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1831.]
Present State of Stonehenge.

519 tant stone, the bearings of its north- said, still exist. This coincidence of west side and the side of the prostrate structure confirms the idea of Stonestone just strike the north-western henge and circular druidical temples side or edge of the stone at the east- being devoted to the worship of the ern side of the entrance. That some Sun, mark or notice of the proper entrance Stonehenge, though possibly, nay was requisite, is evident. When we certainly, not the largest temple of the reflect on the nature of the structure, rude aborigines, for Avebury must that it was circular, composed of a have been much larger, yet probably course of upright stones similar to was the most complete in form and one another, with nearly the same in- design of all the Druids' temples (for tervals between each, it would be dif- such alone in reason can it be con. ficult to distinguish the small differ- sidered). * The rude beauty of the ence of the interval assigned for the design had probably gained it more entrance; and it is rational to sup- fame and pre-eminence than others, pose these stones were planted to di- and was therefore that to which refer. rect the passenger. One stone would ence is made in writers as, “The not serve to point direct with sufi- Temple.” Its antiquity may be of cient certainty, therefore two were the remotest period, which its rude assigned, to serve as pointers to the structure denotes. The rude temple, proper entrance.

The fallen stone no doubt, had its priests or appointhas doubtless been once upright; this ed attendants and inmates, if such being the position of all the stones can be called inmates, who dwell in a of the structure; those now prostrate place open on all sides to the wind's in the temple being evidently disturb- blast. Their abode might be in the ed from their sites. The soil raised circle. The interior or theatre might about this stone, which gives the ap- be kept for holy offices of ceremony pearance of a kind of vallum or ditch, alone. The circle of the outer vallum I consider has arisen from the re- or ditch, may denote the sacred boun. moval, at some period or other, of dary which none but the priests were the soil accumulated on the stone in to enter without permission; withits fallen state,

in which, and the outer circle of the Conjectures on the temple may be temple, the ministers belonging to it various, indeed endless. History ap- might range and exercise themselves. pears to assign it to the worship of That the country round was populous Apollo, and this agrees with the idea the tumuli evidently prove; and the of its being assignable to the Sun; and numerous remains of the entrenched open circular temples would certainly camps, whether Roman or Saxon, in best accord with ideas relative to the neighbourhood, and throughout that luminary. They would agree

Wiltshire and Dorsetshire, are eviwith the idea of its supposed orbit, dence of the population. and the real orbit in effect by the What can be more probable, and earth's diurnal motion.

what can be better supported by facts, spaces would time its progress, both

than that unlettered man in his first as to the seasons and the days, and worship and reverence, would direct be a sort of horologe kept by those his attention to that glorious luminary tutored in the arcana of the Druids, the Sun ?-the generator of his daily the learned of the rude aborigines of blessings,—the vivifying power of the the soil. Mr. Chardin in his Journey earth, and plants and fruits,-the into Persia, when he descends from source of his own subsistence, and of the mountainous country of Taurus, raising into animated being the insect or Tabreez, at three days' journey tribe, symbolical of eternity, in regementions that he saw circles of stones neration and change. Such would be on his left. The country where they the obvious considerations of rude but were, I should suppose, from its being reflecting man, and the consequence described as offering pasturage for such-namely, that the object of unihorses, consisted of large open plains, versal adoration of self-taught man and the ancient Persians were worship- would be the Sun ; and such has been pers of the Sun, and fire as the symbol found to be the actual existing fact of of the Sun. The country of Baku lies all mankind, emerging from the sanorth of the part where Chardin speaks of these circles, and where to * Vide Davies's Rites of the British this day the worshippers of fire, it is Druids, p. 306, &c.

The open

520

Vicars of Frome.-Costs in Law-suits. [Dec. vage state, as we may say, of primi. can scarcely be described.

One general tive ages, into arts and settled courses

feeling seemed to pervade the whole popuof life. Such was the adoration of the lation of that extensive parish. Men of all Druids. Such was the more refined parties and religious persuasions seemed Apollo of the Greeks and Romans.

anxious to testify their esteem of a man who, And such is verified to the present

in the true spirit of Christian toleration,

exerted himself on all occasions to advance hour, in the hymn of those forlorn

the cause of religion, and promote univerchildren of the earth inhabiting the

sal amity and concord. His general urbanity sterile and desert arctic regions. of manners endeared him to all; his imparThat such worship would be accom- tial conduct as a magistrate caused him to panied by the superstitions and the be respected. The family gave no particuinhuman practices and cruel pro- lar invitation, but the corpse was attended pensities of the savage life is but too from the Vicarage house by nearly all the probable. That such blindness and clergymen in the neighbourhood; by all the error would pass away in the course

dissenting ministers in the town (who highly of ages, as Christianity induced a

to their honour made a point of attending, more pure philosophy, is proved by without one exception,) by the trustees of the fact itself , in our more congenial large part of the principal inhabitants, who,

the public charities in the town, and by a notions of humanity, our more amelio

in deep mourning, and with due solemnity, rated condition, and by our looking moved forward to that church in which had back with grief and horror on the suf- been so often heard the instructions so finely ferings of men through their own ig- delivered by him who could instruct them norance and blindness in ages past. no more."

G. G. V.

There is a monumental inscription P.S. Since the above was written,

to his memory in the chancel of the during the high winds that of late

church. He was succeeded in 1813, have prevailed, one of the western

by the Rev. C. Phillott, the present standards has been blown down.

Vicar.

In the article respecting Frome Mr. URBAN, Frome, Nov. 15.

Church, p. 116, col. a, l. 16, when

speaking of the Rev. Wm. Everett IN your volume xci. part ii. p. 114,

(Mr. Ireland's brother-in-law), for Church - notes from Frome.

Rector in the year 1809, read Proctor Your Correspondent having left un

of Oxford University in 1809. noticed the series of Vicars of the

Yours, &c.

RETRIEVER. same, I beg to supply the deficiency.

Lionel Seaman became Vicar of Frome in 1747. He was Archdeacon

Mr. Urban,

Dec. 21. of Wells; having married Jane eldest THE Costs in Law-suits have been daughter of Edward Willes, Bishop constant subjects of just complaint of Bath and Wells (the Bishop's third throughout Europe. The custom of daughter Jane married Edward Au- giving Costs seems to have arisen in brey, D.D. also Archdeacon of Wells.) France, and to have been introduced Dr. Seaman was succeeded in the liv.

at the institution of appeals, upon the ing by Dr. Ross, then Bishop of Exe. making of the new laws of St. Lewis.* ter, in 1762 ; and Bishop Ross by the The principle of giving Costs was with Rev. William Ireland, in 1793. This a view of deterring litigious people from divine, perhaps the most distinguish- bringing law-suits, from the fear of ed, certainly the most eloquent, of the being mulcted in costs. A general incumbents of this parish, was M.A.

ordinance upon the subject was, in the of St. John's College, Oxford, July 7, year 1324, enacted by Charles the Fair. 1780. He filled the living for 20 years,

In proceedings, brought upon the old during the greater part of which pe

customs, the party complaining only riod he was an active Magistrate for

recovered a fine, and the possession of Somerset. On his death the follow- the thing litigated for a year and a ing testimony to his worth appeared day. in a provincial paper ; it well deserves Í have noticed these few points in to be recorded in your more perma

the hope of inducing some learned

correspondent to assist me in inquiries "The remains of the late Rev. Wm.

which I am now making upon the subIreland, Vicar of Frome, were interred in ject.

TEMPLARIUS. the chancel of the parish church on Thursday; the solemnity of the scene was such as * Defontaines; Beaumanoir; & Boutillier,

are

nent pages :

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South Yorkshire. The History and Topo- rally assumed under the hands of an augraphy of the Deanery of Doncaster, in thor, who is not inclined to lose the least the dincese and county of York. By the tangible particular that bears on the Rev. Joseph Hunter, Fellow of the Societies

main subjects of his pages, and yet is so of Antiquaries of London and Newcustle,

fearful of prolixity as to avoid almost all and an Honorary Member of the Yorkshire Philosophical Association, The Second quotation, and sometimes to give his Volume. fol. pp. 508.

original narrative the air of an abridgment.

We have here nothing superIN no department of literature has

fluous ; and, altogether, the work is there been more variety of execution

the most readable throughout of all the than in topography. It has ranged topographical works we ever perused. from the humble (though now cu

The excellent essay on English To-, rious) compilations of a Gent to the pography, which was prefixed to the celebrated labours of a Dugdale. In

first volume, we transferred to our modern times (and particularly since the introduction of engraving on steel)

own pages at the time of its publica

tion. It is an essay which has renbooks bearing the name of topography, dered diffic and of county history, have multiplied tion of the merits and uses of topo

any additional exposiapace; but they have been little more

graphy in general; but which, in the than vehicles for pretty prints. An plans of topographical composition original work on the subject finds which it untolds, and the sources of other welcomes than those of its sub- information which it describes, is calscribers. It is a reservoir from which culated greatly to facilitate the ata tribe of compilers are ready to draw tempts of those who are inclined to off, and dilute, and rebottle to all exemplify those uses and merits with eternity. It may be generally remark- regard to districts not yet adequately ed that those places which have been described, and to join in the honouralready best described, are most liable able task of perpetuating the local to find new historians. So true is it

history of their country. that facile est addere inventis ; but,

We subjoin a few additional realas! the additions of these retailers

marks from Mr. Hunter's present preare too often a poor balance against

face : their omissions and perversions. To break up a new field of topogra

“ I liave prefixed to this

volume a second phical research, is a far different pro

impression of the Map. That in the first cess; requiring the skill of the critic

volume is coloured, so as to present at unce in combination with the assiduity of

to the eye the parochial distribution. The the lawyer. It is to such a task that map here presented to the reader is colour

ed, so as to exhibit at one view the feudal Mr. Hunter has applied himself in this

disposition of the lands which compose the work; for of the Deanery of Doncaster Deanery, or, in other words, the tenancies scarcely any description had previously held inmediately of the crown. been published ; and he has, we may “ The history of these tenancies bas long venture to assert, by the originality of appeared to me the most convenient manner his materials, as well as the judicious in which the topography of a county, or of use he has made of them, produced a any other division of the kingdon, can be work as completely the fruit of the prepareil. It gives unity to the work. It author's mind, as are the plays of

saves from wearisome repetition. The civil Shakspeare, or the romances of Scott.

and the ecclesiastical history best combine. It is a dissertation on the topography The monastic story rises easily and natuof South Yorkshire; but a disserta- rally. Every thing pertaining to parochial

history tiods its proper place. It presents tiou comprehending every important clearly before the reader the imporiant disfact that has been found bearing on tinction of the over-lord and the mespe. the subject. Where information is so lord. It has the advantage of proceeding seldom complete, but so many links may be supplied by collateral circum- See our vol. xcvii. ii. 10, 122. The stances and analogy, this seems to be first volume was reviewed ibid. pp. 140, the form which such a work has natu- 235, 324. Gent. Mag. Decemler, 1831.

p. 37.

522
Review.-Hunter's South Yorkshire.

(Dec. upon the soundest basis of evidence, the in- adjacent park; and a tenantry living under formation contained in that publest of all his patronage ; a beautiful licile church ; a records-honour be given to him who de. commodious parsonage near adjoining ; . vised, to him who executed, and to those resident incurubent; and an unspoiled recwho have so carefully preserved it! - tory. There is also a rich and fertile soil; DOMESDAY- Book. It is, inoreover, the and by the modern convenience of a curbest preparation which can be made for that pike road, an easy communication with the great national work, which will be under- two markets of Rotherhain and Doncaster. taken when the labours of topographical Correspondent to these advantages there is enquirers shall have been extended to all at Thribergh the appearance of cleanliness, the members of this great kingdom-a Bri- cheerfulness, and comfort. TANNIA, which, whosoever undertakes, must “ It Inay be added, that, having been proceed, not by counties, not by dioceses, from time immemorial the residence of fanot by hundreds, but by the great feudal milies of the first raok among the geotry of distributions.

the county, there is someching to give an “ This is, I believe, the first book of interest to the place, which belongs not to English topography which has been prepared lards which have merely been the seat of upon this plan."

agricultural operations, the same from year It may be necessary to add, to pre

to year ; something to stimulate those who

have succeeded to the men who lived before vent misapprehension with those who do not see Mr. Hunter's work, that thein, to connect the present with the past, he has not followed this arrangement

and to grow wiser and better by doing so." so closely as to disturb the integrity of the parishes, each of which he has

In his biographical sketches (he does described in a distinct and unbroken

not trust himself beyond a sketch) shape, only taking them in the order

Mr. Hunter is peculiarly happy, as which appeared most consonant to

we may show by quotation hereafter. their feudal disposition and connec

In his genealogical researches his skill tion. It perhaps remains to be proved He has contined his pedigrees to the

and industry are very conspicuous. how far ihis desirable mode of topo. graphical arrangement may be found period in which families have enjoyed practicable in those parts of the king- lating their origin or extinction in his

the estates he describes, briefly redom where the parishes were gene

narrative. The statements of the old rally more divided among different

heralds have received a most scrutifees; but we find that Mr. Hunter has not been deterred from his plan by oc

nizing investigation; and some of their casional instances of that kind ; nor

forgeries have found, among others, has he hesitated to make a few partial Bosvile, living temp. Hen. III. it is

the following reproofs. Of Sir John deviations from his rule, on account

remarked : of some connection of places tantamount to that for which the rule is “ 'The heralds of Elizabeth's reign indeed established. With respect to the co

attempted to show his descent; and the relouring of the map, he adds :

spectable name of Glover is subscribed to a

pedigree prepared in 1586, in which Sir “ In general it will be found that the Jolin is shown to be the son of a Sir Thnboundaries are pretty correctly defined; but mas, son of John (by Maud, daughter of in places which lie in several distinct fees, Thomas Mountenay, governor of London.) it has been found impossible to mark with son of Sir Anthony, son of Martin de Bosprecision the parts which belonged to each vile, who, not to be behind the rival family fee, and it has been presumed that the por. of Fitz-William, is described as treasurer of tions pertaining to each fee, were those the army of which Sir William Fitz-Wilwhich lay adjaceut to what are koown to be liam was the marshal. There is not the lands belonging to that fee."

least attempt in Glover's pedigree at supportTo a topographer proceeding on Mr. ing the descents by evidence, and it is buc Hunter's plan, the place described in

too plain that they are fictions.”—p. 109. the following paragraph must wear Again of the family of Savile : the aspect of a paradise :

“ The English heralds bave mixed the “ In the whole economy of Thribergh proved with the probable in an extraordinary there has been no departure from what ap- manner in the history of the early generapears to have been cootemplated by our an- tions of this family; they have a marriage cestors as the perfection of one of the mi- for every generation, when if the generacions nutest subdivisions of our country. It is themselves were any thing more than conone manor, one township, one parish. There jectures, some of the marriages at least may is one resident lord, with bis mansion and be shown to be quite fictitious. The He

1831.] Review.-Curtis's History of Leicestershire.

523 ralds of the sixteenth century, to whom we that is perfectly satisfactory by the investiowe much of the genealogy of Englaud, are gators of English topographiy.' a body of men of whom it is difficult to

(To be continued.) speak with high respect, although arnungst them is the name of Glover, on account of their having asserled so much, and proved so A Topographical History of the County of lillle. Vincent had not then appeared in the

Leicester, the Ancient part compiled from college.”—p. 261.

Parliamentary and other documents, and

the Modern from actual survey: l'eing the Having already quoted Mr. Hunter's

first of a series of the Counties of England eulogy on Domesday, we will take the

and Wales, on the same plan. By the present opportunity of appending his Rev. J. Curtis, Hrad Master of the Free opinion of the most extensive transla- Grammar-school, Ashly.de-la-Zouch, and tion of that record, which we find Perpetual Curate of Smisly. 8vo, pp. under the parish of Hooton Paynel,

272. where the Rev. William Bawdwen was WE have here a County History in Vicar from 1797 to 1816 :

miniature,-a very

“ Iliad in a nut,” • Mr. Bawdwen is to be ranked among little more than the same number of

a county of 214 parishes described in those clergymen who have contributed to the topographical literature of England. pages. The work is, however, of a He devoted a great portion of the leisure totally different character from the which the duties of his parish allowed hini, hasty compilations to which we alluded to the study of Domesday Book, a great in the preceding review. Unlike them, part of which noble record he translated it comes forward without any pictorial with the intention of publishing the whole allurements, relying alone for estima. in an English version. He began with the tion on the solid value of the informapart relating to the county of York, and the

tion it presents. It is industriously district called Amounderness, which he pro- compiled from records and statistics, duced in a quartu volume ; and this was suva

ancient and modern ; and it is not a followed by another, containing his rendering of the Domesday survey of other counties.

sketch, but a dictionary. But a general translation of Donsesday

It is prefaced by the following someBook, if such a translation can be of any

what satirical observations, which we use, where the translation is scarcely more presume have been suggested by its intelligible than the original, is too mighty comprehensive though somewhat dis2 task for any one haod to execute. It is cursive predecessor, the History of not enough to compare the local nomencla- Leicestershire, by Mr. Nichols; whose ture of Domesday with any Index Villaris of eight folios, produced by a man ac. the present time, and to put down the naine

tively engaged both in private and in modern pomenclature, which corresponds public business in the metropolis, the learest in orthography with some name form a work which we frequently conthat appears in Domesday; and yet this is what every translator of Domesday must do

template as a stupendous monument when he is employed upon portions of that

of industry and perseverance : record which relate to parts of the king- “ Topography, in the estimation of writers dom with which he has no personal ac- on the subject, comprises a history of what

uaintance, and the early history of which ever was, or is ; or perhaps it might be bethe has had no means of studying. The ter designated as a Treatise de omnibus rebus record itself, the noblest original which any et quibusdam aliis ; and hence arises the country in Europe can boast, will always be confusion, the irregularity, and the want of studied by all who are interested in the to- order in almost all works on the subject, pographical history of any part of England; with scarcely any exception. It might be and what is wanted is not so much a trans- affirmed, without much liability of contralation, as a treatise on the reading of the diction, that in the great mass of them it record, the writer of which should not would be in vain to seek for precisely the shrink from the passages (and they are pu. same species of information, running uuimerous) which contain real difficulties and formly and invariably through all their parts apparent contradictions ; an epitome of its aud subdivisions. Thus, in one page Hevaluable contents; and an essay on the right raldry and Biography form the prominent use of it for historical, genealogical, and to- features; in another division these are thrown pographical purposes. Something had been aside, and their place filled with dissertations done by Kelham; more is done by the au- upon the Civil and Ecclesiastical Law; and thor of the preface to Dumesday, published these in their turn give way to Botanical by the Record Commission; but much still and Mineralogical disquisitions; and as the remains to be done, before that record can work proceeds as fate or chance directs be generally understood, or used in a mapuer they are agaiu revived or lost in oblivion.

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