follow- who can do that better. Let him be ing discrepancy of dates in the history the end of this series of times.” Ecof Printing has been observed or ac- card has twice dated this Chronicle as counted for. If so, perhaps there may down only to 1469. And yet 1471 be something in the notice of the follows in plain figures; and it comes Chronicle from which it is taken, down to 1473, and seems printed in which may atone for bringing it be- the year 1474. Perhaps this may be

considered as the first date of a work It is said (by Astle) that Fust and originally printed, and this Chronicle Gutenberg who were said to have used from 1312 to 1473 as one of the first moveable wooden types, and perhaps specimens. Caxton's first print in did so print a few pages, separated England, the “ Game at Chess," is their partnership in 1455. Now under stated to have been finished in the the date 1459, Philip de Lignamine, Abbey of Westminster, the last of himself a printer of 1474, writes in March 1474, and was followed by the the present tense,—" Jacob, by name “ Book of Jason in 1475. And CarGutenburger, by birth an Argentine, ton's

“ Recueil des Histories de and a certain other named Justus Troyes,” printed at Bruges in 1468, (Fustus :) both skilfull of printing continued at Ghent, and finished at letters on skins with metal types, are Cologne in 1471, was a translation, not known to make each of them 300 an original. Some block books exesheets (“cartas') a day at Maguntia, cuted before 1450, may rank as origia city of Germany. John also called nals, but hardly as books in the mo. Mentelin at Argentina, a city of the dern sense of the word. C.W.C. same province, and skilful in the same art, is known to print as many sheets

Mr. URBAN,

Dec. 26. a day.” I am not quite certain if he here speaks of them as partners or

IN the Minor Correspondence for not. The year in question 1459 is your June number (part i. p. 482), is said to have seen the first book print inserted the explanation of Abraham's ed with cast metal types, namely, swearing his servant by the hand un“ Durandi Rituale," at Mentz. (Meer- der the thigh, as allusive to the rite of man, cited by Astle, p. 218.) Fust circumcision. That rite was, if not and Schæffer having used for the small originally, at least to the Shemites, a letters of their Psalter of 1457, move- lately instituted rite ; at most of about able metal types, but cut, not cast. 40 years standing. The case referred

fore you.

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