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1831.) Coronation Banquet of Richard the Second.
119 pointed by them, arranged the guests, tired to his chamber with the nobles, settling all disputes of precedence, knights, and distinguished persons, and rode round the hall during the who had assisted at the feast, and banquet, preserving order.* The Earl they were entertained till supper-time of Derby stood on the right hand of with solemn minstrelsy; supper being the King the whole time of his being ended, fatigued with the ceremonies at table, holding the chief sword naked of the day, they retired to rest. and erect. The Earl of Stafford carved The following day (Friday) the King before the King as deputy for the Duke and all his Court proceeded to St. of Lancaster in right of his Earldom Paul's Church to offer up solemn and of Lincoln. +
devout prayers for the welfare and In the midst of the banquet, the right rule of his realm, and for the sound of trumpets was heard, and all souls of his grandfather Edward and eyes were turned towards the entrance his deceased progenitors. Thomas of the Hall, when the Champion of Bishop of Rochester afterwards preachEngland, Sir John Dymmok, “armed ed a sermon before him. at all points,” rode in on a fiery de- The train then returned to the pastrier or war horse, superbly capa- lace, and having dined with the King, risoned, his shield and lance borne humbly craved leave to depart to their before him. He came up to the table respective homes, which with much where the King was sitting, and hand- difficulty, real or apparent, according ed him a paper containing a written to the rules of court politeness of the challenge, which the King imme- age, was at length conceded. diately ordered to be proclaimed aloud The whole ceremony, nearly as deby the heralds to the effect which has tailed, was enrolled by the hands of already been noted in Sir John Dym- the Seneschal himself in the Chancery mok's claim before the High Steward. of the King, and forms the first entire
Dinner being ended, the King re- official record of this august solemnity.
One of the most stately and striking circumstances of this grand spectacle in the Hall must have been to see the Knights on their barded horses riding round the tables, without any inconvenience to the assembled guests.
† A MS. iu the British Museum will supply us with the service of an ancient Coronation feast, and as historians are silent on the subject of the dishes placed before Richard the Second and his feudatories, we may be allowed to fill up the deficiency from that of Heory VI. some years later. The particulars agree in a great measure, although not precisely, with the account of the same feast given in Fabian's Chronicle. At the first course (says the MS.) the Kyuge's herawdes of Armes came down from the scaffold, and they went hefore the Kyog's Chaumpyon Sir Phelp Dymok, that rode in the Hall bright as Seyot George, and he proclamed in the four quarters of the Hall that the King was a rightful Kyog and heyre to the Crowne of Englonde, and what manner of man that will say the contrary, he was ready to defend it, as his Knyght and his Champion, for by that office he holdeth his lande. Now the first course. The hore's head enarmed in a castell royall ; frumenty with venysoun (vyaunde ryall); gylt groce (grouse); char swan, capon stewed, heron, grete pyke ; red leche (soup), with a whyght lyon crowned therinne ; custardys ryall (royal), with a ryall lybbard of gold set therein, holding a four de lyce; fritour like a sonne, a floure de lyce therinne ; a sotyltye (device), Seynt Edward and Seynt Lowes (Lewis), armed in their cootes of armes, &c. &c. The seconde course, -Viaunde blakely wreten (i. e. inscribed with the black letter character), and noted with Te Deum laudumus; pyg eodored (gilt), crane, bytore (bittern), cony, chykyns endored, partrich, pecock, grete breine leche, with an antelope shynynge as gold, Alampayne powdered with lybards and flowre de lyce of gold (the arms of France and England), fritour, custard, and a lybbardis head, with estrych (ostrich) feathers ; a sotyltie, the Emperor and King, &c. The thirde course,quyoces in compost, blaundishere, (qu. blanc sucre ?) venyson rosted, egrete, curlewys anl cokks, plovers, quayles, snytes (snipes), grete byrdes, larkes, grete carpe, leche made with a vyolet colour, bake metes, chekyns powdered with losynges gylt with flowres of borage, fritours gryspe (crisp); a sotyltye, our Lady syttyng, and hyr chyld in hyr armes holding in every hand a crowne, and St. George knelyng on that oon syde, and St. Denyse oa that other syde, presentyng the King to our Lady with this reasoun, “O blyssed Lady Christin Modyr deere,” &c.—Bibl. Cotton, Nero, C. ix. fol. 173. The detail of red soup in which white lions are swimming, goldeu leopards immersed in custard, roast pigs gilt like gingerbread, fritters like the sun, the head of a pard crowned with ostrich feathers, and a haunch of venison ioscribed with Te Deum laudamus, is sufficiently amusing.
[Aug. Reference to the Plate.
tre of the modern Crown the form of The annexed engraving represents a saddle. the Crowns of State or Ceremony 11. State Crown of Charles II. from which the Kings of England were ac- Walker's Account of his Coronation. customed to wear. It is well known that on certain great festivals they ap- In the Inventory of the Crown peared attired in all the regalia of Jewels taken by order of Parliament their office; hence the statements of in 1649,* the Crowns are mentioned our old historians that they were re- as follow: peatedly crowned.
In the upper Jewel house in the Tower. No. 1 of the engraving is the Crown of Edward the Confessor, from his
“The imperial Crowne of massy gold, great seal; it is not improbable that weighing 7lb. 6 ounces, valued at 1110l.
The Queen's Crówne of massy gold, it was fabricated by order of King Alfred, over-arched with gold wire-work, weighing 3lb. 10 ounces, 3381. 3s. 1d. set with small stones, and adorned formerly in Lord Cottington's charge (which,
A small Crowne found in an iron chest, with two little bells. The knobs
from other accounts,t appears to have been projecting on either side the Crown
the Crowu of Edward the Sixth], the gold, may be these identical bells. Speed's 731. 16s. 8.. print of the Seal makes them, how- The diamonds, rubies, sapphires, &c. 355l. ever, decidedly jewels, which per- The foremencioned Crownes, since ye inhaps they are. The sketch was made ventorie was taken, are, accordinge to order from an impression in my possession of Parliament, totallie broken and defaced " of the Confessor's Seal.' With the (as already noticed in p. 116). old Saxon Crown, I believe, for many At Westminster were two Crowns, ages the monarchs of England were which were probably used at the Coinvested, until the desecrating rage of ronation, but not on ordinary occarepublican fanaticism destroyed it. sions : No. 2, is another Crown of St. Ed.
“ Queen Edith's Crowne, formerly thought ward, as represented on the Bayeux
to be of massy gould, but upon triall found tapestry.
to be of silver gilt, enriched with garnetts, No.3, is the Crown worn by Henry foule pearle, sapphires, and some odd stones, II. and Richard I.; the authority is 504 ounces, valued at 161. their monuments at Fontevraud.
King Alfred's Crowne of gould wyer4. The Crown of John, from his worke, sett with slight stones, and a little monument at Worcester.
bells, 79 oz. at 3l. per ounce, 2481. 108." - 5. That of Henry III. and Edward I.
It is mentioned by Spelman, in his Authority, the monument of Hen. III.
Life of King Alfred, that on the cabi. and that of Queen Eleanor.
net in which this last named Crown 6. Edward the Second's; his monu
was kept, was an inscription to this ment in Gloucester Cathedral.
effect : * Hæc est principalior corona 7. Richard the Second's, from his
cum qua coronabantur reges Ælfredus, portrait at Westminster.
Edwardus,” &c.; and Sir Henry adds, 8. Henry the Fourth's, from his that it was “of very ancient work, monument.
with flowers adorned with stones of 9. Henry the Fifth's, from a pic- somewhat a plain setting.” ture in the Royal collection.
It is noticed by Mr. Taylor, as a 10. Henry the Seventh's, from the circumstance corroborative of the bepainted window in St. Margaret's, lief that this was really King Alfred's Westminster.
Crown, that Robert of Gloucester, The Crowns commonly worn by the who wrote in the time of Henry the Kings of England appear to have taken Third, mentions its preservation in his the overarched or imperial form about day: the time of Henry VI. and there is pe pope Leon hým blessede, po he little variation in the
representation of their shape, until the regalia were de
puder com, stroyed. When the Crown was made And þe kynges croune of þýs lond, anew for the Coronation of Charles II.
but in þýs lond gut ys. the old form of the State Crown appears to have been in some degree * See Archæologia, vol. xv. p. 285. imitated, but the arches, in very bad + See the extracts from a diary written taste, were depressed, giving the cen- in 1649, in our vol. LxvIII. p. 470.
With an Engraving, * page 124. THE old Bridge of London, now involving unnecessary destruction, on devoted to a demolition as summary the mere ground of their expense ; for as the firm nature of ancient masonry we consider that money spent upon will allow, is an edifice fraught with our own artificers, and diffused through an extraordinary confluence and va- them in our own country, to its preriety of interesting circumstances. The sent and future honour, ornament, and labour, industry, and expense, by advantage, is expended in a manner which, in the place of modern science, most commendable, and most desirthe strength of a mighty element was able. § But the disadvantages inderesisted; the curiosities of its ancient pendent of expense, which are anticiarchitecture, the vicissitudes of its pated in the present case, are startling partial destructions and restorations, and alarming. As the water-way beand those of the town and the popu- tween the piers of the old Bridge was lation it formerly bore on its back; only five hundred and twenty-four and, besides its own peculiar annals, feet, and between the starlings at low the various historical events of im- water only two hundred and thirtyportance with which it was connect- one, whilst the water-way of the ed, are matters sufficient for volumes. new Bridge will be six hundred and They have formed the subject of one, ninety feet at any period of the tide, it which displays very considerable re- is concluded that the removal of this search, and preserves much valuable bar will produce very serious alterainformation.t
tions in the state of the river above The advantages which the public bridge. The late Sir H. C. Englefield, gain by the sacrifice of this ancient in his “ Observations on the probable friend, 'is a passage across the river consequences of the demolition of Lonfifty-four feet in width instead of don Bridge,” infers, in the first place, forty-five, and of somewhat less as- from the different distances to which cent in itself, and less declivity in its the spring and neap tides now flow, approach. These slight accommoda- that the removal of London Bridge tions have incurred an expense of two would occasion the tide to flow about millions! The firmness of the old three miles higher than it does at preBridge was least doubted by those sent. He deduces that the bridge, conbest acquainted with ancient works; sidered as a bar, has become from that the approaches might have been lapse of time an essential part of the improved and the passage widened, I river; that it prevents the tide from without involving the destruction of ever attaining so high a level above the edifice, will find no disputant. bridge as it otherwise would do ; that It is well known that we should be it checks in a considerable degree the the last to object to public works, not velocity of the flood tides; that the
This is one of two views which were published in that very popular newspaper the Observer on the day before the opening of the Bridge. The water procession is not exactly represented; but the Bridges and surrounding buildiogs are very correctly delineated.
+ " Chronicles of London Bridge, 1827," 8vo, with many pretty woodcuts (reviewed in vol. xcvii. ii. 225). We should be glad to see a new edition, in which these interesting Chronicles were rendered more simple and intelligible by being divested of the paraphernalia of Mr. Barnaby Postern and Mr. Geoffrey Barbican ; whose conversation, though intended to enliven, is a sad interruption to the narrative, and the more so, because, unlike that in Dr. Dibdin's Decameron, it is impossible to skip over it.
A bridge at Glasgow, the whole of which is devoted to the road way, has galleries attached to the sides, which answer every purpose for foot passengers.
§ We are at length happy in the inforination that the new Paluce in St. James's Park is about to be completed, the estimated expense of making it fit for habitation, being 70,000l. It were not worthy the Metropolis of Great Britain to be destitute of a Palace in some measure correspondent to the grandeur of the Empire, even if there were not iminediate or constant occasion for its use. Temporary circumstances, and the convenience of the moment, have too much influenced the arrangeinents of our palaces.
,!l Survey made in 1824 by William Knight, Esq. F.S.A. Assistant Engineer to the Works at ibe new Bridge. Gent. Mag. August, 1831.