Imatges de pàgina


Beating of Bounds.-The Ducking Stool. [Dec. veniently vend their goods; and the ble for; and at a few they scourged sales were directed to take place un- sundry little boys, to imprint upon der the superintendance of the Mayor their minds a memory of particular and Burgesses, subject to certain re- places by means of painful associagulations specified in a charter of tions. The perambulation concluded, merchandize which had been granted the Mayor formally claimed the whole to them in the reign of King Henry space as belonging to the lordship of III. They were authorised to impose Grimsby; and by this practice, an. a toll of four-pence for every cask of nually performed, litigation was prewine exposed for sale within the port, vented, and the rights of every adjoinand to receive the King's dues along ing parish, as far as they related to with their own toll; and were exhorted that of Grimsby, were accurately deto take especial care that the King fined. In these perambulations the was not defrauded of his customs. jury levied fines for nuisances. This traffic produced a good revenue “Grimesbie Magna, 11 Car. I. The to the town purse; whence we may perambulation of Richard Fotherbie Major reasonably conclude that it was some- taken the 21st day of Ap. anno sup'dic't what extensive. The coins above

It is pained that the frontigers on both mentioned were doubtless introduced sides the fresh water haven from the Sals by these merchants, who continued to logs bridge to the Milne, shall scover the trade to the port until the decayed haven, and make a sufficient drain, every state of the haven rendered the intro- man against his own ground. That the oce duction of large ships impracticable.

cupiers of Goule Garthes shall sufficiently Geo. OLIVER.

ditch and scower the ditches under the hedge before Whitsuutide, sub pæn. 10s. *

These duties performed, the Mayor Mr. URBAN, Grimsby, Dec. 9.

and his brethren adjourned to the IN redemption of a promise made preceptory, to partake of the procurain a former letter, to offer for perma- tor's good cheer; for it was one of nent record in your Journal, an occa- the articles of his tenure to provide sional article containing an account of ample refreshment for his visitors on certain ancient customs used at Grims- this occasion. The particulars of the by; I now beg to call your attention

progress were then recorded in the to two exploded practices, which our Boundary book, and the party disprecise forefathers thought it both use- persed. ful and necessary to observe for the benefit alike of the morals and property which were consigned to their briefly notice, as practised by our fore

The second custom which I shall superintendence. The first of these is territorial, and was technically that instrument, so terrible in the eyes

fathers in Grimsby, is in the use of termed “beating the boundaries.” The annual perambulation of the

of scolding wives, the Cuckiny Stool. boundaries was a ceremony of great

It was erected near the Stone bridge, antiquity and importance in the Bo

at a place which is still called Duck

ing-Stool Haven, and was used here rough of Grimsby, and in an old do

from the earliest times.Madox has cument amongst the Corporation re

recorded an instance in the former cords, it is stated to be a custom of

part of King John's reign, where the ancient usage. The day was ushered in with appropriate solemnity. The community of the burgh were fined

ten marks for consigning a poor woMayor and his brethren, in their robes of state, attended by the commonalty In 1646 the machine was probably

man unjustly to the Ducking Stool. of the town, assembled at the hospital of St. John of Jerusalem, and heard

out of repair, for the Chamberlains Divine Service in the chapel of that presented it to the Court on the 15th

day of October in that year, and it house, performed by the chaplain thereof. After which they “ beat the

was ordered to be renewed without boundaries” by perambulation; that

delay; and thirty years afterwards

it came into full operation. A woman is, they proceeded round the extremities of the parish in every direction;

* Corp. Rec. 11 Car. I. pausing at certain points to mark them

+ A representation of the Ducking-stool, by peculiar ceremonies. At some they and the mode of its application, was extractoffered up prayers; at others they ed from the History of Ipswich, in our prethrew money for the people to scram- sent volume


On the French Pronunciation of Latin.

505 named Jane Dutch, about that time conduct was carried to such a length, was repeatedly subjected to the ordeal, without respect to persons, that the without deriving the least benefit from churchwardens were heavily fined for the application. It is recorded of her neglecting to present her in the Ecclethat the frigidity of the wave, even in siastical Court. the depth of winter, was insufficient The last lady who occupied the to cool the fervour of her tongue. exalted situation of chairwoman in the Between every dip she favoured the Trebucket was Poll Wheldale, about spectators with abundant specimens of the year 1780. She is represented as her exhaustless eloquence; and when being possessed of great volubility of the watery castigation was at an end, speech, and somewhat addicted to though dripping wet, she saluted her scandal withal. This latter quality persecutors with such an overpower- acquired for her the distinguished tiing volley of high-sounding tropes tle of Miss Meanwell. The Cucking and rhetorical flourishes, as convinced Stool was ultimately removed in the them that her weapon of offence was unconquerable. Indeed, her disorderly Yours, &c. Geo. OLIVER.

year 1796.




servations,' to be unaware that the

spelling of Tite Live (Teete Leeve) Mr. URBAN, London, Dec. 8.

accords as nearly as possible with the

pronunciation of Titus Livius among ON the subject of Latin Pronuncia- the ancient Romans as well as the tion, your Correspondent Mathetes, modern French, although he may p. 419, with considerable self-compla- possibly feel surprised at so novel a cency assumes a position which Eng- position being advanced by an Englishmen, unacquainted with continen- jishman. We have the authority of tal languages, are frequently in the habit Cicero and Quintilian, that the forof maintaining. He says that "the mo- mer did not pronounce the letter 8 dern French (mis-)pronunciation none before a consonant; though they were can defend; that pronunciation which in the habit of pronouncing it before a cuts Titus Livius down to Tite Live, vowel, precisely as the French say, vous can but ill express the stately march

avez (vooz-ave), and avez-vous (aveof the Roman tongue.” Thus, because voo). Thus we find that Lucilius, the French pronunciation of Latin dif- Lucretius, Catullus, &c. suppressed fers materially from that of the Eng; the letter s in their poetry; as Magnu' lish, it must, according to Mathetes' leo, Torvu' draco, Vide'ne, Sati'ne, assumption, be necessarily wrong; al- Multi’modis. Ennius appears to have though it is universally admitted that continually suppressed the final 8 : the English system is opposed to that

Ut faceret facious levis, aut malu', doctu', of every nation in Europe, even where the Latin language may be said to be Suavis homo, facundu', suo contentu', beatus.

fidelis, almost vernacular. Now the mere pronunciation of Titus Livius, as Cicero states that even final syllaadopted by the Romans, can be com- bles ending in 8 were sometimes cut paratively of little interest at this off, before a vowel, as vas' argenteis, time; but when we reflect that the for vusis argenteis. Now it is reasonsubject embraces the grand principles able to suppose that if the pronunciaof Latin pronunciation, by the palpa- tion of is were omitted in vasis, it ble violation of which Englishmen are would also be in argenteis, which debarred all oral intercourse with learn- would render both the words pure ed foreigners through the medium of French, vase argenté. The following that universal language, it certainly verse of Cicero's shows that even in deserves our serious consideration, and his time the s was frequently unsound. will continue to be an object of interest ed in poetry, as it was in general conso long as that majestic tongue consti- versation : tutes the basis of a liberal education. Delphinus jacet haud nimio iustralu' niMathetes appears, from his obGENT. Mag. L'ecemler, 1831.




506 ClassicAL LITERATURE.- French Pronunciation of Latin. [Dec.

The ancient Greeks present us with or otherwise we entirely destroy the similar examples :

rhythmus of the verse. If Livi were "Ωρη εσπερίη χρώζει πολίφωνο κορώνη. followed by a word commencing with -Aralus.

a vowel, as Quintilian observes that the Latins

Livî et Ciceronis ab ævo, pronounced “post meridiem”as if spelt the final i of Livî must necessarily be “po'meridiem,” precisely as the French elided ; thus at once giving the French do.

pronunciation of Live (Leeve), which The final 8 thus being omitted in Mathetes says

none can defend !” the usual pronunciation of the Ro- Precisely the same elision and curtailmans, it follows that if the syllable ed pronunciation would take place in us in Titus or Livius were pronounced

the dative and accusative cases, as is at all, which in the rapidity of con- well known to every prosodian. versation is very questionable, it must As to the accusative termination of have been extremely short ; perhaps Titum Livium, not even MatheTES similar to our y in Livy, or the French can defend the labial mode of prosound of e in Tite Live, which, though nouncing it, because all the Latin comparatively mute in colloquial in- poets prove that it cannot be correct; tercourse, is always pronounced in and if we are to depend on the authopoetry and historic reading with a rity of Cicero and Quintilian, the final sound not unlike the short u or y of if sounded at all, must have been the English and Latin languages; as, pronounced like the French palatic Gustave, jeune roi, digne de ton grand nom.

or nasal enunciation, which faintly -Voltaire.

sounds m and n in a similar manner. But when the following word be

Litera m, si scribitur (says Quingins with a vowel, the French, like

tilian) tamen parum exprimitur; adeo the Latins, always elide the final short ut pæne cujusdam novæ literæ soe; as,

num reddat;"

- and Priscian says, O verité sublime! O celeste Uranie.--- 1b.

m obscurum in extremitate sonat, ut Thus we shall find that the spelling

templum.Thus the French have

innumerable words from the Latin of Tite Live by the French (the pro- with the final m omitted, as temple, nunciation of whose Latin MATHETES

vente, vin, fin, nation (from nationem), asserts “none can defend!”) is in ac

Cicero also remarks, cordance with the pronunciation of religion, &c.

that the final sounds of m and n were the Roman æra, as well as that of the modern French ; that is, if we are to

so nearly alike as to create ambiguity. consider Cicero and Quintilian as au

As some proof of this, I shall quote

the annexed couplets, which, if dacthorities. As to the French pronunciation of They are extracted from a hymn writ

tylically read, are intended to rhyme. the vowel i in Titus Livius, there can be no question of its propriety, being

ten by Pope Damasus before the de

cline of the Latin tongue, and may be that of all Europe* excepting the

considered an excellent authority in English, who have no uniform me

favour of the French pronunciation : thod, as appears from the two dis

Ethnica turba, rogum fugiens, tinct pronunciations of the vowel in Titus Livy; though in the latter name,

Hujlis et ipsa meretur opem ;

Quos fidei titulos decorat, while correctly enouncing the i, the

His venerem magis ipsa premat. English are guilty of an error in quantity by shortening instead of lengthen

To an Englishman the reading of ing the vowel ; which the following

the above presents a difficulty ; but to verse of Horace will show :

a Frenchman there is none ; and thus

it is that the former is frequently inAd nostrum tempus, Livi scriptoris ab ævo.

capable of correctly reading Latin verTo pronounce the i open or broad in Livi would be vulgar even to an Eng

sification, on account of the numerous lish ear; and in sounding it close, we

ecthlipses and elisions which occur

therein, while the latter is perfectly at are compelled to lengthen both sylla

home. Let us take for example the bles, precisely as a Frenchman would;

following French exclamation :Your intelligent correspondent, Mr. Monstre informe, injuste,-exemple enorme Barnes, bas very clearly elucidated the sub

et inique ! ject of Latin pronunciation in p. 320.

Now to convert this into a Latin

Egyptian Hieroglyphics.

507 spondaic hexameter, we have only to in short, that they are letters, as much add the terminations um, and the as those of the Hebrew alphabet. verse is complete :

It is known that the names of the Mõnstr'um informe, injūst’um, -ēxempl'um

Hebrew letters are the names of ēnārie ēt ioiqu'um.*

things, to which the letters themselves We are, however, compelled to read

are said to have some kind of likethe line according to the French eli


As BETH, a house; Gimel, a sions, if we attempt to preserve the

camel ; and so on. And it is certain rhythm, or follow the common rules

that one could invent, in an hour, a of prosody, which, by the way, most new alphabet for the English lanEnglish scholars set at defiance in guage; which a man used to reading practice. Not even Mathetes could might learn in as little time, and with here prefer the English cacophonous

as little difficulty. Thus, a represenlabiality of sound, to the eliding and

tation of the moon, of an ax, and of a palatic smoothness of the French nail, would make the word man; reading.

since they would mark the several In conclusion, allow me to ask MA

modifications of the organs of speech Theres (as he thinks that the French used at beginning to utter their names ; Tite Live “ can but ill express the

and would therefore be equal to m, a, stately march of the Roman tongue")

and n.

And to give another example whether the English system of cutting

or two, a hat, an ax, a nail, and a dart, down "Ounpos and Horatius, to Hô

would write the word hand. A saw, mer and Hórace, can be expressive of

a cat, and an eye, would make sky; that “stately march” which his ima- and an ax and a bell would do for ab, gination has pictured. The French

as well as aleph and beth. write Homère and Horace, merely

Now if this system would apply to curtailing the final syllables us or um,

the Egyptian symbols, either sacred which I have proved the Romans did or common, it would be impossible to not usually pronounce, but still re- decypher them but through the Coptaining the original quantity by iam- tic or Egyptian language. That is, bicizing the words, as Hòmēre for Hě by seeking the Coptic names of the mērus, Hörāce for Hěrātius; while the objects represented; then giving to the English cut them down to paltry tro

symbols the force of the first modifichees, and thus destroy nearly every

cation of the organs used at begintrace of the original classic accent. ning to utter those names; and lastly, Surely this “can but ill express the finding whether the symbols being stately march of the Roman tongue!” put together, would form Coptic words; with the melody of which, Erasmus,

which, if the Coptic is really the anScaliger, Buchanan, Milton, and Vol- cient Egyptian language, they should taire, were so enraptured ; and which

do. the English profess to admire without

Of course I do not mean to put up sufficiently understanding.

my opinion in opposition to that of Yours, &c. P. A. NUTTALL.

the learned, though the hypothesis that Egyptian symbols stand for things

or words, has many difficulties. Mr. URBAN,

Dec. 5.

1st. For in that case the Egyptians I HAVE not seen M.Champollion's

would have wanted as many characPrécis du Système Hiéroglyphique

ters as the Chinese, which they do des anciens Egyptiens;” but should

not seem to have had ; and, like to know whether the learned have

2d. Because it is not easy to conever tried to decypher the Egyptian ceive how they could express verbs, symbols by supposing them to repre

and particularly their moods and sent only the modifications of the or

tenses ; the cases of nouns, particles, gans of speech, instead of words; or,

and proper names, in that system;

and if they did not express them, the According to all analogical probability,

system must have been almost unininiquum was contracted in pronunciation to iniquě, in the same manner as Titum was

telligibly wanting. pronounced Titě, according to the French

3d. Because, if the symbols had remode of spelling, and in poetry of pronounc

presented objects, the modifications ing, the vowel i of course being sounded

and situations of which told the story close, as in our own derivative word ini- written by them, they would have quilous.

been as well understood by Greeks as

-is well ren שונא תקעים בוטח ,gnome


CLASSICAL LITERATURE.—Book of Proverbs. [Dec. Egyptians, and there would not have At ch. X. 16, we observe an imbeen any need of the Greek versions provement in the version, as follows : in the biglot inscriptions ; in which, The earnings of the righteous man by the way, a proper name is some- minister unto life; the revenues of the times given with two or three sym- wicked man unto sin.” To which is bols ; a fact that seems to favour the appended the following neat annotahypothesis which I am inclined to

tion : adopt.

W. BARNES. • The wealth of the rigliteous man, bse

cause of the proper use which he makes of A new Translation of the Proverbs of it, tends to his happiness: the wicked man, Solomon, by William French, D.D.

on the contrary, makes his riches only sub

servient to selfish gratification, and thereand George SKINNER, M. A. 8vo.

fire to hiin chey are no blessing, but a (Concluded from p 421.)

source of dangerous temptation.” WE resume our notices of this va- At ch. xi. 15, the brief but pithy luable work, of which we detailed the

, plan, and gave some specimens of the dered, “he whó hateth those who execution in our last number. To do strike hands shall be secure;" except it adequate justice, it would be desi- that we see no sufficient reason for rable to give some portion in conti- retaining a harsh hebraism, for which nuity; but our limits oblige us to con- the framers of our common version fine our critiques to particular pas- have substituted an equivalent expressages.

sion, throwing the other into the mar. On chap. vi. ver. 16, “These six gin. Idioms are not to be rendered things Jehovah hateth ; yea, seven are literally, unless there be a correspondhis abomination ;” the annotators well ing idiom in the language into which remark on the mode of enumeration it is translated. It may be interest. here employed as not unfrequent in ing to notice, that among the sayings the Gnomic portions of the Old Testa- of the Seven Wise men of Greece we ment; e. g. Job v. 19, Eccl. xi. 2. have εγγύην φεύγεν. It should seem At ver. 30 and 31, the “but when that Thales had heard of this adage of of our common version is well altered Solomon, which is also found at sito “ yea when ;” and in the note it is rach, xxix. 18. justly observed, that the guilt of the At ch. xi. 18, we have the follow. adulterer, and also the punishment ing much improved version : “ The which he will receive, are further to wicked man toileth for fallacious earn. be inferred from the treatment experi- ings; but he who soweth righteous -enced by the thief, whose crime may ness, will have a sure reward.” On be attended with circumstances of pal- the term soweth, the Translators apliation; whereas that of the adulterer positely compare Hosea x. 13. This admits of none." We would add, is not, however, a mere orientalism. that this is one of those not unfre

So Antiphanes ap. Athenæum, p.3, E. quent cases, both in the Old and New Επείρειν τε καρπόν χάριτος, ήδίστης Testament, where the application, or θεών. . inference, is left to be supplied ; q. d. At ch. xi. 25, on the beautiful say“ How much more deserving of con- ing “he who watereth (i. e. liberal to tempt and indignation is the adul- others) shall himself also be watered,” terer !” In the present instance it is it is remarked, that this is an image pointed at in the strong emphasis in- taken from the effect of copious showers tended to be laid on thief, which should upon the parched earth. It may be in an English version be expressed in added, that this is not a mere orienItalics.

talism, since the same metaphor is On chap. ix. 1, it is remarked, that found in Aristophanes, Acharn. 659. “ in this and the five following verses, Katápdwy, where the Schol. explains, Solomon represents Wisdom as having Καταβρέχων υμάς τους επαίνους, ως erected her palace, and prepared a φυτά. . splendid banquet, to which she invites At ch. xii. 9, we observe the sense, all such as had unhappily been drawn which is strangely mistaken in perinto the ways of error and wicked- haps every other version, here for the ness.” The annotators also compare first time accurately expressed, as the parables of our Lord, Matt. xxii. 1, follows: “He who demeaneth him. and Luke xiv. 16-18.

self, and becometh a servant, is better

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