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VOL. CI. PART II.
Embellished with Views of the Birth-place of Rubens at Cologne ; and the Birth-place of
ROUSSEAU at Geneva.
Sept. 9. geboren ū. ind. Pfarrk. S. Petri. getauft, AMONGST the many remarkable Peler Paul Rubens Edwardus VIIch Kind objects which abound in Cologne, I seiner eltern, welche 20 Jahre hier gewohnt was attracted towards one that is pro
lahen. S. Vater Doct. Joan. Rubens war bably not so well known as the rest.
vor hier 6 Jahr lang Raths-schiffen zu Ante It is the house in which the immortal
werp: Auclitéte wegen Religions Umruhen
nach Cöln. Starb hier 1587 und ward in Rubens first saw the light, and in
S. Peters Fierlichet begroben. Unser Peter which also Mary de' Medici, the wife Paul Rubens d'. Teutsche Apelles ver othen of Henri Quatre, and mother of Louis
seine Geburt Stadt Cola, vor seinem Todte the Thirteenth, terminated her exist. noch einmal zu sehen ū. das von unsern be
By a curious coincidence, rühmten Kunstkenner dem Senator Eherthe same room witnessed both these hard Jabach anbestellte vortreffliche Geevents. * On each side of the portal mälde d'. Kreuzigung Petri Seinein Tauf. is a marble slab, with the inscriptions Kirche durch s. eigne Hand zu werken., which, together with a hasty sketch,
Aber ihm ubereite am Tod zu Antwerpen in I have subjoined. Each of these ta.
64 teu Jabre s'. Lebens. d. 30 Mai, 1640." blets is surmounted by a golden star. Inscription on the right hand Tablet. Their purport, as you will perceive, is In diesem Haus fluchtete auch Frankrs to relate the above facts, as well as
Konigion Heores. D. Wittwe Maria von some further details. On the left hand
Medicis Ludwigs D. XIII. ū. iii Kuniginnen, one, which records the birth and death Mutter. Unserer Rubens berief sie aus sein of the German Apelles,” and also per Wohpstadt Antwerpen um fur ihren Palthe death of his father, is mentioned last in Paris das Epos ihres Lebens und ihrer the magnificent picture of the Cruci
Schicksal zu schildern. Er vollführte es in fixion of St. Peter, which Rubens xxi grossen Tafeln. aber sie gedrängt von
Unfallen starb in Cöln 1642, der 3 Juli, 68 painted expressly for the parish church
Jalır alt in elen dem Zimmer wo Rubens of his native city. On the other tablet, erected in honour of Mary, it is geboren war.t Ihr Herz war in unserer Doms
Kirche von D. H. H, 3 Kupige Capelle said that her heart was buried in the beigesetzt. Ibre Leiche später in die Köchapel of the Three Kings in the Ca- nigi. Graft zu S. Denys war gebracht. Vor. thedral Church of Cologne, and her ihrem Ende dankte Sie noch dem Seoate in body afterwards transferred to St. der Stadt Colo Fur die Freybeit ihres AuDenis.
fenthalts mit ehrwurdigen Geschencken Inscription on the left hand Tablet. welche die ungestimme Revolution mehren
thals vernichtet hat." "lo diesem Hause ward 1577 D. 29 Juni : am Feste D. H. H. Apost. Petri ū. Pauli. Perhaps these circumstances, and
* We append to our Correspondent's description the remarks of a recent traveller : “I was obliged to content myself with an outside view of a building so remarkable for being the one in which a prosperous Painter drew his first breath, and an unfortunate Queen, the patroness of his fertile genius, and hieruine of liis pictorial allegories, uttered her last sigh. Peter Paul Rubens, boro in the house No. 10, Rue de Tival, the exterior of which is devoid of consequence, died in a palace at Antwerp, full of years and honours. Mary of Medicis, who, quitting the princely splendour of her native Italy for regal dignity in France, became the wife of Henry IV. and mother of Louis XIII. expired beveath this comparatively humble roof at Cologne, the exiled victim to her own ambitious weakness, and to Richelieu's ascendant subtlecy. The only answer which I could obtain respecting the inside of this celebrated edifice was, that there remained • nothing to be seen. The present proprietor is a tradesman, and, it is said, has been Vandal enough to destroy some curious carvings which ornamented ove of the rooms." Tour in 1825, by Seth William Stevenson, + These pictures are now in the public gallery of the Louvre. Gent. Mag. Suppl. Vol. CI. Part II.
Birth-place of J. J. Rousseau at Geneva. (vol. ci. the accompanying sketch, may not be “ There are many excellent and sh? altogether without interest; if so, I goldsmiths here also ; but above all thiss shall be gratified by their insertion in
fire-arms are here made in perfection, sed your valuable Magazine.
as harquebuses, pistols, musquets, and the Yours, &c. Dudley Costello. like, and many gentlemen provide thes
selves from hence." Mr. URBAN,
At the present day, the goldsmiths Dec. 15.
eclipse the other artisans. THE accompanying view of the house at Geneva, in which Jean The street itself has received its
To return to Rousseau's house. Jacques Rousseau was born, is copied
name from the memorable nativity in from the card of “Gebel Benoit et Comp au 2me étage de
this mean-looking house, which is cette maison tiennent horlogerie et piéces à
now No. 69 in the Rue Jean Jacque musique.”
Rousseau. There is this inscription,
on a small marble tablet over the door: Isaac Rousseau was also a watchmaker in this same house ; where he
ICI EST NE JEAN JACQUES ROUSSEAD had been settled only ten months be
LE XXVIII JUIN M.DCC.XII. fore the birth of his celebrated son, Yours, &c.
J.G. having resided for some time previously in Constantinople, where he was employed for the seraglio.
Dec. 5. It appears that the manufacture of NOTICE having been given by two watches was one of the principal of the City Members of bringing in a trades of Geneva as early as 1681; Bill immediately after the recess, codfor in “The Present State of Geneva, taining some legislative provisions for a curious old guide-book published in regulating the speed of Steam Vesses that year in duodecimo, are the fol- in the Port of London, perhaps you lowing passages :
will not consider a page of your valu. “The people of Geneva are very indus- able Magazine unworthily appropritrious, and since they have not land enough ated to a few remarks on the subject, to take up their time in agriculture and hus- from a constant yet disinterested obbandy (sic), as other States of larger terri- server of the Thames Navigation. tories have, they apply themselves sedu- From the great convenience affordel lously to the improvement of handy.craft to the inhabitants of London, more trades.
especially those whose means enable “Clock and watch-making is a trade of them to take trips to the sea-side for great esteem, and of masters and servants
health or pleasure, people are there are above three hundred that follow
much inclined to consider the compethat occupation; of whom there are some
tition of rival Steam Companies as a that drive a good trade by it, not only in all the countries of Europe, but also in Turkey, public benefit, without taking into acPersia, and other remote kingdoms. It is
count the vast number of labourers pecessary that such as come hither to buy, who are thrown out of employ,—the have their eyes in their heads, if they would loss of capital sustained by coachnot be cheated, because there are bad as masters, ,-or the loss of lives and prowell as good artists among them.
perty on the river, through the mis
“ This town has a considerable trade in gold chains and trinkets, and the purity of the gold in the minutest article is very superior to the gold employed in similar articles manufactured in England. This fact merits particular attention.
“ The English standard of gold is, dividing a given weight, as of a lb. or oz., into twenty-four parts, twenty-two of those parts are of pure gold, and of the two remaining parts, one is of silver, and one of copper; and the mint price is 3l. 178. 101d. In Eogland, the very finest gold that is manufactured into chains, not assayed and stamped, is what the jewellers call eighteen carat gold, i. e. three parts gold, and a fourth part of allay; but seals and trinkets in general, are so grossly allayed, that the stint altogether depends upon the conscience of the trader or manufacturer ; the consequence of which is that we are beat out of foreign markets, where the manufacture of Geneva can be brought into competition.
“To remedy this evil, the English Government should adopt regulations similar to those adopted at Geneva; while their staudard gold coin is rather below ours, we, as a great commercial nation, ought not to be inferior to them, when the same material is a staple of manufacture."-Miscellaneous Observations and Opinions on the Continent [by the late Richard Duppa, Esq). 1825, 8vo.
PART 11.] On Steam Navigation in the Port of London.
579 management or negligence of persons defence of the master of a Steam Veshaving the command of Steam Vessels. sel, who has the helm under his en
Residing on the banks of the tire control, aided by the propelling Thames, I have had abundant oppor- or retrograding power of the engines, tunities of witnessing some of the as the case may require. evils as well as the benefits of Steam The facility with which Steam Ves. Navigation. I am quite ready to ad- sels may be directed under every posmit the advantages contended for by sible circumstance, except that of a the admirers of this elegant mode of violent gale, or the destruction of its travelling ;—that it is cheaper, more paddle-work and machinery, leaves expeditious, and (under proper regu, no apology or excuse for the misconlations) perhaps even safer than land duct of individuals commanding such carriage, where great competition pre- vessels. With regard to sea-going vails among rival Coach Masters. Yet Steam Vessels, it is evident the slightit is not necessary, Mr. Urban, while est precaution would guard against the admitting these facts, that we should occurrence of such frightful accidents turn a deaf ear to the numerous com- as that of the Comet, Glasgow Steam plaints that have been made, at the Boat, about two years back. If each respective police offices, of the mis- Steam Vessel in dark nights carried a conduct of Steam Boat conductors, light in her bows, and (following the arising in the majority of instances rule of driving on a public road) each from the dangerous velocity at which steersman put the helm 4-starboard, these vessels are propelled between when two vessels are approaching in Greenwich and London Bridge. opposite directions, accidents from
The Committee appointed by the collision could not possibly occur. House of Commons has had quite The necessity for inforcing some sufficient evidence adduced before it, such regulation, however, becomes to show the propriety of some legisla- infinitely greater in the navigation of tive measures to insure the lives of the Thames between Blackwall and his Majesty's subjects from being at the Tower than below Gravesend or the mercy of men, who, under the at sea ; and it might be questionable present state of nings, are not ame- how far the City of London or the nable to the laws for their negligence Legislature are justified in allowing or misconduct. It might be answered Steam Vessels after dark, under any that the persons who are accessory to
circumstances, to come above Blackthe death of any individual, are ame- wall or Greenwich. The objections nable to justice, either under the to such regulation would be very charge of homicide, or manslaughter. slight, in comparison with the risk, But in the frightful collision which inconvenience, and damage sustained takes place when two Steam Vessels, through the present practice, by Steam or a Steam Boat and any other vessel, Vessels passing through the pool at come in contact, it is in most cases the rate of seven, eight, or even ten extremely difficult, if not impossible, to knots an hour. A very strong oppoaffix the principal blame on the most sition to the new Bill will doubtless culpable parties; although a great be raised both by the Steam Naviganumber of lives may fall sacrifice to tion Companies which are interested such criminal negligence. Indeed, the in maintaining a competition, with arbitrary rules, or rather the absence the view of ruining their competitors; of any legislative regulations, in the and also by those who consider commanagement of Steam Vessels, have petition of every kind a public benefit. been the primary source of nearly all To a given extent this is undoubtedly the serious accidents that have oc- true. Yet no man can plead ignorant curred.
of the fact, that various Acts of ParThe navigation of sailing vessels liament have been found necessary to must ever be subject to circumstances regulate stage coaches, and inflict peover which the master or pilot can nalties by fine or imprisonment on have no control ; such as a current, an careless drivers, with a view to the eddy, or else a falling off in the wind, safety of his Majesty's subjects, from by which a vessel would not answer the effects of competition among Coach her helm, and thus come foul of ano- Owners. Consequently, no valid arther ship sailing in an opposite course. gument can be adduced why similar But a similar plea cannot be offered in precautions should not be taken, and
580 On Steam Navigation in the Port of London. [VOL. CL. certain penalties incurred by persons and the commodious places for a. having the management and control barkation and landing. of Steam Vessels. On the contrary, From the monopoly thus afforded to the circumstances in the latter case Steam Vessels, at the expense of tè are far more imperative than in the Thames watermen, it is therefore a former; lst, from the greater number fair that the public should derive every of lives at issue in the event of disas- possible security for the good manageter; 2d, the nature of the element of- ment of such vessels. Independent fering a twofold hazard ; 3d, from the the accidents which are continual more complete control of a Steam occurring, through the heavy se Vessel, under judicious or even ordi- occasioned by these vessels, they are nary management, beyond that of con- in the practice of carrying on many trolling four well-bred or spirited occasions a number of passengers horses. Thereby rendering the lia- quite incompatible with every idea o bility to accident in Steam Boats al- safety. It was stated by some of the most nugatory, except through the gentlemen who were examined by the defects of the machinery, or the igno- Commons' Committee “ on Steam Narance or obstinacy of the commander vigation,” that a Steam Vessel canoot in working the engines at that rate of afford accommodation on the average speed which becomes equally danger- to more than one person per ton pes. ous to the passengers on board, and surement, yet I have repeatedly seca to watermen and others exposed to vessels from 300 to 350 tons ladea the swell produced by Steam Vessels with from 600 to 700 persons; and of the larger class.
Sir John Hall states, in his evidence It has been too much the practice before the Committee, that he has in this great manufacturing and trad- seen the Albion steamer with not lesz ing nation, while admiring the perfec- than 1000 persons on board! Toe tion to which machinery has arrived bare possibility of any accident, either for superseding manual labour,—to from the machinery, the negligence or leave out of view the privations which blunders of pilots and engineers, a such“ improvements” have entailed the unlooked -for accidents that are upon the poor labourers who are always liable on passing through the thrown out of employ. Thus in Steam pool filled with shipping and boats, is Navigation we are disposed to admire calculated to alarm the most stoical the beauty of the vessels, the great ac- or indifferent observer. In the event commodation, and cheapness of the of accident, the consequences would conveyance, without taking into ac- be truly disastrous among such a count the poor watermen and sailors multitude. It is therefore not less who formerly procured a decent main- incumbent on the Legislature to place tenance on the river, but “ whose oc- a limit on the number of persons in a cupation's gone,” by the erection of Steam Vessel, than to prevent such splendid Bridges, and the construction vessel from being propelled at a speed of commodious Steam Vessels.
incompatible with the navigation of It has been stated with too much the river. If it be advisable to pre. truth, that the conduct of the Thames vent a stage coach from being laden watermen on many occasions has been with more than a certain number, to little calculated to excite the sympathy prevent accidents by overturning, why of the public. It has been stated, should not the same principle be that in addition to that competition adopted with regard to Steam Vessels, which the very necessities of these where the risk on account of numbers poor men prompted, by making them is as fifty to one ? contend for priority on the arrival of The proprietors of Steam Boats Steam Vessels, they have in most raise an outcry at any proposition to cases shown a disposition to extort place their conduct under Parliamensomething beyond their regular fare. tary control. It is pronounced to Yet, under all the circumstances, it be an interference with the freedom cannot excite our surprise, taking into of navigation, and as infringing their account the increase of population, “just rights.” Yet the very men with the diminution of the shipping who raise such clamour, are the most trade, and the diminution of demand unblushing defenders of a system of for watermen, from the additional imposition and insolence in the land. Bridges, additional Steam Vessels, ing and embarkation of passengers at
RT II.] J. Hulls, the Inventor of Steam Boats.
581 'lvesend, as we perceive by the late above Blackwall, and for limiting the solution of the Gravesend and Mil. number of passengers according to the • Steam Company, refusing their tonnage,-a trifling tax or toll of a iction to the erection of a pier or penny or twopence per head ought to iding wharf.
be levied on the passengers by Steam : Should the system of competition by Vessels on the river Thames, in aid of uilding light vessels fitted with en- a fund for sick or infirm watermen. nes of very great power, so as to run Justice is the first attribute of legislat sixteen or seventeen miles an hour, tion, and if compensation be always e still suffered to go unchecked by given to parties who are deprived of Parliamentary control, what secu- their local advantages for trade, by city can the public have from such opening a new street for the public men, that they will not, when racing convenience, — why should not the against each other, urge their steam same principle operate in affording engines to a most dangerous extent, some small compensation to the poor rather than allow themselves to be men who have lost three-fourths of beaten by rival boats; or that they their employment since the general will pay any regard whatever to the introduction of Steam Navigation ? unfortunate wherrymen whose lives
HUMANITAS. so constantly endangered by the swell of Steam Vessels? It is a fact well known to persons residing on the
Mr. URBAN, Woolwich, Dec. 6. banks of the river, that since the cul. IN your vol. C. part ii. p. 7, these pable extent to which Steam Vessels
words appear :
We borrowed our are propelled in the river, very few Steam-boats from the Americans.” persons who can possibly avoid it, But letters patent under the great will trust themselves in a Thames Seal bearing date 21st December, wherry; and even the larger boats at 1736, were granted to Jonathan Halls, Greenwich are constantly in danger for his invention of “a machine for of being swamped by the swell pro- carrying ships and vessels out of, or duced by the large steamers. It has into any harbour or river against wind been stated by some of the witnesses and tide, or in a calm, which may be examined by the Committee, that most of great service to our Royal Navy of the accidents happening to boats and merchant ships,” &c. have arisen from the temerity or the The inventor published the patent obstinacy of the boatmen. But it in black letter with a plate prefixed, should be borne in mind that these exhibiting a man-of-war towed by a poor men are in the majority of cases steam-boat, and also the several parts compelled by their necessities to brave of the machinery detached. In addievery danger, while approaching the tion, he gives propositions and deSteamers in search of a fare from the monstrations illustrative of his invenpassengers. Besides, it is too much tion. to expect that men of rude habits, Now whether Government bought and having starving families to sup- the patent right, and stowed it away port by their labour, should show any in a pigeon-hole, or whether some courtesy towards those by whom they workman employed in framing the have been thrown out of employ:
machine, might have been conveyed The Thames waterman is in fact across the Atlantic at the public explaced in a similar situation to the pense, carrying the secret with him ; poor cotton-spinner or weaver, who it is clear that the steam-boat was not feels that however advantageous the borrowed from the Americans. It use of steam power may prove to the appears indeed that the invention was great capitalist, it has brought ruin forgotten; for the writer of this, when on thousands of the industrious poor accidentally looking at the first steamby superseding manual labour.
boat that was built in his Majesty's I must apologise, Mr. Urban, for yard at Woolwich, while the engineer the length of these remarks, and re- was fixing the machinery, expressed spectfully suggest to the Legislature, his surprise that such vessels had not that in the event of the New Bill go- been used many years earlier, and ing into a Committee of the House, was answered by the then masterthat, in addition to provisions for re- shipwright that they were but lately gulating the speed of Steam Vessels invented in America. Hull's patent