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1831.]
Bushmen of South Africa.

31 during the great heat of the day, doubtless whose qualities are not prejudicial to health, soon made them aware of the want of some and many of which are doubtless possessed protection against a powerful sun, and sug- of no properties beyond those of filling and gested the present method they pursne, of distending the stomach. Amongst the most forming a sort of umbrella by the disposing useful and nutritious of the vegetable proof ostrich feathers round the extremity of a ducts, is the seed of a species of grass common walking stick. All, as well male which grows in their country, as well as in as female, betray a remarkable anxiety after the northern parts of the colony, and which, ornaments, and evince a marked desire for when cleaned and boiled, has considerable every article that appears to them either resemblance in taste to barley similarly pregaudy or oncommon. Amongst such, the pared. This at the proper season occurs in most in esteem are perhaps beads, buttons, considerable quantities, and is acquired in and pieces of copper, brass, or polished two ways—either by directly collecting the steel; and what of those they happen to tops of the grass, and then separating the procure, they attach to different parts-such seed, or by robbing the black ants which as the neck, ears, hair, loins, extremities, there occur, and who carry quantities of it &c. and not unfrequently also to their diffe- as food to their subterranean abodes. rept articles of clothing. Indeed, so strong Subservient as the vegetable kingdom is is their love of decoration, that they will, in thus rendered, the animal one is made not the absence of the more desired objects for less s0; for, from the largest quadrupeds that purpose, employ those of their own that inhabit their wastes, to the most disconstruction—such as sashes formed of cir- gusting reptile or the smallest insect, almost cular pieces of the shell of the ostrich egg,

some way or other employed as pieces of wood, teeth of wild animals, shells, articles of provision. The hippopotamni, zeyoung tortoises, &c. and those they display bras, quaggas, different species of antelopes, in different positions and forms, according jackals, &c. as well as the ostrich and busto the fancies of the wearers.

tard, form the favourite objects of pursuit The circumstance of their having no fixed with the men; and the pursuit of the hares, abrdes, goes to prevent them from having dassies, moles, rats, snakes, lizards, grassany established huts; and the constant ne- hoppers, ants, and such like, forms the occessity of moving from one place to another cupation of the women aud boys. There is in quest of an uncertain and scanty sub- scarcely a four-footed animal which they can sistence, inclides them to bestow little care destroy that they do not convert to food, or labour on their temporary dwellings. and there is hardly a portion of any one of They either erect a shelter of bushes for the those, with the exception of the bones, that night, under the shade of which they repose, they do not devour. The flesh in every sior dig a hole in the ground, into which tuation they greedily consume; the stomach they creep, or else seek a refuge in some and intestines they esteem as delicacies ; the natural crevice of a rock, or under a project- liver and kidneys they often swallow even raw; ing stope, either of which they consider as and the contents of the stomachs of many quite sufficient for a transient residence. animals they drink or eat either pure or diThough such is the general method they luted with water. The blood of most anifollow, in protecting themselves against the mals they highly prize, and though usually effects of the weather during the periods of cooked before it is used, yet it is often, eitheir repose, yet some are more particular, ther from choice or necessity, occasioned by and extend their consideration so far as to a want of water, swallowed as it flows froin supply themselves with a sort of mat, which the body. The skins, at least of the larger they place nearly upright by means of a animals, are not even rejected, and those couple of poles, viz. one at each extremity, they often feed upon with a degree of rapaand under the protection of that they seek city, which nothing but extreme hunger their rest.

would support. For subsistence the Bushmen trust prin- Some of the articles just stated are recipally to the fruits of the earth, and to the gularly made use of in their natural state, game which their pleins afford; but when but the majority only when couked. The either of those are found deficient, few have vegetable productions that require such preany hesitation is supplying their wants from paration, are either boiled or roasted ; and the flocks of the neighbouring farmers. those belonging to the animal kingdom are With even such a variety of resources, they mostly treated in the latter way, with the are nevertheless often sufferers from extreme exception of grasshoppers, larvæ of ants, want, aod are thereby necessitated to con- and ostrich eggs, which are commonly consume almost every article which is to be sumed without being submitted to the infound within the range of their retreats. Offluence of cooking; all the others are, the vegetable productions, many roots, both when choice can be exercised, more or less fibrous, fleshy, and bulbous, form articles of prepared ; and what requires most labour, their food; and of berries and other fruits, is the dried skins of the larger animals. they employ almost all that are met with, Those are first moistened by water, and then

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Bushmen of South Africa.

[July, stamped and roasted; or else roasted first, vance of a low bush fence, behind which and stanıped afterwards. Though the em- the hunter is secreted, and from whence he ployment of articles like the last-mentioned destroys the dam, as she visits her offspring. is calculated to create a degree of wonder in Another description of plan he follows, and those who have never suffered severely from one pot less successful, in hunting the osthe pangs of want; yet how much more trich, namely, that of digging a hole close adapted for such a purpose is the observance to a nest, and concealing himself therein. of á fact, which almost daily occurs amongst

When in that position, and having prethe Bushmen, namely, the preparation of viously provided himself with a dog, be pieces of old shoes, &c. for the purpose of throws it upon the eggs; and as soon as the furnishing a scanty and tasteless meal. bird sees the animal in that position, it has

The vegetable products are principally tens to the spot to drive him away, when it obtained without much labour; and, if we instantly falls a victim to the ingenuity of its except the different routs, few require much betrayer. exertion. The latter it is necessary to dig out Snares they construct in various ways, of the ground, and for that purpose they em- and by such they often greatly increase their ploy either a piece of pointed wood, hardened supplies. Some are forined of ovoses placed by having been previously a little burnt, or in positions through which animals are acelse a gemsbok horn, and by either of those customed to pass, and others consist of they loosen the surrounding soil with amaz- large and deep holes dug in the ground, and ing rapidity. The avimal productions are so covered over with grass and other artipartly procured without much trouble, but cles, as not to be distinguishable from the the majority not without very considerable surrounding parts, till discomposed by the exertion, as well as the exercise of no small steps of a visitor, when it is usually too late degree of dexterity and cunning. The bow to discover the fraud. By this method, and arrow are the means upon which they when practised in situations where water or mostly rely for obtaining the latter; and grazing ground occurs, seacows, zebras, next to those, snares and dogs. In employ- quaggas, and various of the antelope species, ing the former, they either endeavour to are frequently obtained. By the formation approach the animal within a suitable dis- of trenches, or long narrow ditches, grasstance to wound him severely, or else to con- hoppers are also commonly entrapped, parceal themselves, so as to be in the way as ticularly when driven in great abundance he may be pursuing his progress ; or, lastly, towards them, as when they fall therein they by the practice of decoys, to bring him into are totally unable to escape again. The rea fitting position. The facility they have of sort of the white ants they discover by obcreeping, and the similarity between the co- serving the hole at which they enter the Tour of their skin and the arid wastes over ground; and when that is accomplished, which they hunt, when conjoined to the and the object is to secure the young, they amazing sharpness of their sight, enable dig away the earth till the best is discovered, them often to advance within a very little when ić is immediately exposed, and the distance of game, and often by a wound of a larvæ, as well as many of the older specipoisoned arrow to intimate to the animal its mens, are selected. In the pursuit of these, unfortunate situation. He observes every they often dig holes several feet in depth, motion of its head during his approach, and and three or four in diameter; and after whenever it is possible for its range of vision that, they are not unfrequently disappointed to extend to him, he remains most perfectly of the objects in view. When, however, quiet; but when that is not the case, he ad- they are successful, they carry the fruits vances with circumspection, and is sustained thereof to their temporary residence, and by such patience, that he will sometimes there, by the assistance of a small piece of pass a whole day in the pursuit, without any dried skin, remove all the earth and other particular prospect of success. When again impurities, after which they either devour he adopts the second plan, he remarks the the remainder, or else place them in a pot direction the animal is following, and the upon the fire, and warm it a little ; during position of the best vegetation in the quar. which time they keep agitating the conter towards which he is proceeding; and teats, so as to prevent them from burcing, having fully satisfied himself as to its pro- &c. After a few minutes of such treatment, bable course, he digs a hole in the ground, they are considered as prepared and adapted and there conceals himself, till face deter- for food. In this state they are not unpamines what shall be the result. The third lateable, and it is only the koowledge of mode, or that by decoys, is practised gene- their nature that gives any thing like a disrally with success where the requisites for inclination to relish them. By the Bushforming such are procurable. They are prin- men, the food under consideration is highly cipally, if not invariably, executed through esteemed; and that and the ostrich egg the instrumentality of young animals, which, are, perhaps, the most admired articles of when obtained, are fixed a little way in ad- their subsistence.

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1831.]

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REVIEW OF NEW PUBLICATIONS.

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The History and Antiquities of the County of ter Aldith and Robert D'Oyly, was

Buckingham. By George Lipscomb, Esq. affair of policy, by which the Saxons were
M.D. Vol. I. Parl 1. 410, pp. 304. propitiated, and the follower of the Con-
Plates.

queror at the same time rewarded.”—p. 17.
THE Fædera of Rymer, and the ab- We meet with graziers or cattle-
stracts published by the Record Com- dealers as a distinct trade in the reign
mission, are books highly and justly of Edward III., and that surnames
appreciated, both for their literary and were apparently ascribed to some per-
business value. Of course, County sons from the mere situation of their
Histories, which consist of similar houses.
matter, concentrated into one district, " In the reigu of Edward III. it was cer-
must have the same character. Every tified, that Ashendon might be assessed to
other kind of County History, namely, the subsidy called the ninths, at nine marks,
one which neglects record, is only a and no more, because forty acres of land
miscellany, and cannot be a County

were uncultivated and waste, many of the History, because it is essential to the possessions of the Church exempt from paylatter that it be a register of the pro

ment, and there were no cattle-dealers or

merchants here. This certificate was atperty and families of the ancient possessors. We are happy to find that Pek, William ate Hulle, and Thomas Yve,

tested by Rob. le Couherde, Nicholas le the work before us is written accord

names apparently taken from their employing to standard, and is so copious in

ment or the situation of their houses."materials and elaborate in construction, as to entitle the author to high

We are of opinion, that names with credit. We shall extract such matters

at, as one of those above, might, in as may be instructive or amusing.

some instances at least, denote an It is a trite opinion that the Con

original Anglo-Saxon family. queror utterly dispossessed the Anglo

The following practice appears to Saxon landholders, or made them te

have been the substitute at the Refornants only of their previous estates. Peter of Poictiers however says, as

mation for the old paternosters and

ares of bedesmen and poor people. An quoted in a very scarce pamphlet, entitled, Argumentum Ante-Norma

almshouse for poor widows was found

ed at Brill about the year 1590, and a nicum,” that he ousted only those

certain sum was directed to be
who had fought at the battle of Hast-
ings, or had otherwise opposed him.

“ doled or distributed after morning prayer We are sure, that several Anglo-Saxon

in the Church of Brill, to five poor widows, families were permitted to hold their

who there kneeling together before the comestates, though subjected, as to military thankes by saying the Lorde's prayer for his

munion table, shall render unto Almighty God and feudal services, to Norman officers; mercifull and greate benefylle l'estowed upon and that it is a great mistake to head

them.-p. 115. so many pedigrees (as has been done)

The usual places of execution were with Norman ancestors. An instance here occurs, which shows how matters

out of towns, and every body knows of this kind were adjusted ; and which

the custom of burying suicides in cross was one of the measures mentioned in ways. Under Chearsly we find, that the preface of Sir William Dugdale's

“at the intersection of old trackways from Warwickshire, Matthew Paris, &c.

Chilton, Crendon, Cuddington, and Win

chendon, several skeletons have been dug up “Wigo de Waliogford (an Anglo-Saxon]

which seem to confirm the traditionary accame out to meet the Conqueror, and deli

count of this being the site of the gallows, vered up to him, voluntarily, the possession

one of the feudal privileges of the ancient of his town and castle of Walingford, which

Lords of the place.”—p. 122.
had been a place of importance, even from
the time of the Romans. Wigo splendidly

The Church of Chilton is raised
entertained the Conqueror, until Archbishop upon an artificial mount (p. 136). It
Stigand, and other adherents of Edgar, had was usual among the Anglo-Saxons to
submitted to the new Sovereign; and it is put places of worship upon sites used
said, that the alliance between Wigo's daugh- by the Britons for that purpose.
GENT. Mac. July, 1831,

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34

Review.–Lipscomb's History of Buckingham. [July, Sugar-loaves occur as common pre- died in 1791, was one of the last of sents to great men, in the Paston Let- the English nobility, who, ters, Morant's Colchester, &c. &c. “ to the splendour of a gorgeous equipage, An instance of such a donation made attached musicians constantly attendant upon to a Judge by Sir John Croke, is here him, not on state occasions, but in his mentioned so late as 1668 (p. 141).

journeys and visits; a brace of tall negroes Under Chilton (p. 143), we find

with silver French horns behind his coach that the “ Alms-box” or truncus, a

and six, perpetually making a noise like Sir relic of the “oulden times," was taken

Henry Sidney's ' trompeters' in the days of

Elizabeth, blowinge very joyfully to behold away when the open seats were re

and see.'"- p. 184. placed by modern pews. To this is subjoined the following note, and

Crendon Park is the only one in certain it is, that vicarages were en

this county mentioned in Domesday,

and as the Giffards had a castle here, dowed to prevent the disgrace of their soliciting a maintenance by mendi

Dr. Lipscomb thinks it probable that

the Conqueror's followers appropriated cancy.

to themselves the seats of the Anglo“ Kennet says, that this was often the

Saxon Chiefs, as the latter had before depository of contributions in aid of the ec

done with those of the Britons. The clesiastics of small vicarages, and made no incousiderable portion of their emoluments.

names of Cony-gaer (so Dr. L. but see · Vicarius habebit oblationes quascunque

postea) and El or Eld-burgh, support ad tranios, tam in dicta ecclesia et quam

this conjecture, which is further conalibi infra parochiam ipsius ecclesiæ factas.'

firmed by the discovery of an ancient (Paroch. Antiq.) However, in later times, cemetery at Angle-way near Cop-hill, it was chiefly destined for the poor ; all N. E. of the Church, on a conspicuous persons being prohibited by Statute from eminence, and near the supposed site making ' open or common dole,' or giving of the castle of the Giffards. This any money in alms, but to the common

spot is also adjacent to ancient British boxes and gatherings in every parish, on trackways and Roman roads. pain of forfeiting ten times so much."

The discoveries of pottery, of which In p. 167 we find traces of a custom portions are engraved, p. 212, * are derived from the sites of Roman sta- similar in shape to some which have tions, viz. “

a village (East Claydon] been excavated at Kingsholm near built on a rising ground at the inter- Gloucester, of wl we have corresection of ancient roads."

spondent remains, as well in Samian The following description of a tomb ware as otherwise. Kingsholm aderected in the Church of Britford near joined the Mercian palace. The wideSalisbury, to the memory of Humphry mouthed vessels, here called urns, Duke of Buckingham, beheaded by were amphoræ ; for we have not only Richard III. shows a rare instance in specimens with similar handles, but regard to the pleureurs or weepers, as the spike usually belonging to the botthe figures in niches around the base tom of these vessels. A lamp and of table tombs were denominated. brass rings set with stones, two of

“ At one end of this tomb are two shields them so compressed as not to form a with the arms of Stafford and Rivers [his complete circle, with portions of wire Duchess's family], and on the base six apparently attached for ear dependants, niches, with a statue in each of them, ex- have also been found. [Of the latter, cepting the first. The second contains a see Encycl. of Antiquit. i. 262.] Conifeinale figure with a coronet on her head, goer is not an Anglo-Saxon word, but representing the Duchess [of Buckingham);

of Norman origin, from the old French the third, a mitred Bishop (Lionel Widville Connil, a rabbit, and Garrene, warren; her brother, Bishop of Salisbury at the time of the Duke's execution] ; in the next a fe

nor do we think that there were any

such appendages to our Anglo-Saxon male with a coronet, holding the Duke's bonnet and sword; the fifth contains the

residences. figure of the executioner with a sword in his The pedantry of the reign of James hand; and the last a female, with a child in

the First, is well-known, and a superb her arms, deploring the sad event. Thus specimen of bombast is the proemium we find (Sir Richard Colt Hoare remarks in of the address to the Court and Jury, a letter to the author of this work) the fate convoked to try Garnet and his confeof this unfortunate Duke explained as satis- derates in the Gunpowder Plot, by Sir factorily as by an inscription."-p. 152. Thomas Phillips, Master of the Rolls.

Ralph second Earl of Verney, who • See our last Suppleineut, p. 580.

1831.] Review.-Tytler's Lives of Scottish Worthies. 35

“ The matter now to be offered to my was the second son of a Sir Malcolm Lords the Commissioners is matter of Trea

Wallace. His youth was passed under son; but of such horror and monstrous

the care of an ecclesiastical uncle, at nature, that before now the tongue of man

Dunipace near Stirling, a man of noble never delivered, the ear of man never heard, feelings as to independence. All the the heart of man never concerted, nor the malice of hellish or earthly devil ever praco

nephew derived from his education tised. For if it be abominable to murder

was a proverb (libertas optima rerum, the least ; if to touch God's anointed be to &c.), and it is probable that his uncle's oppose themselves against God; if by blood discipline was in all other respects to subvert princes, states, and kingdoms, be

lax. When Edward the First was hateful to God and man :- how much more, triumphant after the battle of Falkirk, then, too too monstrous shall all Christian and the Scots were ordered to take the hearts judge the horrors of this treason to oaths of allegiance, his father abmurder and subvert such a King, such a sconded, his mother took refuge with Queene, such a Prince, such a progenie, her relations, and such a State, such a Government," &c.

“ Wallace, now advancing into manhood, Shakspeare has, it seems, made a

found himself driven from his paternal home, great error in ascribing the Duke of

an object of suspicion to the Government, Buckingham's defection from Richard

and avoided by those cautious and timid the Third, to the King's refusal to friends, who regarded Scotland as lost, and bestow upon him the lands of the preferred the quiet security of servitude to Bohuns, to which he the Duke was the desperate chances of insurrection."-p. heir. A grant was actually made of 167. them to him 1 Ric. Ill. but not con- The misfortunes of his family and firmed, because he was decapitated be- himself rendered him a malcontent, fore Parliament was convoked (p. 208). and his exacerbation was aggravated It appears from Stowe and Hall, that by an untoward incident. He was in the cause of the quarrel between the love with a pretty girl at Lanark, and King and Duke is not exactly known, in passing through that burgh, was and that there were various causes of insulted by a troop of English soldiers. disagreement, but it plainly appears He would have avoided their insolence, that the Duke instigated a rebellion but one of them having made a conagainst the reigning tyrant-and af- temptuous blow against his sword, he fected to be, as Mr. J. G. Nichols drew and killed the offender. A tumult happily states in his Autographs, an- arose, and he escaped with difficulty other Warwick King-maker; not as to the house of his mistress, and from the modern times, a King-mender; thence to the neighbouring woods. much the best thing of the two, be- William de Heslope, the English cause it leaves them without a deaf Sheriff, seized, condemned, and exeear to turn to complaints of their sub- cuted the poor girl. jects.

Wallace's revenge, when he heard of Here we must leave this work, and

her unmerited fate, was as rapid as it was having given the character of it in the

That very night he collected thirty early part of this notice, again warmly faithful and powerful partisans, who, on enrecommend it.

tering the town when all were in their beds,

reached the Sheriff's lodgings in silence. Lives of Scottish Worthies. By Patrick Fraser It was a room or loft, constructed like most

Tytler, Esq. F.R.S. and F.S.A. Vol. I. of the buildings of those times, of wood, 16mo, pp. 416.

and communicating with the street by a high COWARDS (generally speaking) stair. Up this Wallace rushed at midnight, are only to be found in commercial and, heating down the door, presented himand luxurious nations; and the worthies

self in full armour, and with his naked of all barbarous countries, not eccle

weapon, before the affrighted officer, who

asked him whence he came, or who he was? siastics, consist of course of warriors.

• I am William Wallace (le replied), whose The chief of these in the volume before

life you sought yesterday; and now thou us, is Sir William Wallace, a fighting shalt answer me for my poor maiden's death. fellow, who would have honoured the With those words he seized his naked heroic ages, though from certain acts victim by the throat, and passing his sword of cruelty not those of chivalry. We through his body, cast the bleeding wretch shall give a short sketch of those ro- down the stair into the street, where he was mantic incidents of his life, which immediately slain.”—p. 169. will illustrate our opinions. Wallace He and his party then made off tr

stern.

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