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REVIEW.-Curtis's History of Leicestershire. [Dec. “ There are obviously but two modes in for the “ ancient part” of his his. which a topographical work ought to be

tory. He has abstracted these public written,-the one in which every record,

records in the briefest possible manboth public and private, as far as possible, ner: and has not attempted to connect should be given at length, and every local

or illustrate them with those genealocircumstance and every history of men and

gical deductions without which no things detailed. But such a work, wiilat it would be worthy of the Aristocracy of a

history of the descent of property has

hitherto been considered complete. country to encourage, could only be unlertaken under such auspices, and could only

We are such cordial admirers of be completed under the patronage and fos- system and arrangement, that we at tering care of the nobility and gentry of first view were inclined to give Mr. the County at large : yet even in this case, Curtis great credit for the clearness where could talents and assiduity be found and conciseness with which he apcompetent to execute such a plan in any peared to have condensed his informareasonable space of time? and if accom

tion. But, on examining more closely, plished, it would, froin its costliness, be a

we found reason to conclude that, aldead letter to the majority of readers.

though brevity is the soul of wit," " The other mode would be that of

it is not suited to be the presiding giving the principal features of the subdivisions of the county, as regard its present genius of county history. Before we state ; and as brief and condensed a view of make any further remarks, we will the ancient records, as would reader those take as a specimen the parish of documents intelligible, and be generally ne- " Ashby PARVA, Esselie, Lytel Asshely. cessary to satisfy the casual reader, and yet

Hund. of Guthlaxton, 24 miles N. froin so much as might excile the curiosity of Lutterworth, and 93 from London; contains those more particularly interested, whilst 350 acres, 176 inhabitants, 84 houses, its the sources were at the same time pointed expenditure in poor-rates 891. 55. The soil out from whence further information night is clay and gravel. The principal landed be drawn if requisite. The latter plan has proprietors are John Goodacre, esq. who is been adopted."

Lord of the Manur, and Alsop Lowdham, In these observations the writer ap- esy. The King is patron of the Rectory, proves of a very lengthy plan, whilst which has a giebe of 30 acres.-P. N. T. he has followed a very condensed one.

41. 75. 40. Vicar 21. 38. 8d. In 1535 the We dissent both from that

Rectory was valued at 51. 78 6d. and a proved, and that he has followed. We pension of 6s. 8d, was paid to the Knights have modern County Histories (see

Hospitallers. The parish was inclosed in the reviews in our last and present

1676: it extends to the parishes of Leire,

Kimcote, and Ashly Magna, but its boundnumbers) which prove that there is

aries are not clearly defined. no occasion to print every record entire

"lo 1086 Rober: de Buci held 2 caruto fill out a work worthy the Aristo

cates, 6 villans and i bordar had I ploogh; cracy of a County ; but that a brief there were 3 acres of ineadow.' la 1245 and condensed view, provided it be the Knights Hospitallers hail a grant of free sufficiently explanatory to render those warien.. lu 1276 Dalby Hospital had prodocuments intelligible," is all that is perty here; in the fee of Ferrars were 21 necessary with regard to them; al- virgates, and the Hospitallers had a view of though there are other matters of per- frank pledge3 In 1291 Canwell Priory had

& veusion of 4s. from the church. In 1316 tinent description and agreeable illus

Theobald Verdun held { of a fee.4 To 1330 tration, which will extend an author's

Williain de Cotes lield lands. In 1936 work as far as he considers it prudent Theobald Verdun beld a fee. In 1347 to do.

Williau. Herle held lands.7 In 1350 ElizaThe deficiency of that ready access

beth de Bury, wife of Theobald Verdon, to records which was enjoyed by Sir held a fee. In 1364 Robert Heile beld William Dugdale and his coadjutors, lands ;9 Sir Robert's property devolved to has been severely felt by many subsequent authors.

It is now partially is because the Commission by which they supplied by the publications of the have been published, was originally apRecord Commission, but still only pointed pursuant to the recommendation of partially. Mr. Curtis, however, ap

Parliament; but it is a Royal Commission. pears to have considered those publi

i Domesday, vol. i. 234.

2 Calend. Rot. Char. 59. cations all-sufficient; and has conse

3 Rot. Hund. 239. quently almost entirely relied on them *

4 Ing. post mort. vol. i. 284. We know not why Mr. Curtis in his

5 Ibid. ii. 30.

6 Ibid. 71. Litle calls them “ Parliamentary,” except it

7 Ib. 135.

& Ib. 222. 9 Ib. 206.

has ap

1831.] Review.-Curtis's History of Leicestershire.

525 his nephew Sir Ralph Hastings, and the of the years 1245 and 1276; to the manor was sold about 1507 by Lord Hunt- second those of 1347 and 1364 ; to the ingdon's trustees."10

third those of 1316, 1336, and 1350 ; Now, what" disjecta membra” have and to the fourth that of 1330. The we here! It will be perceived that circumstance that Canwell Priory the sole arrangement attempted with had a pension of 4s. from the church, regard to these excerpta from the re- is quite impertinent to the history of cords is one in order of dates.

the land. The clause has been divided The account from Domesday Book from the return in Pupe Nicholas's naturally precedes, from its priority to

Taxation mentioned in the first para. almost all other written testimony; graph : but it has not otherwise any but why give only half the informa- connection with the date assigned to tion that invaluable record presents that record, since we find from Ni. Domesday Book informs us not only chols that the same payment is menof the state of the country under the tioned in a matriculus of 12:20. Norman conqueror ; but of its former It must be added that there is one more happy and prosperous condition of the publications of the Record Comin the time of King Edward the Con- mission, the Testa de Nevill, of which, fessor. At that earlier period Little though very essential to topography, Ashby had been held free of taxation

Mr. Curtis has made no use. Regardby one Godwin, who had kept half ing Little Ashby, it records two teanother plough-land in cultivation ; nures circa 1240, of equal importance and its value was six shillings, although

to those he has given. reduced after the Conquest to two. In their present state we can comThese interesting portions of the pare this author's scanty abstracts Domesday information Mr. Curtis has only to some disjointed bones placed omitted throughout his work.

in the order of their discovery upon In the remainder of his territorial the table of the geologist. The labour chronology, it will be perceived that, of the transcriber has responded to from want of arrangement, the notices

that of the excavator ; but nothing of one estate must be mingled with further has hitherto been performed. those of another, and again with other The next process must be arrangement, matters which are purely miscellaneous. before any correct idea can be obtainLet us see how far this is the case ed of the beings to which these dry with Little Ashby; but first refer to and uncouth relics once belonged. To the copious History of the County by form a skeleton, genealogy must supNichols, who had the use of the va- ply the ligatures; but, if any reluable collections of Burton and Cave, semblance to the life be desired, bioto see whether the present author has graphy must mould the muscles, and made full use of the information there give animation to the features. Mr. to be found. No: here are some re- Curtis may say that all this is far cords, which throw far greater light beyond the scope and the limits of his on the ancient history of this parish work. We reply, that we cannot exthan any of those published by the cuse the neglect of the second process Record Commission. Here are in par

we have described. To have performticular two inquisitions dated 1277 ed the first is nothing; for the records and 1296, which give a general view have been already printed, and already of the whole parish, and furnish a key furnished with indexes of places and by which alone those records that persons. His compilation forms only relate to its parts are to be arranged a Leicestershire index of places. and explained. They inform us that We do not assert that brief topoAshby Parva was divided between four graphy may not be written without different great fees, those of Ferrers, genealogy and biography. That has Peverell, Verdon, and the Bishop of been continually done in abridgments Lincoln ; and describe the quantities and dictionaries like the present; but of land and the tenants belonging to the compilers of such works have geeach. The history of each portion is nerally confined themselves to those therefore distinct, and should be dis- statistical particulars which are continctly treated. To the first belong tained in the former of Mr. Curtis's pathe fragments which Mr. Curtis gives ragraphs. Very useful is such infor

mation; and very serviceable are topo10 Nichols's Leicestershire, vol. iv. p. 21. graphical dictionaries. But when a

526

Review.-Curtis's History of Leicestershire. [Dec. history of manors and estates is at- We have extended these remarks tempted, genealogy is indispensable to further than we should otherwise hare illustrate their descent, and biography done, because we are told that the (we mean in particular those actions volume is “ the first of a series of the of the inhabitants which connect them Counties of England and Wales on with the place and the district), is the same plan.” As the undertakiog, highly desirable to lend an interest to therefore, is only commenced, our obthe detail. An unconnected catalogue servations may not be useless. Had of isolated records, must necessarily the case been otherwise, we should have all the dullness of a muster-roll; have more agreeably employed our and it is only by an interest attaching space with approbation, and extracts to families that the monotony of mere from those parts of the work which names, dates, and quantities is relieved. show that Mr. Curtis, although an We advocate no discursive introduc- imperfect antiquary, is capable of col. tion of what may be found in the lecting and imparting much valuable peerages and books of general history; general information. The introducbut only maintain that a history of the tion consists of some well condensed descent of property, to be complete, remarks on the local divisions of the will involve some account of the pro- county ; population, and contested prietors and their families; the rest is elections ; boundaries; rivers, canals, matter of embellishment.

railways and roads; geology, botany, We feel confident that the change- agriculture, manufactures, and last, ringing of carucates, virgates, fees, though not least in Leicestershire, its and portions of fees, with a certain fox-hunting. The account of Leicesnumber of ancient names, which fills ter town is written on a more liberal more than half this volume, is alto. scale than the country parishes; and gether (in its present shape) less use- we are even indulged with some bioful as well as less interesting than an graphical notices of the ancient Earls; account of a few of the most illus- and with that brief description of the trious families, and brief memoirs of Churches which we should have been the most eminent natives (like that glad to have seen elsewhere. The deMr. Curtis has given of Wickliffe under scription of the Duke of Rutland's Lutterworth), would have been consi- new castle at Belvoir is the first that dered. As it is, the most ancient has appeared, and is very complete, families of the county, who have held having been revised by his Grace himgreat estates for centuries, are no further self. We have the pleasure to extract noticed than those names through an interesting description of Mountwhich small portions of land have sorrell, a place on the high road bepassed in the most rapid manner. Of tween Leicester and Nottingham. the Nevills of Holt, a family which has existed for three centuries and a

“ The town is built at the extremity of a half, and is still remaining among the

ridge of rocky hills of inoderate elevation,

which extend' fruin this place iaco Derby. resident gentry, we are only told shire. The rock immediately at the back of

“ In 1476 Thomas Palmer held the the town is about 100 feet high, and premanor, and by marriage with Caroline Palmer cipitous on every side, the highest point of the manor came to William Nevill."

which, called Castle Hill, almost overhangs There is scarcely anything of Church the town. It is comprised of a reddish graarchitecture; scarcely anything of mo

nite, or siepite, the most perfect specimens numental sculpture; even the fine Rut

of which are red quartz, white feldspar and land monuments at Bottesford are

black shorl, in nearly equal proportions, and

is one of the most compact of all the grapassed unnoticed. The author has

nites, none of the red Cornwall being supejudiciously given the value of the

rior to it in hardness, and as such, is in glebe lands, in order to show what

considerable request, and is worked extengross injustice is done the clergy of sively. Many of the houses are built of the established Church, when they complete and unhewn masses of it. The are described as rolling in wealth; almost intractable nature of this stone long but he has not paid the reverend in- kept it out of general use. It is now nearly cumbents the compliment of mention- forty years since, having been previously ing their names, and the dates of their squared by manual labour, it was first apinstitutions, a piece of information plied to the modern improved mode of street which would have been very useful, pavement, and for this purpose it has been and have occupied very little space.

found equal to the Scotch granite. No

1831.] Review.-M. Mahe on Antiquities of Britanny.

527 thing can exceed its firmness and durability, is shown by Parkhurst.* The same when properly laid. The value of this ma- learned lexicographer further shows, terial, independently of its manifold uses, that the word Demon (a dubious paslies chiefly in the labour of detaching and

sage excepted) does not occur in any working it; and in the expense of carriage: profane Greek writer, in a bad sense, the waste is now become of enhanced or

before the time of Christ. From this nearly equal value. It is one of the best,

bad sense perhaps the very best, material of which

came the ugly forms of turnpike roads can be formed. The system

devils. The Septuagint version of the named M‘Adamizing, commenced and was

Hebrew word in Isaiah (xiii. 21), practised on the roads in this neighbour- which signifies rough hairy creatures, hood long before that gentleman could claim being rendered by daluovia, agreeably, any pretension to its invention. Its appli- says Parkhurst, to the heathen nocation for that purpose originated with the tions, that their demons, such as Pan, then surveyor of the turnpike roads in this the Fauns, Satyrs, &c. appeared in the vicinity, and its solidity was proved and its shape of rough, shaggy animals. This importance established previous to Mr.

bad sense of dæmon occasioned the M•Adam being know. Of lace years the

substitution of Catholic Saints, with uses of this alınost indestructible stone have been much extended by the judgment, en

their names, images, niches, &c. for terprise, and perseverance of Mr. Jackson,

these supposed genii, and the different who having procured skilful workmen from incorporations of the Lupercalia and Scotland, has reudered it available for archi

other heathen festivals with the Ca. tectural use and ornament. The entrance tholic ritual. M. Mahè gives us the gateway of Mr. Pochin, of Barkby, is a fair following account t of one of these sample of what taste, lahour, and ingenuity commutations. can accomplish with so stubboru a inaterial. “ In the middle of the last century (siecle) Ils consumption for all its various purposes the vine.dressers in the environs of Paris will, undoubtedly, increase ; and is will

used to place in the press a statue of Bachence form a staple article of commerce. chus seated on a tun, and obliged those The river Svar runs by the rock at a little who entered to bow the knee to the image. distance."-p. 128.

To destroy chis superstition, the time of the vineyard festival was removed to the

feast of Saints Bacque and Deonis, because Essai sur les Antiquités du departement du the one signified Bacchus, and the other Morlihan. By M. Mahe.

Dionysius.”—p. 328. (Concluded from p. 433.)

It is plain from Tacitus, CallimaTHE Celts, says M. Mahè, acknow- chus, Ovid, Lucan, and St. Augustine, ledged one supreme God, but they also that the Celts, Greeks, and Romans, worshipped Genii, Aalpoves, or secon

used to wash the statues of their deities dary gods, whom they held to be in- once a year in a river. The custom corporated with different objects of still obtains in certain parishes of nature; which objects were thus pre

France with regard to the images of sumed to possess the art of divination,

saints (p. 328). &c. because actuated by these Aalpoves.

From this and other instances M. Hence, from incorporation of them

Mahè thinks that many superstitions with birds, came, for example, au

of the classical Ancients were derived gury; the superstitious worship ren- from the Celts. dered to rivers, lakes, fountains, trees, There are, in many of our own vil&c. The two ordeals of fire and water lages, favourite old trees, under which originated in the same supposed agency the peasants assemble for gossiping. of the respective incorporated genii. This is a Celticism. Perhaps also from the Celtic theology “ Germain of Auxerre, before conversion, came the doctrine of the Cabalists, ac- offended the Christians, because in suspendcording to which the air and waters ing the heads of animals killed iu the chase, were peopled by Sylphs and Ondins upon a tree which slood in the middle of the (water deities), as the earth and fire village, he appeared to render to it the same were by Gnomes and Salamanders.

honour the partisans of the Gaulish reliThus M. Mahè.

gion."-p. 333. That such incorporation of dæmons M. Mahè rejects Auguilan euf as apwas the ancient superstition of all the plicable to the Druids, when they inheathen nations, and presumed to be of antediluvian origin and the foun- * V. Δαιμονιον, p. 139-141. dation of all idolatry by Maimonides, + We give the extracts in translation.

Bath ;

are common.

528 Review.-M. Mahe on Antiquities of Britanny. (Dec. vited the people to attend the cere- duction; the braccæ, because all the mony of cutting the misletoe (Ad Barbarians upon Greek monuments, viscum, viscum Druidæ clamare sole- and particularly the Trojans, Phrybant), because the word is a French gians, and inhabitants of the Tauris, compound. He also rejects Pelletier's, who were Celts, wore “ des chausses the "Breton word Eghin an eit [the plissées” (p. 360). corn shoots), because it is cried on the He also traces goblins, like Millast day of the year. We hold our ton's Lubberfiend, and Shakspeare's author's objections not to be incon- Puck, to the Celts, through the Greek trovertible.

and Roman authors, and the Northern Aninscription Sul MinervÆ, found nations, because he thinks that manat Bath, is mentioned by Mr. Lysons; ners and customs which obtained in but the etymon is unknown, though all these nations, had a common Cel. the Sulfes (whence some have derived tic origin. Sylphs) were tutelar Gaulish gods. The Loup-garou (a Gaulish not Sulvæ also occur in Fabretti. Sul has French postfix) Cotgrave defines by a been called Celtic for our Sun, and the Mankind Wolfe; such a one as once same as the Latin Sol; but says M. being fiesht on men and children, will Mahè,* heaul is the true Celtic word; rather starve than feed on any thing and Vossius proves that the Romans else; also, one that, possessed with an changed, in the adoption of foreign extreame and strange melancholy, bewords, initial aspirates into S, whence leeves he is turned Wolfe, and as eaul became seaul, and afterwards Sol. Wolfe behaves himselfe; also, a HobNow Aqua Solis is, if we recollect goblin, Hob-thrush, Robin-good-fellow; rightly, the Itinerary denomination of also a night-walker or flie-light; one

and if Sol and Sul were syno- that's never seen but by owle-light.nyms, Sul-Minerva may imply only a This superstition and power of taking panthean Deity, of which instances the forms of various animals, or of

metamorphosing human beings, M. The junction of hands upon making Mahè believes to be Celtic, because a bargain, the Breton Toca, derived Circe was a Scythian Celt, born in from the Hebrew Toa, which is of the Colchis; Mæris in Virgil had a similar same sense, is plainly shown to have power; the Neuri, a Celto-Scythian been an Orientalism, transmitted to nation, also, according to Herodotus; us from the Celts, originally Asiatics. the priestesses of the isle of Sein likeThis custom is alluded to in Job xvii. wișe, according to Pomponius Mela; 3, and Proverbs xxii. 26, and by Xe- as well as our well-known Merlin, of nophon and Diodorus (p. 348).

whom our author says, Dumplings t are of Celtic origin, for

“ If we may believe Forcatulus (dle Gall. the Greek word totos, which sig- imp.), the enchanter Merlin must have innifies bouillie, is synonymous with the herited this marvellous power from the Breton pouls; and Jerom, turning into above priestesses ; for this author pretends ridicule the heresiarch Pelagius (a

that he was born in the isle of Sein, and latinism of his real name Morgan,

rendered great services to King Arthur, which signifies, in Breton, born on the founder of the knights of the Round Table,

sometimes under the form of a dwarf, somesea, or in a maritime country), calls

times under the form of a varlet, sometimes Stolidissimus et Scotorum pul

uoder that of a stag; and the Englislı Antibus prægravatus." The dumplings Lals report, that lie gave to King Uterius of the Bretons are made of buck-wheat,

the features of Goulois, Duke of Cornwall, eaten with curds and whey (see p. 348). for the execution of a criminal enterprise.

M. Mahè assumes that the beds of (Delrio. Disq. Magi. L. ii. p. 187)." the Bas-Bretons, their loose trowsers Thus M. Mahè (p. 361). (braccæ), and caps or bonnets of the

We recollect that Taliessin and females, assimilating that of the gods other Welch bards do mention decocdess Nehalennia, are of Celtic intro- tions of herbs, which were thought to

produce the power of vaticination; and * P. 345.

also pretended transformations of the + Or Frumenty, gy? but we thiok from

person, palpably by masks and disHigden, that Puthis signifies dumpling; and guises, and such pretences and decepN. Mahè culls Breton pouls, a " bouillie l'ion masive,” which does not apply to fru- This is not to be treated as legend, menty.

for Atheneus says it was a Celtic custom.

him “

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