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ClassicAL LITERATURE.-Greek Tenses. (July, to suggest to him and your other and which are so pertinaciously reclassical readers the enquiry to what tained in our Greek grammars, alpurpose it is that we retain this same though many of our best scholars perfect middle, as a distinct tense at have seen and confessed the little all? Is it anything in the world else foundation there is for such a practice. than an old or irregular form of the I have been pleased, however, to perfect active? That this is the true meet lately with an attempt to exhibit state of the case is evinced by several the structure of the language in a considerations. In the first place, we juster and simpler manner. In a litmay infer it from the rarity of this tle work entitled Barham's Introductense ; for out of the immense multi- tion to Greek Grammar, lately pubtude of Greek verbs it is but a mere lished, the verb is declined with a handful in which it can be found. simplicity and clearness such as I Again, we may infer it still more have not seen elsewhere, these redunclearly from the fact, that where it is dancies of formation not being allowed found, the perfect active is seldom in to encumber it: and I doubt not, but use. Lastly, we are confirmed in this by such a method not only may much view, by observing that that neuter or needless labour, both to pupil and middle tense which is regarded as pro- teacher, be avoided, but a sounder and per to this form, is not only often juster knowledge of the real use and wanting in it, but is likewise of fre- signification of the tenses be ultimately quent occurrence in the perfect active. acquired. Thus on the one side, we have in A point such as this is surely of λέλοιπα, I have left, έκτονα, I have more real importance than many on killed, and others, the form of the per- which eminent scholars have lavished fect middle with an unquestionably their pains and genius. What shall active or transitive signification, with- we say of the enchanted digamma, out a shade of the neuter or reflective

ever present yet never visible, about sense ascribed to it; while on the which so much ink-shed has taken other hand, in such words as alwKé- place, and in defence of whose claims vai, to be taken, Kekunkévai, to be weary, 80 many learned combatants have enéonkéval, to be extinguished, TreDUKéval, tered the lists in vain ? No learning to be, éotykéval, to stand, and others, nor labour will ever recall that de. we see exquisite examples of the mid. parted letter to Homer's page. And dle sense attached to the active form. what shall we say to the long-entan

Surely then we may consider it as gled knot of Pindaric metres, which so the general rule of the Greek verb that much ingenuity and patience have yet it has but one tense of this sort; or in but imperfectly unravelled ? If we other words, that there is in general

say, as we ought to say, that these no such tense as a perfect middle, the are matters of real interest, and deintroduction of which into our gram. serving the attention of professed mars, as a regular part of the verb, scholars, we may surely say also, that serves only to create misconception compared with rightly determining and difficulty. If, in a few instances, the number and use of the tenses of such as πέπραγα, πέπoιθα, όλωλα, a the Greek verb, such pursuits sink distinct tense of this kind, in addition into utter insignificancy. to a perfect active, is retained in use, If you should deem these remarks it seems both theoretically and prac- worthy a place in your entertaining tically better to regard such examples and instructive pages, you will oblige as exceptions to the general rule, which

Yours, &c.

FILARET. in point of fact they undeniably are, or as anomalies or redundancies in

A new and complete Greek Gradus, or Poetideclension, than for their sakes to

cal Lexicon of the Greek Language, with complicate and obscure by fictitious

a Latin and English Translation ; an Engforms the general mechanism of the

lish-Greek Vocabulary ; and a Treatise on language.

some of the principal rules for ascertaining The observations bere made with

the quantity of syllables, and on the most respect to the perfect middle appear popular Greek meltes. By Edward Maltby, to me to apply with equal force to the D.D. F.RS. F.S.A. Preacher to the double aorists and futures, by which learned and honourable Society of Lincoln's the grammatical structure of this no- Inn ; 8vo. pp. 778. ble language has been rendered unin. FEW of our readers can need to be telligible and disgusting to the learner: informed that Dr. Maltby, by universal

1831.]
Dr. Maltby's Greek Gradus.

27 consent, stands very high in the high- should prove everything that can be est grade of classical scholars, not desired. And in point of fact, after a merely of this country, but of all Eu. close inspection, we can pronounce it rope. It is also generally known that to be a performance which must very his critical powers have been chiefly soon attain, and very long preserve, exercised on the Greek Poets : and such a place among the publications most of our readers must have heard of its class as will be sufficient to exof his LEXICON GRÆCO-PROSODIA- clude all competition. CUM, a work which, though professedly We feel peculiar satisfaction in rean improvement on Dr. Morell's The- marking that the present work tends saurus Græcæ Poeseos, might almost so signally to refute a very prevalent claim the praise of a new performance. notion (no doubt originally produced, It may, at all events, be classed among and always encouraged, by the perthose works, which, in the language sons interested in its belief), that of Dr. Johnson, it were “ useless to Compendiums of this kind are best praise," having long been acknow- executed by dull painstaking plodders. ledged to be quite indispensable to all Let it, too, be remembered, that men who would hope to acquire any cor- of great learning and information can rect knowledge on the subjects of rarely have become such without a Greek prosody and poetry. It was, more than average portion of diligence. however, from its great bulk, and con- And, assuredly, if such persons do sequently high price, not adapted to condescend to plod, they will not fail, the use of schools; and perhaps was, with any thing like habits of reguin other respects, not quite calculated larity and such Dr. Maltby possesses to be employed in the work of scho- in a remarkable degree), to accomlastic instruction. It had, therefore, plish, if not as much in a given time long been the wish, not only of the as the plodder, yet such sort of work masters of our public schools, but of as it would be vain to expect from the the respectable proprietors of the Lexi- greatest diligence of the mere comcon, that the learned Author shouldhim- piler. Look at some of the specimens self supply this want, by abridging his of this kind produced, by Samuel own performance, and otherwise adapt. Johnson and Edmund Burke, as coming it to the use of schools, so that it pared with those of the tribe of the might, in some measure, correspond Guthries, &c. &c. Let it not, however, to a work which had long been pro- be supposed that the present work is vided for the service of Latin poetry, merely an abridgment of the Lexicon; under the quaint title of Gradus ad it possesses some advantages even over Parnassum. The pressure, however, that work, containing certain matter of the Author's important professional not there to be found ; such, we preengagements and studies long pre- sume, as was supplied by the use of vented him from attending to this sug- some valuable classical works, chiefly gestion, or carrying his intentions into continental, which had not appeared, execution. Meanwhile, a work of this or which Dr. Maltby had not had the nature was, by another hand, hastily opportunity of seeing, when he congot up, to serve, as it did, a tempo- structed his Lexicon. Moreover, the rary purpose. At length, however, explanations are now expressed in EngDr. Maltby has himself furnished, in lish as well as Latin; which is greatly the present work, that great desidera- preferable to having them either in tum so long called for, namely a short Latin, or in English only. There is also but comprehensive Poetical Lexicon of a brief, but very select and comprehenthe Greek Language, for the use of sive English-Greek Vocabulary, which, schools. As Dr. Maltby's profound could the limits of the work have pererudition is well known to be united mitted, might have been enlarged, with with qualities which do not always advantage to the student. There is accompany it, great judgment and re- also prefixed a very brief, but neatly fined taste, and, what is more, re- formed, treatise on the principal rules markable accuracy, and a diligence rare- for ascertaining the quantity of Greek ly exceeded (as the Lexicon amply syllables, and on the most popular testified); and as the work in ques. Greek metres. In short, the work is, tion has been executed with the great- we repeat, not a mere abridgment of est care and deliberation, the public the Lexicon, but has, as the author may be fully prepared to expect that it himself assures us, so much alteration

28
Bushmen of South Africa.

(July, of arrangement, and addition of mat- quotations are almost always made ter, as to have occasioned the labour, complete in metre or in sense.

And if it may not claim the merit, of a work to advert to minor points, we cannot entirely new. And no wonder; for but admire the consummate (ccuracy we have rarely seen a work in which with which this work has been brought so much important matter has been out. We have not observed a single condensed into so small a compass. error worth notice. This, in a work Among other advantages which the intended for young students, is really practised skill of the Author enabled a matter of consequence. The work him to attain, has been this, that the is also beautifully printed.

ORIGIN AND HISTORY OF THE BUSHMEN OF SOUTH AFRICA.

BY ANDREW SMITH, M.D. M.w.s. &c.* THAT the genuine Hottentot, at least in of war and poverty, and partly to the assoan uncivilized state, will doubtless, ere long, ciation of characters whom crime induced only be known to us through the pages of to seek a refuge in the desert, or the habits history, is a position tepable, upon the rapid of a better state of society expelled from decay of the race, its intermixture with other its haupts. lo very early times the part of varieties, and the gradual extension of civi- the country now known to us as the chief lized life, all now in active progress, having resort of the Bushmen was more densely a strong tendency to produce the state, and populated than at present, and the outrages hurry on to the period in anticipation. This and violences perpetrated by its inhabitants apparent certainty of the approaching ex- were, according to tradition, even more fretinction, of at least the savage portion of quent and horrible than at present. the race, points out the present as the latest The majority of the Bushmen population, stage calculated for observing and recording according to the restricted sense in which information concerning the peculiarities of the term is here to be understood, consists their character and organization.

of pure Hottentots ; and the remainder of The Aborigines of South Africa, under blacks, either the offspring of an intercourse whatever local names they may have passed, with the former and other coloured persons, consist only of two distinct races, namely, or else the actual outcasts of other races those of the Hottentot and Caffer. The themselves. The number of inhabitants is first of these, or that which from the cir- small, compared with the great extent of cumstances above alluded to has the greatest country over which they are scattered, and claim upon our immediate attention, was, which consists of the whole of that extenand to a certain extent is, even now divided sive plain lying between the northern bouninto distinct tribes or hordes; each having dary of the colony-the Kamiesberg range its own distinctive appellation, and, more or of mountains, and the confines of the Orange less, governed by its own laws. Amongst river. The distribution of the population those, one division has always held, and still varies according to the season of the year, continues to hold, a most conspicuous posi- the supply of game, and the relation of the tion, and has ever been proverbial with the tribes to the surrounding inhabitants. la rest, on account of its troublesome charac- situations where nature is liberal of producter, and universally outrageous conduct. To tions convertible to the support of man, this the other tribes, as well as its own something like small communities are occamembers, apply the name of Snap or Saan; sionally met with ; but in places again, where and history describes a portion thereof under food is scanty, or water defective, it is rare the appellation of Bushmen, to which, as a to find more than one, or at least two famisubdivision of the former, the following re- lies together ; and those having little or no marks are intended to apply.

intercourse with their neighbours, unless The term Bushman, or more properly when self-defence, or the spoils of some Bosjiesman, is of Dutch origin, and com- marauding expedition bring them for a time monly employed at present by the colonists into contact. The fact of their being usually to designate a native of the wild and savage dispersed in such small parties when friendly tribes residing immediately beyond the nor- and well disposed, and of their associating thern boundary of the colony, and support- in hordes or troops when projecting and ing themselves either by plunder or the executing mischief, or enjoying the spoils spontaneous productions of nature. Consi- often consequent upon that, frequently furdering the manner in which their numbers Dishes the farmer with a fair guide for judgare at present occasionally increased, we ing of their views, and often epables him to may, without much danger of error, attri- discover the retreat of thieves, where those bute their origin partly to the consequences themselves had in the first instance escaped

detection. * Abridged from the South African Quar. The little intercourse which they thus terly Journal.

have with each other, and the absence of

secure.

1831.]
Bushmen of South Africa.

29 almost every kind of property, render them their offences, and a conviction that their quite strangers to the great objects of laws, habits and general conduct towards all other and consequently upconscious of the benefits nations or tribes are of such a character as of a regular government. Few, if any of them, warrant any thing but the kindness or friendare disposed to ackaowledge auy superiority, ship of strangers. except that which physical strength may Though well aware of the inferiority of

la situations where a temporary their own weapons, when compared with leader is advantageous, and which they con- fire-arms, yet when they discover that it is sider as only so in war or the chace, they necessary to oppose the latter, they manifest unconsciously give place in the former to & remarkable degree of courage, and a perthe bravest and most dexterous, and in the severance and coolness which only the ablatter to the most experienced and cunning. sence of fear could enable them to support. They have no established laws by which of- On such occasions, instances have been fences are tried, nor determined punish- known of individuals who have had their left ments by which aggressions are avenged ; arms completely disabled, employing their every individual is his own Jawgiver, and toes to fix their bows, so as to be able to conevery crime is punished according to the tinue their defence; and many have been obcaprice of the sufferer, or the relative posi- served to persevere in resistance, after being tions and relations of the implicated parties. wounded or maimed in such a way as to ocThe absence of every thing like system reo- casion almost immediate dissolution. Such ders punishments amongst them very une- violent opposition, and often absurd inflexiqual, and often extremely disproportionate bility, appear to be excited partly by the into the crimes they are employed to retri- fluence of their unconquerable passions, and bute. It permits injuries of the highest partly by the dread they entertain of falling order often to be inflicted with impunity, into the power of enemies, whom they beand others of the most insignificant charac- lieve as certain either to destroy them at ter to be visited with the most hideous ven- the instant, or convert them into slaves. geance; yet, nevertheless, such is the satis- The coolness and indifference with which faction of all with their present circum- almost the whole of the Hotteotot race restances, in relation to such points, that gard the approach of death, has often been they cannot be persuaded that it is better commented upon; and though it must be to be governed and protected by acknow. acknowledged to be strongly marked in all ledged and constituted regulations, than of them, yet from what I have myself seen be subject to the varying whims of every as well as heard, I feel disposed to consider it mind.

as most couspicuous amongst the Bushmen. The Hottentot Bushman presents most Cruelty is familiar to the Bushmen in its of the physical characters of the race as most shocking forms, and is exercised withexemplified in other situations, and the out remorse upon all such as, under untomixed description, according to circum- ward circumstances, fall within their reach. stances, exhibits more or less of the appear. The love of revenge is one of the strongest ances of the Negro or Caffer. To size and feelings to which they are obnoxious; it strength, the former is at the very least urges often to the most barbarous proceedequal to the Hottentot elsewhere, and is ings, and induces to outrages of the most certainly not, as has been generally affirmed, hideous character, merely to satisfy momenof inferior stature to the members of the tary irritatiou, or the rapklings of a longsavage tribes by whom he is partially sure fustered malice. Under such ascendancies, rounded. All have an expression of acute- pitiable is the individual who falls within ness and energy beyond that of their coloured their power, as he is certain of being subneighbours, and a gait and activity pecu- jected to the most agonizing tortures while liarly striking. Their eyes bespeak a habit life exists, and to mutilations anıl disfiguraof watchfuloess and scrutiny particularly tions the most intolerable to sympathy, and characteristic, and their demeanour indicates appalling to observation. Several instances a coostant habit of apprehension and fear. have come within my own knowledge, where They appear to survey every stranger as an parents were destroyed by their own chilactual enemy, and only waiting a favourable dren, as well as examples of the most deopportunity to injure them; and they do cided inhumanity of the former to their not, until after very considerable inter- offspring, both of which were boasted of course, appear easy in such company. This by themselves, and lauded by their compaevideotly arises from a consciousness of nions.

* They take no great care of their childreu, and never correct them except in a fit of rage, when they almost kill them with severe usage. In a quarrel between father and mother, or the several wives of a husband, the defeated party wreaks his or her revenge on the child of the conqueror, which in general loses its life. 'Tame Hottentots seldom destroy their offspring, except in a fit of passion ; but the Boschemen will kill their children without remorse on various occasions-as when they are ill-shaped; when they are in want of

30
Bushmen of South Africa.

(July, In mixed society, the Bushmen are less Their articles of clothing are very simple, talkative and frolicksome than other Hot- rude, and inefficient. A kaross, somewhat tentots, which appears to arise from their in the form of a mantle, is suspended over want of confidence in persons of any com- the shoulders, and is, according to the season inunity, save of their own. Unlike others of the year, or the temperature of the moof their race, who unheedingly enjoy them- ment, either permitted to hang loose behind selves in all societies, and in every situation, the body, or made to envelope as much they exhibit signs of constant uneasiness thereof as its usual scanty dimensions will and watchfulness; and instead of receiving possibly effect. Such is usually composed with pleasure and cordiality the jokes of of sheep-skiu, with the woolly side inwards, their associates, they seem to experience and forms almost their only protection annoyance therefrom, and almost an incli- against the weather, being required to apnation to acts of resentment. They are swer all the purposes of a dress by day, and capricious in the extreme, and uncertain in all the offices of a covering by night. Beevery situation, and it is not without expla- sides that, both sexes have a more limited nation that inany of their proceedings can and partial one for hiding what the dictates appear accountable to strangers.

of modesty forbid to be exposed. In the They are notoriously patient of toil, and men, a portion of skin, usually either of a vigorous in a very high degree; and so ac- jackal or of a wild cat, is suspended in front customed are they to exercise of an active of the body from a leathern girdle, which description, that their swiftness becomes encircles the loins, and frequently a portion remarkable, and their power of continuing of dried leather hangs from the same behind it truly astonishing, being such as to enable to conceal at least a portion of the after • most of them to keep pace with horses even parts, when the principal article of covering for days in succession, and often to drive off is too short to perform that office. Amongst cattle with more celerity than pursuers can the women, the article in question is more follow. The disposition to laziness, so de- extensive, and commonly consists of some cidedly characteristic of the more regular ragged skins or pieces of leather, variously Hottentots, is equally developed in the Bush- fixed together, and attached round the loins, men; and were it not the absolute vecessity thereby enveloping more or less the whole of daily exertion to procure the scanty means of the parts between those and the middle of subsistence, they would doubtless pass of the thighs. The members of this sex their time in indolent practices, similar to also universally endeavour to procure some those pursued where resources are more sort of covering for their heads, which they certain and productive.

usually compose of the same article as that The continual use to which they apply the which forms the other parts of their dress ; eyes and ears, not only as means of disco- and if obtainalile of sufficient size, apply it vering their food, but also as useful agents somewhat like a turban. The men, on the in self-preservation, renders their senses of other hand, generally appear bareheaded, seeing and hearing amazingly acute, and ca- unless when hunting, or exposed to the inpable of furnishing a degree of assistance Auence of a very strong sun, on which ocquite unknown to the inhabitants of quiet casions they usually employ a sort of cap, and civilized countries.

made of the dried skin of some animal they The language spoken by the Bushmen is may have killed in the chase. decidedly a dialect or dialects of that in use The inefficiency, however, of such clothamongst the Hottentots elsewhere; but in ing, induces them to have recourse to other most situations is so altered and modified, means of protection besides those which that its origin and dependence can scarcely have been detailed, and particularly to that be traced. That clapping noise, occasioned of anointing their bodies and limbs with fat, by various motions of the tongue, and which either pure or variously adulterated. In the is truly characteristic of the Hottentot lan- practice of this, they have always a twofold guage, is particularly conspicuous amongst object in view, namely,the protection of their the Bushinen, and by many is so incessantly skin against the parching effects of heat and employed, as to make it appear that they wiod, and the agility and pliability ensured gave utterance to no articulate sounds, but to the muscles and joints; and whatever only an uninterrupted succession of claps, may be said against the custom, it is cerapparently unfitted for conveying any mean- tainly a necessary and highly beneficial one ing, and yet completely recognised and no- to such as are without those complete coderstood by chose to whom they are di- verings, which more civilized life supplies. rected.

The necessity of often exposing themselves food; when the father of a child has forsaken its mother; or when obliged to flee from the farmers or others : in which case they will strangle them, smother them, cast them away in the desert, or bury them alive. There are instances of parents throwing their tender offspring to the hungry lion, who stands roaring before their cavern, refusing to depart till some peace-offering be made to him.-(Kicherer in Tronsactions of the Missionary Society, vol.ii. p. 8,

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