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320 CLASSICAL LITERATURE.-The Pronunciation of Latin. [Oct. some new, are scattered about as ifject will atone for its length; and with the place was a workshop instead of a the hope that it may be the means of church.

drawing the public attention to the I conclude this letter, in which I church, and that, like York Cathedral, have outstripped the bounds I intended, it may owe something to the press, I but I trust the importance of the sub- subscribe myself,

E.I.C.

we do.

a

CLASSICAL LITERATURE. Mr. URBAN, Mere, Oct. 10. though it would not be easy to learn MY reading the well written paper what was the exact pronunciation of on “ Italy and the Italians,” in your the ancient Romans, it would be very number for June, and talking about easy to speak it more correctly than the same time with a descendant of the “gens togata,” led me into a A was always ah among the ancient train of thought on the pronunciation Romans. of Latin, as it was spoken by the Ro- 1. Because, as say the grammarians, mans, and as it is now read by the was made the first letter of the scholars of Europe. Some of the latter alphabet from its having the most must be wrong, inasmuch as they dif- simple sound, and its being most easily fer from each other; and few are likely uttered: and ah is a more simple sound to be exactly right, because they give than ā, because it is formed by only the Latin letters all the peculiar sounds opening the mouth, while the latter is they have in their own tongues. not made without putting forward the

It is not likely that the Romans tongue in a particular way with relapronounced the vowels as the English tion to the palate. do

2. Because it is pronounced so in 1. Because we are singular in sound- all languages written by the Cadmean ing them, having all the alphabets of alphabets. Europe against us; and because our i 3. Because we are forced to proand u are not indeed vowels or simple nounce it so in some places in Latin ; sounds, but dipthongs; i being form- and as the Romans had not our rules ed of à and e, and u of e and oo, for altering its sound, and did not use altered in quick succession.

marks for it, we must suppose that 2. Because we give different sounds they always sounded it ah. to the same vowel, as followed by 4. Because it is not necessary to single or double consonants, or con- alter the sound of the vowels for the nected with particular letters; as the sake of quantity; for in the Italian a in quartus, pater, pannus: thus pro- ămāre the first a is short, and the other nouncing Latin by the rules of English, long, though they have both the like of which the Romans knew nothing. sound.

3. Because we must suppose that E. If the Romans pronounced a, ah, the Romans gave Latin all the melody they of course pronounced e, ā, or ay. of which it is capable; and it is less Because, as e is the vowel next to a in melodious pronounced in the English the alphabet, so ā, next to ah, is the than in the Italian manner.

most simple sound. 4. Because, however the Italian 2. Because e is a in Italian. language may be corrupted, it is the 3. For the third argument on the true offspring of Latin ; and its alpha- sound of a. bet is therefore likely to be more con- 4. Because by so sounding it, we sonant with that of the Latin than is make Latin words borrowed from the English.

Greek more like the originals, as yow, If the English mode of pronouncing genu; putaiva, arutena; Tareia, platea, Latin is wrong, the next question is, &c. : and adversus, adversum, vertat, whether it is possible to find out the vestrum, more like advorsus, advorright one ; and, if it is, whether the

sum, vortat, vostrum, as those words knowing it will be worth the search. were sometimes written. To which we may say, that, if a lan- 1. If a and e were ah and a,' we may guage be worth learning at all

, it is say as confidently that i was ee. Beworth learning correctly; and, if Latin cause it is formed by the next step of is the common language of scholars, approximation of the tongue to the they should all speak it alike : and, palate.

1831.]
On the Pronunciation of Latin.

321 2. Because it is so in Italian, and V was no doubt like our V, though other languages.

Littleton in his Latin Dictionary says, 3. Because we pronounce it so in Censeo priscos Romanos V consomany cases; and the only reason why nam non aliter ferè proferre solitos, we do not in all, is that we pronounce quam nos hodie pronunciamus W,” by the rules of a language with which but allows that he has not proof to Latin had never any thing to do. uphold the opinion; and observes that

4. Because, to pronounce Julii, and according to Fabius, the ancients callfurii, Jul-eye-pye and fluv-eye-eye

and fluv-eye-eye ed it by the Hebrew name Vau; and would sound so harsh that nobody can that Priscianus states f and v to have suppose the Romans ever did so; and had formerly the same power. If V to pronounce them as we generally do, had been equal to our W, B would Jul-e-i and fluv-c-i, would be to pro- not have been so fit to take place of it nounce a vowel differently from it- as it has done, since Virgilius is self, that is, from its alphabetical Written in Greek Βιργιλιος. B and V sound, which few would do but Eng- were formerly confounded in Spanish, lishmen. I am aware of the marked and the Russians, who have most of vowels in French, German, Danish, the Greek alphabet, give the power of and Swedish ; but they are no excep

V to the character B at this day. tions; for as the marks fix their dif- AU. I should suppose that in the ferent sounds, they are equal to dif- dipthong au, the letters were both ferent characters.

sounded in the Italian manner; and J. With the Romans J was, with- not au in the English way; for otherout doubt, an aspirated I, as it is now wise they could not indeed be a diphwith the Spaniards in Ojos, o-hios, thong; a diphthong being dis pooyyos, &c. not aspirated harshly by expelling i. e. a double sound, and accordingly the breath forcibly from the lungs,

we have in Dante but by putting the organs of speech Chě nel pensier rinnūovă lă păūră. into the position for sounding pe, and In fact, as we pronounce au, we do then doing so with a slight force of

not sound either of the letters, but breath between the tongue and palate. utter a sound different from both. Its power was between that of our Y

Æ. For the like reason we may consonant, and the French J.

suppose that the Romans sounded both 1. Because the J originated from

letters in the dipthong a, which will the Hebrew ' and the Greek I.

reconcile the Latin spelling of Greek 2. Because by so pronouncing it, words, as ACO WTOS, Æsopus ; Aivéas, we reconcile the Hebrew, Greek, and Æneas ; Alodos, Æolus, &c. I know Latin spelling; as in app', 'Iakwß, the Italians are against me here, since Jacob; lâvos, Janus ; lepovo adņu, Je- they write for the plural case, case; rusalem ; and others.

bone, buone ; alta, alte; &c.: but it 3. Because the Italians still write must be remembered that, if they do the plural of specchio, occhio, and not sound two vowels, they do not others, speechj, occhi, and so on, in- write them as their forefathers did : stead of occhii, specchii ; pronouncing and if they are against me in one the j like ee.

thing, they confirm me in another, () was sounded by the Romans as since they pronounce the e, aie. we pronounce it in the alphabet, but C. Another question is, whether the not as we sometimes sound it in words: Latins pronounced C soft before e, i, as in opera, for which we say aupera, and y, or always hard like k. I should when it should be o-pay-ra; for we think always hard. can have no ground for supposing that 1. Because that was certainly its the Latins sometimes made 0 a Greek alphabetical sound. ®, and at other times a German a. 2. Because, as Littleton says, “ Cum

U was on, or the U of the Italians, literæ altera alterius sibi potestatem as we generally sound it. I have assumant, magnam necesse est oriri stated before that it could not have confusionem;" for if Cis sounded like been like our alphabetical U, which is S, it is not easy to distinguish between a diphthong; and as few will be apt to Cella and Sella ; Cedo and Sedo; Cenpronounce it as the French or Welsh sus and Sensus; Cicer and Siser ; Cio U, we need not say more on the subject. and Scio; and others. Gent. Mag. Octoler, 1831.

322 CLASSICAL LITERATURE.-Statue of Cyril Jackson. (Oct.

3. Because by giving it the power quoted, thinks that the Goths are to of k we make Latin words from Greek blame ; qui,” says he, sibilum more like the originals; as Kevt pov, istum veteribus ignotum et inauditum centrum ; Kidapa, cithara ; Kipkos, cir- in Latium invexêre.” But whoever cus ; KUKVOS, cygnus ; Kumpos, Cyprus, brought it into Latium, it is gone out and others; and the past tenses of again now, since Natio, Conversatio, verbs more like the present, as cano, are in Italian Nazione, Conversazione, cecini ; capio, cepi ; cado, cecidi ; for pronounced Natseeonay, Conversatseeowho would suppose, from the sound nay, &c. This however has not long of seepi, that it was the verb capio ? been the spelling, as we find in old

Because the Germans still call their copies of Italian authors Natione, and Emperor der Kaiser,” which is with- Conversatione : but we know the Itaout doubt the Latin word Cæsar, for lians have corrupted the sound of those the Cæsarean operation is in German letters, because they have turned tio Kaiserschitt.

into zione, and tia into za, dropping G. If C was always hard, we may the i altogether. be sure that G was; for they are so Y. seems to have had a sound nearly equal in power, that, according between that of U and I, something to Ausonius, Ċ was originally used like the French e in le. instead of G, which is proved by the 1. Because the ancient Latins used “ Columna Duiliana," where agnam U instead of it; Ennius having Purrum and legionem, are written acnam and and Fruges; for Pyrrhum and Phryges. lecionem.

2. Because it took place of the Greek But there is yet a stronger proofv, as in Kuapos, Cyprus ; Kukvos, cygthat C and G were always hard. We nus ; Kuduvopos, cylindrus, &c. know that ad, ob, sub, &c. before some 3. Because there was no need of it, consonants, dropped their last letters if it had exactly the sound of I or U, and took those consonants instead, as though perhaps of the two it was most in il-ludo, ac-cido, oc-curro, suc-cedo; like u. and that they took not only the cha- To put my meaning in the clearest racter, but also the sound of those let- light, I have subjoined the first four ters : for the people had most likely lines of the Æneid, spelt according to worn down the words into those the before supposed pronunciation of smoother shapes by long and continual the Romans. use, before they had cultivated gram- Arma veerumquai cahno, Troyaee quee preemar and writing at all : as the irre

mus ab orees

(vainit gular verbs of all languages have been Eetahliam fahto profoogus Lahveenahquai worn out of the regular form of con- Leetora; moolt' eel' et terris yactahtus et jugation by greater use, as naturally

alto

[ois ub eeram. as pebbles are smoothed down by at. Vee soupairoom, saeevaee memorame Yoonotrition. Now in the word suc-cedo, if Yours, &c. W. BARNES. we pronounce it suc-sedo, the sub certainly drops its last letter, and takes, what? the character, but not the sound STATUE OF CYRIL JACKSON, of the first letter in the root : but the

AT CHRIST-CHURCH, OXFORD. character alone is nothing: for I argue WISDOM is on that brow : with reverence that the practice was known among

tread, the Latins before they cultivated gram- Ere he rebuke our trespass overbold : mar or writing at all, as in Welsh, For, lo, he wakes; the monuinental cold different letters take place of each Warms into respiration; and the dead other in particular situations, maen

Resign him back to govern as of old becoming faen, maur, vaur, and so on;

The sons of Wolsey; on each youthful head not by a foremade rule, but as a natu

To call down benediction, and unfold ral effect of the genius of the language.

The treasury of his mighty mind, that The hard and soft c and g of Spanish, Our path with all the pomp, of classic lore,

spread Danish, and Swedish oppose me. Let

Or taught us to contemplate and adore. the scholar draw his own inference.

Breathe ever thus authority and law, TIA, TIO, TIU. We cannot suppose Look thus, thou living marble, ever more ; these letters were pronounced sha, That folly from thy presence may withdraw, sho, shu ; that t before i and another And vice and riot die in holy awe. vowel sounds like s. Littleton, before Overlon, near Marlborough, C. H.

1831.] Statue of Newton. - Quantity of Suspicio?

323 STATUE OF NEWTON.

Trojano libri sex, Latino carmine a TRINITY-COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE. Cornelio Nepote eleganter redditi.” CAN sculpture think? or hath the soaring

The question then arises, what is mind

the true quantity of suspicio ? The Left here below the mere corporeal mould, second syllable has perhaps been Not now more statue-like than when of old, wrongly shortened on the supposed

Entranced in contemplation, he divined authority of an Augustan writer, when The mysteries of earth and heaven, assigned we perhaps should rather have fol

Laws to the planetary spheres, controlled lowed the example of Martial, who The comets, bade the sun his blaze unfold

thus lengthens it : Into the many-coloured hues that bind The showery arch : and onward pressed alone

Ollinilur minimæ si qua est SUSPICIO rimæ.

XI. xlv. 5. Into the firmamental worlds of light, Where e'cn the Seraphim with trembling I shall leave the settling of this trod;

point to some correspondent more acThen turning, at the footstool of the throne, complished in metrical knowledge, be

Upcalled us, through the radiant infinite, ing content with having traced a line To prostrate prayer before the mount of of doubtful authority to its true source. God.

The poem in which it occurs, contains Overton, near Marlborough. C, H.

some elegant and spirited passages,

but is in a very corrupt state even in Mr. URBAN,

the latest editions. For some account HE who prevents a scholar from

of Josephus Iscanus, and his works,

see Fabricii Bibliotheca Latina, edited wasting his time, may perhaps claim the next palm to one who puts him in by Ernesti, vol. i. p. 114, or rather possession of a valuable piece of know- Valpy's Delphin Classics, No. LXXXII. ledge. A small discovery may there

p. 639, where Fabricius's Notitia Lifore be worth communicating to you,

teraria is reprinted with some additions.

R. R. as circumstances might possibly render the ascertaining of such a trifle de

C. Julius Cæsar's Commentaries on the Galsirable, though it would not repay the

lic War, from the Text of Oudendorp, with trouble of seeking.

a selection of Notes from Dionysius Vossius, In every edition of the Latin Gradus,

from Drs. Davies and Clarke, from Oudenwhich I have had the opportunity of dorp and other Edilors and Philologists : consulting, the following line, 'ad- to which are added Examination Quesduced to prove the quantity of suspicio, tions. By E. H. Barker, Esq. late of is attributed to Cornelius Nepos :

Trin. Col. Cambr. For the use of ColSuspicione Paris, ne credile, ludimur, inquit.

leges and Schools. Post 8vo. pp. 265.

WE shall not discuss the general Its claim, however, to this Augustan merits of the Commentaries ascribed to authority is false : the line in fact be

Cæsar, whether written by him or not. longs to Josephus Iscanus, or Exo

Of their utility we have ample proofs, niensis, and occurs in his poem de in the information which they give of Bello Trojano, lib. ii. 192.

our own ancient history. A difficult

At æger iniqua part of that history is a satis-superque Suspicione Paris: Necredite,ludimur, (inquil,) for our present scanty limits. As Dardanidæ, &c.

might be expected from Mr. Barker, How, then, comes it to be ascribed the work is excellently edited. to Cornelius Nepos ? The Latin poem The part to which we allude, is this, de Bello Trojano, about whose real au- Tabulæ reperlæ sunt, literis Græcis conthor there is now no doubt, was once sectæ. attributed to the classical biographer.

“ In another part of these Commentaries, At least it bore his name : as, for in

6, 14, Cæsar relates that the Druids, in

matters which did not concern the discipline stance, among the "Belli Trojani scrip

of their own order, that is, in private and tores præcipui,” &c. Basil. 1573, it

public transactions, were accustomed to use appears with this strange title : “ Da

the Greek letters. By Greek letters, I here retis Phrygii poetarum et historicorum

understand the Greek language.' Strabo, omnium primi de Bello Trojano liber

4, p. 181, confirms this very statement; primus, Latio Jure a Cornelio Nepote for he informs us that a little before his carmine festivo donatus.” At the end own age, the custom prevailed in Gaul, of also of Spondanus's Homer it is en- writing the forms of agreements, of contitled :

Daretis Phrygii, &c. de Bello tracts, and of loans in Greek, Ta ovu borano

324

On the Universal use of Greek by the ancients. (Oct. .Eaanuoto cyga¢ovorAnd here I interpret been misunderstood. He is speaking, "Enanyioti in the Greek language.' Since, in the passage quoted, of a Muster Roll then, this practice prevailed in Gaul even or Census of the Population ; and!Zo. in the time of Cæsar, we may understand simusk informs us, that there were by the expression of Strabo “ a little before

persons called Notarii, who registered his own age, that the custon was intro

the names of troops, prisoners, &c. duced there even before the arrival of Cæsar

and who were in fact Mustermasters. in Gaul. So much on the question of time,

Who or what were the persons who so far as our knowledge goes; but as to the way in which Greek letters were imported performed this office among the Gauls, into Gaul, Strabo supplies the information.

we do not know; but, we observe, For the people of Marseilles, a Greek colony,

that Cæsar does not attribute the (Strabo, 4, p. 179. Justin, 43, 4), a little knowledge of Greek in general to the before the age of Strabo, inspired the Gauls Druids, only that they used Greek with so great a love of the Greeks ** characters “ in reliquis fere rebus, συμβολαια •Ελληνιστι γραφειν."-p. 24. publicis privatisque rationibus."

Our Commentator, to reconcile this Now we understand rationes here in knowledge with two other statements, our arithmetical sense of accounts, and, viz. that Cæsar sent dispatches in as the Gauls interred with the dead Greek characters, that they might not such accounts for payment in the next be understood by the Nervii, if inter- world by the debtors, we are inclined cepted, and conversed with Divitia. to take Strabo’s Συμβολαια in its sense cus, a Druid, through an interpreter, of syngrapha, as alienum, or pecunia supposes that the Gallic and Druidical credita. If Divitiacus was the Druid knowledge of Greek was a part of mentioned by Cicero, he understood learning not universalamong the people. both Physiology and Augury; and Ci

Borlase" says, that it was the uni- cero himself says, that they (the Latins) yersal fashion of the world to write in had only Greek words for philosophical Greek two or three centuries before and similar matters. It does not howthe time of our Saviour. Cicero, in ever follow, that because a man uses his oration, pro Archiá, says, that Greek terms, intermixed with his naGreek was read in almost all nations, tive tongue, he therefore understands Latin only in its own limits ;b and the language; and it is plain that Pliny in his Chapter of Weights and Cæsar's Divitiacus did not know either Measures, that there was a necessity Greek or Latin, for Cæsar' conversed for employing Greek terms, and both with him through C. Valerius Procilhed and Cicero, that, under the same lus, a prince of the province of Gaul. necessity, they were to be used upon We do not find, in the Roman histoall occasions. Aurelius Victor in- rians, that in the countries and times forms us, that Evander, an Arcadian, alluded to, there were any other figures first taught the Italians to read and or characters known than those of the write, and that Romulus and Remus Greeks or Latins, certainly not the were sent to Gabii “ Græcarum Lati- Arabic numerals, or Oriental letters. narumque literarum ediscendarum gra

As to the Gothic or Runic, nothing tiâ.” Capitolinus says, that Maxi- was known of it in these parts before minus Junior used to turn Virgil's the invasion of Italy. Greek, not Latin, lines into Greek verse ;3 and he and we have before seen from Cicero, was Lampridiush mention Greek Litera- the universal language of the day; and tores as distinct from Latin ones. Sue- through this universality, we presume tonius adds, that Claudius was very that the characters were both known fond of talking Greek. i So much for to and used by the Gauls and Druids. the universality of Greek. Now con

We shall here leave this useceding ‘Elinvisw to mean usage of the ful book with only two observations, Greek language, we think that Cæsar, viz. that the philological notes are in the passages questioned, may have very valuable, and that the introduc

tion of absurd wood-cuts, representing a Corowall, 34.

from fancy the Gallic cities to please b Oper. ii. 390, ed. fol. Lood.

school-boys, only misleads them. There c XXI. 34. d XVI. 5.

are plenty of real antiquities and restoe ï. 287, b.

rations, which might be used. i Hist. Ang. i. 478. & Id. ii. 231. h Id. i. 157.

k Hist. Avg. ii. 705 b. i la Claud. 42.

| Bell, Gail, L. i. c. 19.

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