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1831.] Review.-Wakefield on the Punishment of Death. 539 1* vould have been the same, under different that of any other possessions, yet are they

: :ircumstances; and was therefore, in my ready to receive in lieu of it any fair com'pinion, unequal and unfair.”—p. 8. pensation, or composition. By none would

After stating his reasons for voting such a legislative measure be bailed with against the Bill, which he understood

more entire satisfaction, than by the maiu was not to be materially amended, if body of the English Clergy. But in what

ever mode the tithes may be disposed of by submitted to a Committee of the

Law, of this we are sure, that by no descripHouse, the learned Prelate concludes :

tion of persons can they be exacted with " ( however have no hesitation in declar- greater moderation, than has uniformly ing, that to any legislative enactment which marked the proceedings of the Clergy of our inay be brought forward, calculated to meet

Church."- p. 15. the general wishes and promote the real interests of the People, but which shall, at the same time, retain unimpaired the fun- Facts relating to the punishment of Death in damentals of our unrivalled Constitution

the Metropolis. By Edw. Gibbon Waketo such a measure, I, for one, shall be ready field, Esq. 12mo, pp. 198. to give my most hearty and conscientious support.”-p. 10.

IT is folly to expect cures where

medicines do not act, or success in Of the revenues of the Church, and jurisprudence where laws are inopera

the incomes of the Clergy, which have tive. The only punishments in this 23... been grossly and often wilfully exag- country which are effective, are those gerated, his Lordship observes :

of the Army and Navy; and we so“ The income of every Incumbent in my lemnly believe, that if great rogues own diocese, if their revenues were equally

were subjected to Court-Martial flogdivided, would not exceed 250l. per annum. Aod let me ask every uoprejudiced person,

gings, crime would be soon diminished in what manner this amount could be ex

75 per cent. At present the chances

in favour of the culprit are as ten to pended, with greater benefit to the spiritual and temporal interest of the people ? A

one; and these chances, as enumerated Lay Proprietor of land receives his hundreds by Mr. Wakefield, are—). Tampering and thousands without a single obligation with prosecutors and witnesses; 2. attaching, of necessity, to its expenditure. Reluctance of prosecutors from huWhilst å Minister of the Gospel, after mane feelings, to give unmitigated having perhaps expended his patrimony in evidence (murder excepted); 3. A like preparing himself for the sacred profession, unwillingness, through dread of exreceives the scanty pittance I have described, pense and trouble ; 4. Subornation for the most part residing on the spot, dis- through bribes, or restitution, though pensing to the parishioners on each sabbath day the truths of Holy Writ, and during the Perjury of witnesses, who are often

made with other stolen property ; 5. week assisting his parisioners, by counsel, hired ; 6. Commutation to transporby exhortation, by charity.

“ The account of the value of Bishoprics tation, which, says our author" (p. has been equally incorrect with that of 198), “is not an effectual punishment Livings. The Bishopric of Bath and Wells, in any case;" 7. the rarity of a capiwhich ranks, I believe, among the most tal convict under sentence of death, valuable, has been stated in several papers being ordered for execution, wherefore lately circulated, as yielding to its possessor convicts do not expect to be hanged ; 20,000l. per annum. Whereas, on reference 8. The bias of religious persons rather to authentic documents, I am able to affirm,

to perjure themselves than convict; that its average amount does not exceed a

and here, that we may not be misconfourth part of that sum.

Which of these two statements is most worthy of credit, I strued, we shall give Mr. Wakefield's

own words : must leave to the candour of my readers to determine. With respect also to the dis- “ If he (the prosecutor or witness] posal of Episcopal incomes, I must add, that religious man, you are almost sure of him ; they are nearly all expended in the discharge for, in that case, though he may of public duties, and circulated throughout stronger sense of the wickedness of perjury, the neighbonrhood in which they are re- he is impelled to conceal a part of the ceived.

truth by an unconquerable repugnance to " That the Clergy are rendered unpopular having any share in what, upon reflection, by the payment of tithes, we acknowledge he considers a judicial murder."-p. 56.

The fault, however, attaching to this mode of remuneration, is in no de

9. Difficulty of detection, the pregree theirs. Though the property be more ventive police going no further than sacred, and the tenure more antient, than making the commission of crime less

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540 Review.-Neander's History of the Christian Religion. (Dec. easy; 10. the bias of Judges and Juries at all. To men of the station of Dr. Dout to mercy rather than justice.

and Fauntleroy, detection is a severe punishThese are the favourable chances ment. Once detected, their most earnest before sentence; afterwards the deci. desire must be expatriation. If let alone, sions of the Council are so subject to they would resort to self-badishment, as the error that the officers of Newgate say, quainted with the state of society in our

only means of enjoying life. If at all ac“Those whom we know to be most guilty, penal colonies, they would fly to one of often escape ; whilst those whom we know

these as the only place on earth where misto be least guilty often suffer—it is all a conduct in other places does not subject Jottery."-p. 132.

men to the ill opinion of society. ConseThe punishments in this country quently, to persons of this class, transportaare :-1. Imprisonment with hard la

tion to the colonies would not be an evilbour, as it is called. Now there can

it would be a boon, though conferred by

force. not be a greater relief to the ennui of

" Whenever the law of capital punishimprisonment than having plenty to

ment shall be altered, a shift for avoiding do, so that the latter neutralizes the

the encouragement of forgeries for large former ; 2. Whipping, but so gentle,

sums, would be, to leave the law, as ic that the sufferer soon forgets it; 3.

exists as to forgeries, above a given sum : Death, the punishment of which is so

but a plan more worthy of an enlightened awful, that rogues escape because feellegislature would be, the substitution in all ing men hate to enforce it ; 4. Trans- cases now made capital, of some milder bus portation, which makes upon a thief yet effectual punishment. Transportation, the following impressions :

I feel convinced, is not an effectual punish“ Convicts believe (says Mr. Wakefield, that it can ever be made effectual, since

ment in any case ; nor is there any prospect p. 193) that transportation offers prospects however improved, it would involve the abof wealth and happiness. Here detection is, in itself, a severe punishment; there the surdity of endeavouring to punish at the state of society places settlers who have Antipodes for crimes committed bere."

196. committed crimes in England, but none in the colony, on a line of equality with those We recommend Mr. Wakefield's who have not committed crimes any where. book to the perusal of all rational reHere the punishment of disgrace is un- formers of our Criminal Law; and so bearable ; by being sent thither, they wholly great is the unnecessary expense of its escape that punishment. Here they are

administration, and so feeble its check without hope; by being sent thither, they of crime (murder and forgery exceptare filled with hope."

ed), that it ought to be reformed. Sectaries and enthusiasts are noto. rious for irrationality : and notwith

The History of the Christian Religion and standing the enormous mischief of for

Church during the three first Centuries, gery, they would, for the only efficient

by Dr. Augustus Neander. Translated check to it, i. e. death, in all cases from the German, by Henry John Rose, substitute transportation, by which B.D. Fellow of St. John's College, Camsubstitute the crime would be increased bridge. In 2 vols. Vol. I. Containing to a most insufferable degree. No ra- the Introduction, the History of the Petetional man can dispute the good sense

cutions of Christians, Church Government, of the following passage :

and Christian Life and Worship. 8vo, “ There is a description of forgeries, as to which detection is invariably followed by

HISTORY assures us, that perseby death,- 1 mean forgeries to a very large cutions of any particular classes of amount, such as those of Dr. Dodd and religionists, by the ruling powers, Fauntleroy,-in which cases the anger of have been uniformly instigated by posuciety gets the better of compassion, and litical objects. It is equally certain, all combine—the prosecutor, the witnesses, that Christianity, if opposed to Polythe magistrate, the grand jury, the judge, theism and Sensuality, may (as it did) the petty jury, and the tribunal of last ap- excite seditions which alarm Governpeal to inflict the legal punishment. Cunsidering the immense temptation to this ments, whose political well-being decrime, its rarity shows that the great check pend upon existing follies or abuses. to crime is certainty of punishment. If, for Add to this ignorance, that persecuthis crime, transportation were substituted tion benefits a cause; whereas the Rofor death, we should exchange a punishment mans thought which, as to this particular crime, society“ that the cause of the numerous seditions is willing to make certain, for no punishment was the great pumber of the Christians who

pp. 391.

1831.]
Fine Arts.

541 had increased so much from not being perse did the Almighty raise up children" cuted.—p. 128.

unto Christ. The people at large sanctioned these The Baal of the present day has all cruelties, because

the changeable properties of the my

thological Proteus, but all have not “ It was always a notion near the heart bowed the knee to him, or made of of the Roman statesinan, that the old politi- the Scripture a cameleon. To such cal glory of the Roman empire was closely

as these we recommend this book. dependent on the old state religion, and that It is not so much a History, for then the former could never be restored without the latter." —p. 145.

it would have been only a Mosheim,

&c., but an illustration of that hisBut mark the foolishness of man tory, by valuable comments, drawn compared with the wisdom of God. from those ancient works which are The Roman Empire was not over- denominated Scholars' books. He, thrown by Christians, but by pagan therefore, who reads that he may augbarbarians, and “ out of these stones ment his knowledge, will find it useful.

FINE ARTS. Mr. Coney has commenced another Se- Rubens' Chair, and a Pump, at Antwerp; ries of foreigo views under the title of Ar- a very siugular old House in the form of a chitectural Beauties of Continental Europe. pointed window of four lights), and a comIt so much resembles bis other work on the partmeot of the Hotel de Ville, Louvain. same subject, which we have frequently no- All description of these vignettes is omitted, ticed, that we have only to repeat our for- a deficiency which should be supplied in the mer praises, and to say that the present pub- list of plates hereafter; and the other delication will find its recommendation in its scriptions, which are by Mr. H. E. Lloyd, in more convenient size and price. The "Ca- English and French, are somewhat too brief. thedrals, Hotels de Ville, &c." is truly a magnificent work; but its stature is beyond We have before us the First Part of the that of most private libraries. The present Gallery of the Society of Painters in Water is a handsome fulio volume ; but only half Colours, undertaken by Mr. Tilt, with the the size of the former. The plates measure sanction of the Society. Its sizes are im8 inches by 104. It is wonderful with perial and columbier quarto, and the plates what little apparent effort Mr. Coney, our will be engraved un copper, because, alEnglish Piranesi, transfers to his copper, and though " the adoption of steel has almost pourtrays to the very life, the most compli- superseded the use of this metal, an effect cated views of architectural perspective, greatly superior can be produced un copper.” the picturesque scenery, and the busy traffic This plan will enable the proprietors to of the continental cities. The views in the avail themselves of some excellent artists, present part are: 1. the beautiful tower of who do not engrave on steel: and at any St. Ouen at Rouen, as it appears from the rate those collectors who delight in excluPlace Eau de Robec, a grotesque old street, siveness, will have a choice, not an hackthrough which runs a canal, crossed by in- neyed article. There are three plates iq numerable bridges; it is, we remember, the this Part: 1. A view of the Palace and head quarters of the dyers, who stain the Quay at Venice, by Prout, as finely engraved water with ever-changing hues. 2. The in- (by E. Goodall) as the beautiful views which terior of the Cathedral of Beauvais, looking have been so generally admired in the Anat once down the arcades of the choir, the nuals prepared by the same draughtsman, transept, and the west transept aile, and ex- but on a scale which admits of a greater hibiting a combination of the most elegant perspicuity in the architectural features ; 2. and lovely forms of acutely pointed architec- A very characteristic figure of a Gameture, such as can hardly be surpassed; 3. keeper, named Care, formerly in the service the Hotel de Ville, Antwerp, a magnificent of Sir George Osborne, of Chicksands, and façade of Italian architecture, erected in now of Charles Dixon, Esq. of Stanstead 1576; 4. the interior of St. Peter's, Lou- Park, Sussex ; painted by William Hunt, vain, at the eastern end; giving a near and carefully engraved in lice by E. Smith; view of the great shrine, which has the 3. Rembrandt in his Study, a picture by most gorgeous spire of tabernacle and pin- James Stephanoff, exhibited in 1826, and nacle work that we ever beheld. There are now the property of W. H. Harriott, Esq. in addition eight vignettes : the Fountains The great artist is represented painting his before the Cathedral and in the Place de la celebrated picture of the Adoration of the Pucelle, at Rouen; old Houses, and old Magi, which was purchased by his late MaArches (from what edifice?) at Beauvais; jesty George IV. for 4000 guineas; behind 542 Fine Arts.-Literary and Scientirc Intelligence. [Dec. him is his favourite pupil Gerard Douw, cation, we must repeat our testimony that and the other figures are a venerable Rabbi it is equally to be esteemed as an interesting and a lady and child in the rich costume accompaniment to the novels, a very please which Rembrandt delighted to paint. It is ing series of views, and a very beauté very beautifully etched by Nr. Charles book of engravings. Lewis, somewhat in the style of Worlidge.

PANORAMA OF FLORENCE. We have to announce the completion of A panoramic view of Florence, tabee the Landscape Illustrations of the Waverley by Mr. Burford in 1830, has been opered Novels, by the publication of the Twentieth for exhibition in the lesser circle at Le oerPart. Besides views of the market place of ter Square. It is a very pleasing picture, Peronne, of Heriot's Hospital, and Niddrie taken from the Convent of Jesuits in de Castle, it contains an interesting interior of midst of the City; and looking both up asi the garret at Abbotsford, or rather an attic down the Arno. Among the palaces on the study, rich in its stores of antique furniture, banks of that celebrated river, stand side by arınour, and other picturesque accessories, side those of Lucien Bonaparte, Prince o and showing the identical desk, or cabinet, Canino, and the Countess d'Albany, idos of in which the long-lost manuscript of Wa- the last of the Stuarts. Most of the pable verley is presumed to have been discovered.

edifices are conspicuously seen; and the da. In taking leave of this meritorious publi- tant mountains are most beautifully delineated.

By M.

LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE. New Works announced for Publication.

Marshal Turenne, Condé, the Duke of MarlA. J. Kempe, Esq. F.S.A. has completed borough, Oliver Cromwell, Heary V. for his sister, Mrs. Bray, that splendid England, General Monk, &c. proof of her late busband Mr. Charles James, Author of Richelieu, &c. Alfred Stothard's talents as an Antiquary

Private Memoirs of Hortense, Duchesse and an Artist, "the Monumental Efigies de Saint Leu, and ex-Queen of Holled. of Great Britain."

No. I. of Mr. Britton's History and The Mythology of the Hindus, with no

Antiquities of Worcester Cathedral. tices of various Mountain and Island Tribes who inhabit the two Peninsulas of India and

Royal Society. the neighbouring Islands. By Cha. COLE- Nov. 30. The anniversary meeting took MAN, Esq.

place, when his Royal Highness the Duke of An Essay on the Rights of Hindoos over Sussex was re-elected President; John Wile Ancestral Property, according to the Law of liam Lubbock, Esq., Treasurer ; Peter Mark Bengal. By Rajah RAM MOHUN Roy. Roget, M. D., and John George Children, With an Appendix, containing Letters on Esq., Secretaries; and Charles König, esq. the Hindoo Law of Inheritance. Also, by Foreign Secretary. The following is a list the same Author, Remarks on East India of the New Council; those whose names Affairs.

are in italics are the new members. Peter Who Can They Be ? or, a Description of Barlow, esq., John Bostock, M. D., Samuel a Singular Race of Aborigines, inhabiting Hunter Christie, Esq., Rev. Henry Coddingthe Summits of the Neilgherry Hills, or ton, Charles Daubeny, M. D., George Dol. Blue Mountains of Coimbatoor.' By Capt. lond, Esq., Davies Gilbert, Esq., Joseph H. Harkness, of the Madras Army. Henry Green, Esq., Rev. Dr. Buckland,

India ; or, Facts submitted to illustrate William George Maton, M. D., Roderick the Character and Condition of the Native Impry Murchison, Esq., Rev. George PeaInhabitants. By R. RICKARDS, Esq. cock, Sir George Rennie, Captain W. H.

Vol. II. of a Concise View of the Succes- Smyth, R. N., Rev. William Whewell, sion of Sacred Literature. By the Rev. J. Nicholas A. Vigors, Esq. B. B. Clarke.

A list was read, which contained the The Shaking of the Nations, with the names of the several distinguished iodi. Corresponding Duties of Christians : a Ser- viduals, fellows of the Society, who had died mon. By J. LEIFCHILD. To which is ad- during the past year; amongst these were ded, an Appendix, containing an account of Captain Henry Foster, late commander of some extraordinary Cases of Enthusiasm and the Chanticleer; Mr. Abernethy : the Rev. Fanaticism in various ages of the world. Fearon Fallows; Dr. Magee, Archbishop of

The Offices of the Holy Spirit; four Ser- Dublin ; Mr. Thomas Hope ; and the famons preached before the University of mous physiologist, Sæmmering of Gottingen, Cambridge. By the Rev. Cha. SIMEON. -His Royal Highness next read his address.

Travels in the North of Europe in 1830- It was a well-expressed epitome of the lead31. By Mr. Elliot.

ing events that had taken place in the Third and concluding volume of the Society since the royal Duke's election as " Lives and Adventures of Celebrated Tra- president. In the language of respect it Hers."

referred to the distinguished scientific men lemoirs of Great Commanders, including who, since the days of Newton, had filled

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1881.]
Scientific Intelligence. - Royal Society.

543
the same most honourable office. His (the already received by the Royal Society, as
Duke's) early education, his occupation, and above stated, has been nearly all expended in
his rank in life had somewhat prepared him the purchase of books on science; and the
for the important duties which were additional room required for the proper keep-
pected to be performed by the President of ing of these has led to a successful nego-
the Royal Society, who was the official repre- ciation, through the Royal President, for the
sentative of the institution at the British adjoining chambers, lately belonging to the
Museura, the Royal Observatory at Green- Privy-seal Office. The President then deli-
wich, and, in short, the inedium of commu. vered the Copley medal to the Rev. George
nication between the Society and other Peacock, who had been commissioned to
public bodies, as well as the Government. receive it for Professor Airy, of Cambridge,
He looked for the prompt assistance of the to whom it was awarded for his various pa-
Fellows, and disclaimed all other feelings pers on achromatic eye-pieces, and op optics
than those which had for their end the generally, published in the Cambridge Philo-
advancement of Science, and the common sophical Transactions. The royal medal
honour of the Country. Of the accom- was not awarded, in consequence of the
plished philosopher* to whom he had the arrangements regarding its foundation not
honour of being opposed at the last election, being yet permanently made.
he felt it was impossible to speak otherwise Dec. 8. The President in the chair. The
than in terms of admiration, respect, and reading of Mr. Faraday's paper « On the
good-will, which future acquaintance would connexion of electricity and magnetism,”
ripen into sincere friendship. lo speaking was continued. Philip Hardwicke, Esq.,
of the deceased Fellows, whose names had Lord Oxmantown, T. Maclean, Esq., and
been enumerated, the President character. Henry Robinson Paliner, Esq., of the London
ised Mr. Abernethy as a man of a bolil Docks, were elected Fellows.
spirit for philosophical investigation,- Dec. 15. J. W. Lubbock, Esq., V. P.
rough probably in manner, but possessing in the chair. A paper by Mr. Griffen,
in a superlative degree the finer feelings of on the Anatomy of the Ornithorynchus
the heart, which were frequently developed Paradorus, was read. Mr. W. Cubict, the
where the curse of poverty was superadded civil engineer, exhibited some beautiful
to that of disease. The Rev. Fearon Fal- specimens of reduced busts in ivory, formed
lows was another name to be remembered by an ingenious machine, in which a small
with respect and regret. Appointed by the block of ivory is placed, and after directing
Goveroment to the situation of Astronomer a part of the machine over a bust or other
at the Royal Observatory, Cape of Good object, the miniature representation is imme-
Hope, Mr. Fallows took with himn to that diately produced.
settlement a variety of exquisitely constructed Dec. 22. The Duke of Sussex, Presi-
instruments, the proper management of dent, in the chair. The communication
which, and their application to useful pur- read was an account of the volcano which
poses, being only understood by himself, broke out last year on the southern shores of
so devoted was he to the cause of science, Sicily. It was written by Mr. Davy, brother
that, even when labouring under an incurable of Sir Humphrey, and embraced not only the
dropsy, he was carried in blankets, by his author's remarks and opinions, but also those
servants, to the observatory, in order that he of Capt. Swinburne, H. M. S. Rapid. They
might wind up his chronometers, adjust his observe, that the crater is only a few feet
apparatus, and take the necessary observa- above the level of the sea. Previous to the
tions. Mr. Thomas Hope, author of Anas. eruption in June last, several shocks of an
tasius ; and Archbishop Magee, author of earihquake were experienced in the neigh-
the well-known work on the Atonement; were bourhood, leaving no doubt that the crater
names not likely to be forgotten in litera- was then in operation. During the eruption

Etna was more active than usual. The Duke's address was followed by a There was exhibited in the library a very report from the Secretary, Dr. Roget, chiefly ingenious apparatus, called a “ fire-sentinel." relating to some changes in the statutes. Its chief use is for detecting increase of heat It is settled that the election of Fellows in hot-houses. An air-filled glass bulb is shall for the future take place only on the fixed nearly in the centre of a box ; passing first meeting in alternate months. 'The sum under and in contact with the bulb is a coof 9561, raised by the sale of duplicate lumn of inercury; when the faid is acted books from the British Museum, has been upon by the heated air contaiued ju the bulb, received from the trustees in part payment it rises to a certain point, and beconies the for the Arundel MSS., and future payment medium of communication with the hammer is expected in the spring, at which period of a bell. The Right Hon. Sir James Graa second sale of the British Museum's ham, M. Magendie, the celebrated French duplicates is to take place.

physiologist, and Drs. Barry and Russel, were elected Fellows.

The meetings were adjourned to the 12th * Sir John Herschell.

of January

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