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514
On the New Métropolitan Coal Act.

(Dec. mestic apartments, and in all cases timate the consumption of coal in nomakes a deposit of soot in our chim- blemen and gentlemen's families from nies. This matter is so well under- this cause alone at less than twenty to stood by engineers and persons en- thirty per cent. beyond what it ought trusted with the management of steam- to be with any moderate economy. To engines, that the superintendents are many servants the recommendation of directed to throw on only a very small economy while in good service, would portion of fuel at a time, or in such be about as effective as to preach about quantity only as shall immediately probity to a receiver of stolen goods, enable the vapour from it to be con- But when the day arrives that those verted into flame, instead of allowing persons have to pay for their own conit to pass up the chimney-flue as dense sumption of fuel, the case widely dif. black smoke.* The portion of heat fers : and it is possible, Mr. Urban, lost to any apartment from this source, that some such persons may perchance in the lighter or more inflammable see the present number of your Magaspecies of coal, may be estimated at zine, and be reminded of their former not less than one fourth of its value : errors in this way. for, taking the whole quantity of gas

The admixture of ashes with small obtained from each chaldron of good coal will undoubtedly effect a consibituminous coal at eleven or twelve derable saving of fuel, perhaps equal to thousand cubic feet, about a fair ave- twenty per cent. But as it would, if rage, we may estimate the gaseous pro- quite dry, have a tendency to ducts of the coal as the major half of through the grate too freely, that obits value. Indeed the comparative jection might in a great measure be weight of coal and coke from the gas

obviated by slightly wetting the mass works will give very nearly the same

either before or after laying it on the results.

fire ; and thus enabling the small coal Now with the view of economising to cement or cake together. this inflammable gas for domestic pur

Another mode of economising fuel, poses, several plans present themselves not unworthy of attention at a period to our notice, besides that of supplying when we are threatened with a visitafresh coals to a fire in small quantities. tion of the most serious kind, is that of Every good housewife knows that a mixing small or inferior coal with a fire made with part cinders and part given quantity of clay, or, if convecoal is a more durable fire, and affords nient, with a portion of any dry vegemuch greater heat, than one made from table matter in the mass, such as the fresh coals only; the reason of which is sweepings of stable-yards, barns, or obvious : the cinders, which have lost out-houses, and then forming the mass their gaseous products, serve to retain into balls, which should be left to dry. the escape of the bitumen, or oily Although such kind of compost would smoke, of new coal, till it becomes ig- not be adapted for fuel where for domes. nited, and thus gives out considerable tic purposes an active fire is requisite; heat to the apartment instead of es- yet in a majority of cases, where a slow caping up the chimney.

fire is only required, or where it is deBut the same object may be attained sirable to prevent a fire made of coals by using ashes mixed with fresh coals; only from burning out with too much though the system may not meet the rapidity, a very great saving of coals approbation of extravagant servants might be effected by covering the coal who have a direct interest in the

fire with a layer of such compost of amount of their master's coal account,

small coal, clay, &c. so as to prevent from the pernicious system of trades

the inflammable gas of the coal from men allowing a per-centage on many passing up the chimney withut being articles of consumption, to the upper ignited. servants in large establishments. It

The abundance of fuel in this counwould not perhaps be too much to es- try, together with the injudicious con

struction of stoves, renders the con

sumption of coal at least double what It would be foreign to the objects of it need be with the same degree of domy present paper to enter into any descrip- mestic comfort under economical mation of the methods employed in steam-en- nagement. There is little probability gine and other furnaces for consuming the of extravagant servants being induced smoke.

by any arguments to economise fuel,

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1831.)
Present State of Stonehenge.

515 more especially those who have the figures of which called by substantial reasons before-mentioned. Stukeley and others ovals, and by I am not without the hope, Mr. Urban, Inigo Jones, hexagonals. By my that some of the before-mentioned measurements these two orders of the suggestions may be found worthy of stones stand concentric, or nearly so, consideration by a very large portion with the outer circles ; consequently of the industrious classes of society, they form a portion of a circle, as far who from the want of adequate em- as they extend. They have consisted, ployment and the pressure of the first, of an outer set of five pairs of times are enduring infinitely more pri- stupendous rocks, with a third placed vations of the necessaries of life than on, or crowning the top of each pair. the sturdy pauper who boldly throws Two pairs and two single ones himself upon the parochial funds. At main standing.

The standards of the present season of the year fuel be- each pair are set very close together ; comes as much a necessary of life as but a considerable space or interval food. If, therefore, by the dispensa- occurs between each pair; and in the tions of Providence, the Metropolis front or opening north-east, a very should become subjected to the scourge large space or interval occurs (45 feet), that now afflicts the northern part of which has no doubt led some people the kingdom, every suggestion that to conclude a sixth * pair was formermay serve to alleviate the iniseries of ly existing; but this was evidently the humbler classes, by inculcating never the case, for the space is filled habits of economy, must be acceptable up or marked with a straight line by to the public through the valuable me- the continuation of the inner small dium of the Gentleman's Magazine. order of stones, which give a figure PHILANTHROPOS.

to the two interior orders of a large

portion of a circle (or nearly that Mr. URBAN,

July 16. figure). Taking the diameter of the HAVING visited Stonehenge in a circle at 52 feet, on the radius + little excursion I lately made, I beg of which the extreme inner angles of to offer a few observations on that the great standards are placed, the in. extraordinary edifice.

tersection at two points on the radius, Most persons who have visited these giving the space of 45 feet between remains, I believe, remark that they them, will cut off about one-fourth of do not impress any idea of grandeur, the circle, and consequently leave or produce any imposing effect, when three-fourths for the space included viewed at a distance. This certainly within the stones : thus giving a very was not the case with me. When 1 good form of a theatre, with a front looked down from the brow of the hill or proscenium, where the straight line on the Amesbury road, these yet mag- is marked by the smaller set or order nificent ruins, denoting a circular of stones, to view or look into the intemple, the distinct parts of which were terior part. The straight line of the composed of single massive rocks, im- part forming the front, determines the pressed on my mind a stupendous work figure, and necessarily precludes the of vast but rude conception.

introducing a sixth pair of standards, Having myself conceived a notion, which, therefore, we may conclude that it was

a temple, the form of never were in existence. There is which had reference to celestial ob- no vestige of such; and no account, jects, and that the sun was probably I believe, not even the oldest, detailthe object more particularly con- ing any particulars of the form and templated by the people who planned order of the stones, ever alludes to and erected it, I was no way dissa- there having been any. tisfied with reading the ideas of others In support of this notion, that the on this subject, and not discouraged in this idea on my closer view and

* This led Inigo Jones to call the figure inspection of the remains. I made a close and careful examina

hexagonal, and Dr. Smith to imagine there

were seven pair of standards ; but Stukeley tion, and took measurements of many only speaks of ten of these stones, which parts, which I believe are tolerably only make five pair; all of which, standing or accurate. The result is to give a dif

prostrate, were in existence July 1831. ferent figure to the two interior or- + King, speaking of the figure as oval, ders or arrangements of stones; the says, the shortest diameter is about 52 feet.

516
Present State of Stonehenge.

[Dec. figure was as stated, the space be. liquely, with one end covered in the tween the inner corners of the great earth, at the south-east, and in front standards at the front (a pair of which of the large leaning standard at the are standing on the east side, and a back of the theatre, which hangs over single one the northermost on the it, and lies in fact between the southwest) which I measured to be about ern end of the large fallen impost of 45 feet, is, as I have before stated, the back pair of standards and the marked by a straight line of smaller small taper inner stone, on which the stones from side to side. Of these great leaning standard apparently rests. there are four remaining, one of the This stone I measured, and found its small taper kind of stones, and three dimensions corresponding with the flattish stones, with spaces just suf- stone called the altar, the part coficient for two other stones, thus vered being added to that exposed. making the number six in all, and The measurements of these stones I forming the line of the proscenium made less than Mr. Webb's account or front. The small inner taper stated in Stukeley. Time may have stone is on the east; then there is diminished their size; but my mea. a space between that and the next, surements correspond with the proa flat-shaped stone, for a similar portions in Wood's plan. shaped stone. The three remaining The stone called the altar, accordflattish stones come next in a line, at ing to my note, is rather better than about equal distances from each other, four yards long and one wide, and and in a line with the small taper half a yard thick. The other I have stone and the interior side of the re- alluded to was nearly the same, that maining upright standard on the is, three yards and a half uncovered, north, with space between the flattish and as far as I could thrust my stick stone nearest that side and such re. under the earth, I felt the stone: I maining standard, for a small taper may safely add half a yard more for inner stone.

this. The breadth and thickness corThe form of the theatre or inner responded with the stone called the compartment would, according to altar. Both stones evidently lie out what can be designed from the re- of place ; but the fair supposition is, mains of these interior orders or ar- the one being underneath the fallen rangements, be represented by the an- standard and impost, and the other nexed sketch : (see p. 517).

close by them, that they are near the To confirm this idea, there are two original site, and have been thrown other fattish, dark-coloured, and very down at the same time, from their hard stones, like finty slate, (forming lying next and under the great stanpart of the line of the second or small dards at the back : that this is the circle of stones), which stand in a line case, there can I think be no doubt. with the stones at the entrance in the It will be seen, from there being two outer circle, and the two central flat- stones as just described, the idea of tish stones of the front of the theatre, the stone under the great standard and which seem to mark the line of ap- impost being the altar, and that it laid proach or entrance into the theatre. flat, and has not been disturbed from

Much has been observed by writers its original position in the edifice, as to the altar stone, and in the course cannot be right. That it formed part of my examination 1 directed my at- of the altar is probable; and I tention to this subject. I was much beg leave to offer this conjecture. surprised to find, after what I had there being a pair of stones, as beread, that instead of one stone (that fore described, evidently lying as they underlying the greater fallen standard

were first prostrated, they formed two at the back and the impost), there is uprights in front of the two inner upanother, as similar as it is possible, right taper stones of the inner order, and of the same quality of stone, but and in front of the two great stan. rather darker, lying close by it, as if dards, and mark the place at the foot thrown down at the same period. of which the victims of sacrifice were The stone * I allude to lies ob- immolated ; and let it be observed,

This stone is shown in Wood's grounds that there is a little impost lying to plan of Stonehenge; but the size is not cor

the east towards the entrance, berectly or proportionably given, and the cor

tween the outer circle of stones and ner or end under the earth is marked so as the two interior orders; this small to appear as if broken off.

impost is of such inferior dimensions

A FIGURE OF STONEHENGE (SUPPOSED COMPLETE), 517 Showing the several orders or arrangements of the Stones, with the Stones supposed to denote

the proper entrance. The figures, with separate spaces between them, are intended to represent the Standards of the outer circle, and of the Theatre. The figures upon them, the stones on the top or the imposts. The dots, the second circle of small stones, and the inoer order of small stones. The small figure of uprights and impost, the supposed altar. The two stones E. and W. on the vallum or ditch, it is considered may be some of the standards of the outer circle attempted to be dragged away at the com. mencement of the demolition of the Temple, ages past.

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518
Present State of Stonehenge.

[Dec. to all the other remaining imposts directed; and having thrown down which could ever have formed im- the altar, the spoilers would attempt posts, either to the outer circle, or to take away the small impost or those of the great inner standards, crown; though its great size stopped that it could not have been one of their progress. them.

In the spirit of religious zeal, when The dimensions of this small im- Christianity began to be introduced, post are one yard, wanting an inch, and gained ascendancy, I conceive between the inner edges of the mor- this temple might have been an obtices, which are scooped or formed ject of vengeance, and it is probamore circularly than the mortices of the ble that the first part of the destrucother imposts appear to be. The mor- tion (whatever time may since have tices of this small impost are nearly one contributed) was the hand of man, foot wide at the mouth or opening, and directed by some impulse of viewing about one foot or 18 inches within the it as an abomination; and it is possiextremities of the stone; so that these ble to conceive, that after the altar was dimensions would give a length of prostrated, when the first great fallen from 7 to 8 feet. Now if these two stone of the standard and its enorstones I have just alluded to as the mous impost were overthrown, these altar, were set upright and near toge- remains would be left in the state in ther, as each pair of standards are, which they have been recognized for this little stone would just reach over ages. both, and form a crown or impost to I noted the small inner taper stone, them;

and make a corresponding form on which the great standard at the or figure for an altar, similar to the back leans or rests, as having a groove great standards, but very inferior in from top to base. It is too regular size. The little impost is of a hard not to be artificial, and to assign it a compact sandstone, of the same kind

suppose it might serve to lodge with the large upright stones or stan- a pole or ensign, perhaps the staff of dards, while the two stones alluded to the chief Druid, that might be fastenare of the dark kind. It might be ed by passing a string or thong round worth while to examine the end of the stone : and hence an idea arises, the two stones, as a tenon or trace of that the smaller taper stones might such might be found, and if it were, it serve to bind or fasten the victims, would confirm this conjecture. I ima. either of prisoners or cattle, to be ofgine the prostrate stone lying obliquely, fered for sacrifice. There can be little and near the leaning standard, to have doubt but they are sunk very deep, fallen outward ; and, if so, a tenon and firmly fixed in the chalk soil. I may be discovered at the end conceal- also noted that in the second circle, ed under the earth. If this little im- among the taper stones, there appeared post is not that of these two stones, some flattish stones, some of which are then I cannot conceive in what other in a line with the entrance I have bepart of the structure it could have had fore noticed; but there was another a place. It is too short to leave a at the south, near or under one of the space wide enough between the sup- large outer stones that was thrown porters to pass under, and there ap- down or broken. The dark stones appears nothing corresponding in the pear of two kinds; one I believe called whole place, or in what can be col- a grunstein, and the other a kind of lected from the remnants, to assign it flinty slate. The small stones, in gea place, or call for its use otherwise neral, appeared of the sandstone kind. than as an impost at the altar. To Of the two outlying stones in what account for its lying apart from the is called the avenue of approach, if there back of the theatre, or where the were not corresponding standards to two stones are lying, the smallness of make pairs and bear imposts, which I its size would render it more easily think was not the case, as there are moved than the two stones, its sup- no remaining signs of such construcposed supporters. If the desecration tion—then, as we must assign a meanof the temple was begun by human ing for what we do find to be in exhands, of which in my mind there is istence in all relics of this kind, no doubt, the altar or place of sacri- it is reasonable to suppose that these fice, as the most sacred part, would be two stones marked the line of apthat to which most attention would be proach; for, standing at the most dis

use, I

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