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1831.] The Coronation of Richard the Third.
231 CORONATION OF RICHARD III.
bearing her train. My Lady of Suf. IN our last number was inserted folk went alone in state, having a “ the Order of the Coronation of circlet of gold on her head; after her Richard the Second,” that being the came the Duchess of Norfolk, with earliest of which a full description has other ladies to the number of twenty ; been preserved. The following ac- and lastly Knights and Esquires, with count of the Coronation of the third many tipstaves. Richard has been recently published When the King had arrived at St. for the first time in the fourth number Edward's shrine, he was placed in his of " Excerpta Historica.” The ortho- seat of state ; and anon came forth begraphy is here so far modified as to fore his Highness both priests and suit the general reader, who will be clerks, singing Latin and pricksong, rewarded by the occurrence of some and doing the full Royal service orvery remarkable incidents.
dained for the occasion. At the anointThe King and Queen came out of ing, strange to say, “ the King and the White Hall* to Westminster Hall Queen put off their robes, and there unto the King's Bench upon red cloth; stood all naked from the middle upand from the King's Bench, also upon wards, and anon the Bishop anointed red cloth, they went barefoot in pro- both the King and the Queen.” Then cession with the Lords spiritual and the King took the cross with the ball in temporal. The order of the procession his right hand, and the sceptre in his was as follows. First went the trum- left, and the priests and clerks sung pets and clarions; then the Serjeants Te Deum with great royalty. The at Arms and Heralds ; and then a Cardinal then prepared to read mass, company of priests attendant on the
and the King and Queen went to their Cross, namely, Priests with grey seats of state, where two Bishops amices, Abbats and Bishops with came and knelt before the King, and mitres on their heads, and crosiers in then rose and kissed him,* and so their hands, and the Bishop of Ro- stood by his side, one on his right chester bearing the Cross before the hand and the other on his left; and Cardinal (Archbishop Bourchier). The the Lords bearing the regalia came Earl of Northumberland bore the and stood about him, the Duke of pointless sword naked; the Lord Stan- Buckingham on his right hand, the ley the mass ;
the Earl of Kent the Duke of Norfolk on his left, and the second sword on the King's right Earl of Surrey before him, holding a hand, and the Lord Lovell the third sword upright all the time of mass. sword on his left; the Duke of Suffolk The Bishops of Exeter and Norwich the King's sceptre; the Earl of Lin- stood by the Queen ; the Duchess of coln the cross with the ball ; the Earl Suffolk sat on her right hand, and my of Surrey the fourth sword in its scab- Lady of Richmond on her left, and bard; and the Duke of Norfolk the the Duchess of Norfolk and other ladies King's Crown betwixt his hands.
knelt behind her. The King and Queen Then followed the King, in his robes sat still until the pax was given, and of purple velvet, between the Bishops when that was done, went to the high of Bath and Durham, and a cloth of altar, and there kneeled down, and state held over his head by the Cinque anon the Cardinal turned round with Ports; the Duke of Buckingham, with the holy sacrament in his hand and a white staff in his hand, bearing the divided it between them both, and King's train. Then came Earls and there they received the good Lord, Barons. The Earl of Huntingdon and were houseuled both. bore the Queen's sceptre; the Viscount When mass was done, the King Lisle the rod with the dove ; and the went up to St. Edward's shrine, and Earl of Wiltshire the Queen's crown. offered up Saint Edward's crown and The Queen walked between the Bi
many other reliques. That done, the shops of Exeter and Norwich, having Lords set his own crown on his head, on her head a circlet of gold with and the company departed homewards, many precious stones, nd a cloth of
every lord in his degree as they went. state borne over, with a bell of gold at They then proceeded to the high each corner, my Lady of Richmond dais in Westminster Hall, and as
soon as they came there the King and * A room in the Palace of Westivinster, Queen retired to their chamber, the afterwards used as the House of Lords. clothes of state being still left in the
The Coronation of Richard the Third. [Sept. hall. Whilst the King was in his their carvers, who knelt before them. chamber, the Duke of Norfolk came And anon every man retired down into riding into the hall, on a horse trapped the hall, and were placed according down to the ground with cloth of gold, to their rank. and removed from the hall all people At the second course came riding except the King's servants; and the into the hall Sir Robert Dymoke, the Duke of Buckingham, calling to him King's Champion, his horse trapped the Marshal of the Hall and other with white and red silk, and himself officers, directed them how the King in white armour, and the Heralds of would have his lords sit at four boards Arms standing upon a stage among all in the hall. At four o'clock the King the company. The Champion then and Queen came to the high dais, and rode up before the King, and there dethere they sat down to their dinner, manded before all the people, whether the King sitting in the midst of the there were any man who would assert board, and the Queen on the left hand, against King Richard the Third why near the board's end : on the right he should not pretend to the Crown. hand of the Queen stood my Lady of For a while all the people were in Nottingham, and on the left hand the peace; and, when he had finished his Lady of Surrey, holding the cloth of challenge, all the hall with one voice state over her head when she either cried, “ King Richard.” One of the eat or drank; and on the right hand Lords then brought the Champion a of the King sat the Bishop of Durham a covered cup full of red wine, which in the Cardinal's room. And anon
he took, and, having uncovered, drank the Lords and Ladies removed down thereof; and, when he had done, he into the Hall, and all the Ladies stood cast out the wine and covered the cup at the boards where they were assigned again, and, having made his obeisance to sit : the Lord Chancellor and other to the King, turned round his horse, Bishops were placed at another board; and rode through the hall with the cup the Master of the Rolls, the King's in his hand, which he had for his laChaplain,* and the Mayor of London, bour. Then came down before the at the Earls' board; and at the Barons' King all his Heralds of Arms, in numboard the Chief Judges of England, ber eighteen; four of them wore the Sergeants of the coif, the Chief crowns, and one of these four spoke Barons of the Exchequer, and other certain words (doubtless Garter proworshipful men of the law. The first claiming the King's style*), which course was conducted in by the Duke said, all the others cried a Larges; of Norfolk as Marshal of England, Sir and this they repeated three times in Thomas Percy the Comptroller, Sir the hall, and then returned to their William Hampton the Treasurer, Lord standing. Lovell the Chamberlain, Lord Surrey As to the third Course, the evening the Steward, with a white staff in his was so far spent that nothing further hand, and Mr. Fywater the Sewer, could be served except wafers and hyand the king was served on dishes of pocras. And when this was done, gold and silver, all covered ; Lord Aud- there were brought into the hall great ley was carver to the King all the din- lights of wax, torches, and torchets ;' ner time, and Lord Scroop of Upsal and the Lords began to rise from their Cupbearer; and so my Lord Lovell boards, and went up to the King makwas standing before the King all the ing their obeisance. Then the King dinner time, and two Squires lying and Queen arose and went to their under the board at the King's feet. chambers, and every man and woman After the King the Queen was served, departed and went their ways. and then the Bishop of Durham, all The document concludes with a list three with covered dishes. My Lady of the three Dukes, nine Earls, two of Suffolk was served in her state by Viscounts, twenty-one Lords, and herself alone, and my Lady of Norfolk seventy Knights, who were present at and my Lady of Richmond sitting at this Coronation, besides the seventeen another mess, and then all the other Knights of the Bath then created. ladies, sitting at a board all upon one side, and no man with them except
pretty plainly that
the Chronicler was not himself one of the * “ Chapelyn” in orig. the singular num- fraternity of Heralds, to whom we are so her-probably his Confessor, or Dean of the frequently indebted for our knowledge of Chapel.
[ 233 ]
REVIEW OF NEW PUBLICATIONS.
The History of English Dramatic Poetry to term for histrionic representations,
the time of Shakspeare, and Annals of the Stage to the Restoration. By J. Payne indefinite application. As to the term
than Plega, play; a word still of most Collier, Esq. 3 vols. post 8ro.
miracle-plays, it seems to us to be MR. HINDS,* in allusion to the taken from the subjects; but we do “Ancient Religious Mysteries,” says, not agree with Mr. Collier, where he that histrionic representations being says (ii. 124), the first rude mode by which men The compound term of miracle-play would probably express themselves,
seemed to me best adapted, according to to records so preserved may be as- the old authorities, to express briefly the signed an earlier date than to hiero. origin and nature of the representation." glyphic symbols, or to the simplest
Neither the thing which forms the monuments. These religious myste
subject or the word mystery are of ries were practised by all the early
English origin ; and when we find in nations; and imitations, called also
Scripture, that mystery does not sigmysteries, were got up by charlatans,
nify any thing secret and incomprehenand were accompanied by such gross sible, bút (in the words of Parkhurst) indecencies, that Cicero makes the
“a spiritual truth, couched under an term mysterium synonymous with abominatio. In the popularity of these
external representotion or similitude,"
the word is very properly applied to dramatic abominations, we look for the
dramatic representations, and is betorigin of the coarseness and indeli
ter than miracle-play, because the latcacy of our medieval dramas, and
ter limits the drama to only a part of the unconsciousness of impropriety
the extensive subject. There were among our ancestors, who beheld
mysteries, as those of Adam, Noah, Adam and Eve on the stage in puris
&c. &c. which had no reference to naturalibus, for custom extinguishes
miracles, only to histories. modesty. A law of Theodosius, and
Mr. Collier says (ii. 126), previous attempts, proscribed these abominable mysteries, and in the cen
“ If miracle-plays bad their origin in tury, preceding his æra, Gregory of Constantinople, they would soon find their Nazianzum, a poet as well as orator
way into Italy, and from thence may have and theologian, in imitation, he says,
beea dispersed over the rest of Europe ;" of Euripides, composed plays from and he admits that the miracle-play Scripture. The use of the term mys- of St. Katharine acted at Dunstable teries for such plays, is of uncertain early in the twelfth century, was comorigin. Admitting with Mr. Collier posed by a Norman monk, who was (ii. 125) the French use of the term also a member of the University of mystery for a drama, there must have Paris.-ii. 127. been a cause for such an appropria- Now Boileau says, that the pil. tion. Parkhurst + says, that St. Paul grims who, for the representation of uses the term “ mystery of godliness” the Passion, opened the first theatre in reference to the famous Eleusinian at Paris, brought thither from Italy the rites ; and it may be that the word taste and first idea of the drama. It was partly alienated to plays, in allu- appears to us that this play of St. Kasion to the popular abuses which we tharine, and others similar, only grew have mentioned. We agree fully with out of the dramatic representations of Mr. Collier (ii, 123), that the term is the Passion, Resurrection, &c. pernot ancient in England ; and we as- formed at the due seasons in churches, sume that the Latin word ludus was and some of these we can trace to the substituted by Fitzstephen, Matthew time of Zosimus, who filled the papal Paris, and other early chroniclers, be- chair anno 416, when Theodosius cause the Anglo-Saxons had no other was Emperor. In the Bibliotheca Pa
trum we should probably find the * Rise and Early Progress of Christianity, germs of all these innovations. It is i. 20.
certain too, that in the 4th century t Lexic. 446.
Pagan sports and spectacles still existGent. Mag. Septemier, 1831.
234 Review.-Collier's History of Dramatic Poetry. (Sept. ed. * When obscurity attaches to the motu se circumvolvebant, i. e. graceorigin of a thing, we are often in- fully. clined to ascribe the obscurity to re- Mr. Collier thinks that histrio promoteness of origin. In the century bably implied all sorts of performers. mentioned, fictitious writings upon Ducange says,
“ Histriones præpositi Scriptural subjects were innumera- meretricum in Glossis antiq. iidem forte ble.† Some further remarks may be qui lenones,” and this passage exmade. A grandeur of character has plains why they were refused Chrisbeen often observed in the savages of tian burial, and were otherwise civilly America, which is not found in the disgraced. We shall not translate the barbarous invaders of the Roman em- definition, and have given the original pire. Alaric resembled a Dey of Al- word histriones, on account of Mr.“ giers, not an Alexander, and his fol- Collier's observation. lowers ruffians, not Homer's heroes, There is no labour which an Engbecause they had no feelings above lish Antiquary will grudge in elucidasense. But the replies of the Scythians tion of the ancient manners of his own to Cyrus and Alexander exhibit eleva- country. He will follow, like a mole, tion of sentiment-intellectual dignity. the worms of record; but unfortuA feeling of this desideratum in the nately there is not a custom of the manners of the Middle Age caused country which is indigenous, and chivalry to be supported, but that ap- every lexicographer knows that the plied only to the higher ranks. The root must be acquired, before the word manners and understanding of their can be defined. Dramas have as foinferiors had not a more lofty eleva- reign an origin as tea and sugar. Hartion than that which good hounds lequin is only Mercury, and in the may be said to possess ; for their gra- vases of Greece we see every charactifications were wholly sensual, and ter known upon the stage ; but unfortheir manners, under the tyranny of tunately there are among them no feudality and superstition, canine and Druids or early Britons, Anglo-Saxons, dependant. There might be some or Normans. Our aborigines were fortunate menials, who were honour- savages ; and we have no barbarians ed with a collar, perhaps made par- in the plays of Sophocles, Euripides, lour dogs, but the majority were ken- Æschylus, Aristophanes, or Menanneled, or kicked about in the kitchen; der. Our early dramas were mere the best of them, as to intellect, being puppet shows performed by living only valued for low humour, in the machines. Such are our deductions ; character of clowns and fools. Now and, reserving specification of certain the drama is at all times a test of pub- curious matters to a future article, we lic taste and intellect, because nobody
shall finish this with a passage of gewill patronize what they do not feel neral history relating to Queen Elizaand enjoy. The plays of Terence, beth and the Earl of Essex. In vol. i. which for intellectual merit are ad. p. 338, it is said, from a MS. diary, mired in the present day, were popu. “ April 4. Dr. Parry told me the Counlar ; but could they have been so, un- tess Kildare assured him that the Queene less a Roman audience had been suf- caused the ring wherewith shee was wedded ficiently refined ? It was for want of to the crowne, to be cutt from her finger such elevated intellectuality that lite- some six weekes before hir death ; but wore rature in the Middle Ages so degene
a ring which the E. of Essex gave her, unto rated. Could such barbarians have
the day of hir death." relished a play of Sophocles? In the
In a man
anuscript History of Bristol year 1286 the spectacles of the French in our possession, copied from one were limited aux fêtes, moitié bur- older, is the following entry, under lesques, moitié religieuses, &c. and an the year 1600. We will not say that old Chronicle of Milan says, histriones it is not taken from some printed used to sing of Roland and Oliver, work, only if it be so, that it is un(whence by the way, our Rowland for known to us. an Oliver,) and, upon conclusion of
“1600. This year ye Earle of Essex, the song, buffoons and mimes used to
after he had been some time in prison, was play upon the harp, et decenti corporis without her Majesty's knowledge or con• * Spanheim, p. 29), ed. Wright.
Nouveaux Mémoires sur l'Italie par + Id. 317-319.
deux gentilshommes Suedois, iii. 334.
1831.] Review.-Fosbroke's Raglan Tour.
235 sent, beheaded privetly in the Tower by ye are some things especially hostile to means of Si Robi Cecill, Rawly, and seve- rural residence, one is, no good roads; rall others of his adversaries; but when ye another is, a lapse into sensuality and Queen heard of Essex's death, she presently took it so grievously, that she kept her bed the other ennui. To avoid these, a
coarseness for want of society; and for a space, and was never well after ; but as it was supposed it cost her Majesty her pursuit and refined taste are essenlife. She was most grievously offended
tial, because people in the present with them that caused the Earle to be put
times cannot live as Squire Western to death, saying to them, “You had best did ; although we know that, if a countake away my life also ;' and to shew her try gentleman does not sport, he is love to ye Earle, and her sorrow for his very likely to ruin his constitution for death, she wore black mourning."
want of exercise. In towns and cities Keynsham, the seat of the Haring- people lounge during whole mornings tons, is near Bristol, and there is a
for news and gossiping, -of course paragraph in the "Nugæ Antiquæ,
are incessant ambulators : but for a which shows that the melancholy of great part of the year sporting objects the Queen in her latter days was by alone will stimulate a country gentleher contemporaries ascribed to the
man to wade through mud and dirt. death of Essex. We need only allude to
It has been said, that against rainy the copious collection of accounts con
days there should be provided a bilcerning her last sickness, to be found liard-table, a hand-organ set to quain Mr. Nichols's Progresses.
drille tunes (for the young people in
the evening), and a library of good (To be continued.)
novels. Certainly rural residence does
require all possible innocent amuseRaglan Tour. A Picturesque and Topogre- ments, and the study of landscape
phical Account of Raglan Castle, with gardening is a most appropriate one. cursory Sketches of Abergavenny and
The “ Tourist's Grammar," and the Crickhowell. By the Rev. Thomas Dud- present work, written as an exempliley Fosbroke, M.A.&'c. &c. 12 mo. pp. 66. fication of Mr. Fosbroke's plan, both
tend to facilitate this study. Raglan, MR. FOSBROKE states in his Pre
a palatial castle of the fifteenth cenface, that Topography is heavy reading; and he might have added that tury (the ancient seat of the Somermodern Literature requires all works
sets), was a good subject for selecto be made as entertaining as possible. laid out ;* and, as Mr. Fosbroke says,
tion, because it is most beautifully He had previously published a cheap does not, like ruins in general, volume entitled “ The Tourist's Grammar, or Rules relating to the Scenery
vey a feeling of solitude, melancholy,
or desolation. It is not a palace for and Antiquities incident to Travellers, compiled from the great writers on
owls, a paradise for snakes, or a the Picturesque,” with the professed tal fancy scene,-a Claude, not a Sal
churchyard for ghosts. It is an orienobject of relieving the dry catalogue matter of local works. Now certainly Oberon, Ariel, Titania, and all that
vator picture,-a Vauxhall of ruins. there is no reason why topographers sprightly tribe, the lovely children of should not be paysagists as well as statists ; why they should not pro
Fancy and Innocence, are the only inmote public good' by making people tion can justly appropriate to it.”
habitants which a poetical imaginaenjoy the beauties of their vicinity, as well as the profits. The importance cluding the outer vallum. The latter,
Raglan consists of three courts, inof such a taste implies contingent con
i. e. first court, is “composed of a sequences far too extensive for a notice like this. A land proprietor may
double towered gateway in the centre; be induced to improve in all manner
the half-shell of the keep, and an anof ways a residence in which he de
gular hexagonal tower. Thus the lights; his habits may be more and
back-ground is building ; the intermore derusticated, for that implies bery; and the tout ensemble, a drop,
vening space in front, lawn and shrubgrossness, his manners elevated, and the proceeds of his property augment
scene at a theatre, over a superb ed, because it is the natural result of groupe.”—p. 12. an interest taken in a thing, to ame- * By Mr. Wyatt of Troy-House, the liorate it as much as possible. There Duke of Beaufort's steward.