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down great store of houses there to stop it, being grown to a great head. Lords of the Privy Council rid about to every place, to get pipes opened that they may not want water, as Lord Chamberlain, Lord Ashley, and others, so that by Wednesday towards the evening we supposed the fire every where quenched, excepting that about Cripplegate, which we hoped well of.
No sooner was the Duke come to Whitehall but a new alarm-50,000 French and Dutch in arms, and the Temple on fire again. Immediately we repaired to the Temple again. When we came there, found a great fire occasioned by the carelessness of the Templars, who would not open the gates to let people in to quench it; told the Duke unless there was a barrister there they durst not open any door. The Duke found no way of saving the Temple Chapel, and the Hall by the Chapel, but blowing up the Paper house in that court, which experiment, if it had been used at first, might have saved a great many houses.k
Original Account of the Fire of London.
One of the Templars, seeing gunpowder brought, came to the Duke, and told him it was against the rules and charter of the Temple that any should blow that with gunpowder, therefore desired the Duke to consider of it, with more impertinence; upon which Mr. Germaine, the Duke's Master of the Horse, took a good cudgel and beat the young lawyer to the purpose. There is no hopes of knowing who this lawyer is, but the hope that he will bring an action of battery against Mr. Germaine. About one o'clock the fire was quenched, and saved the chapel and the hall; so the Duke went home to take some rest, not having slept above two or three hours from Sunday night. The next morning being Thursday, the King went to see how the fire was, and found it over in all places. It burnt down to the very moat of the Tower. They were very fearful of the Tower, carried out all the gunpowder, and brought out all the goldsmiths' money (which was at first carried thither), to Whitehall,
houses which were nearest, and by which the fire climbed to go further (the doing whereof at that time might probably have prevented much of the mischief that succeeded), he thought it not safe counsel, and made no other answer than that he durst not do it without the consent of the owners."
"In the midst of all this calamity and confusion, there was, I know not how, an alarm begun that the French and Dutch, with whom we were now in hostility, were not only landed, but were entering the city. There was, in truth, some days before, great suspicion of those two nations joining; and now that they had been the occasion of firing the town. This report did so terrify, that on a sudden there was such an uproar and tumult, that they ran from their goods, and taking what weapons they could come at, they could not be stopped from falling upon some of those nations whom they usually met, without sense or reason. The clamour and peril grew so excessive, that it made the whole Court amazed, and they did with infinite pains and great difficulty reduce and appease the people, sending troops of soldiers and guards to cause them to retire into the fields again, where they were watched all this night."-Evelyn.
"About four in the afternoon (Wednesday Sept. 5) it broke out again in the Temple, (it is thought) by a lurking spark that had lain concealed ever since the morning, which, happening among Paper-buildings, quickly increased, and had baffled two engines, if the blowing up some lodgings had not prevented its diffusion, which was before midnight. The Duke of York was here three or four hours, showing much diligence, as he had done in several parts of the city that day, where he had seen, as he said, above a hundred houses blown up."-Letter dated" Middle Temple, Sept 24, 1666," in Malcolm, iv. 76.
To what has been quoted from Evelyn on this point may be added a paragraph from the letter-writer of the Temple, showing the great assistance derived from gunpowder. "In pulling down houses, they always began too near the fire, by which they were forced from their work ere finished. It was, indeed, almost impossible, after it had made such a large circle, to make a larger round it by any other means than that of blowing up houses, which had been proposed the first day by more experienced persons, then esteemed a desperate cure, but afterwards practised with very good success. For, by putting a barrel of gunpowder, or thereabout, under each house, it was first lift up a yard or two, and then fell down flat, without any dangers to the bystanders."-Malcolin, iv. 77.
1 Clarendon continues, where we last broke off: "His (the Lord Mayor's) want of skill was the less wondered at, when it was known afterwards that some gentlemen of the Inner Temple would not endeavour to preserve the goods which were in the lodgings of absent persons, nor suffer others to do it, because, they said, it was against the law to break up any man's chamber."
1831.] NEW CHURCHES.-St. Barnabas Chapel, Kensington.
above 1,200,000l. The King saw all Moorfields filled with goods and people. He told them it was immediate from the hand of God, and no plot; assured them he had examined several himself which were spoken of upon suspicion, and found no reason to suspect anything of that nature; desired them to take no more alarms; he had strength enough to defend them from any enemy, and assured them he would, by the grace of God, live and die with them; and told them he would take a particular care of them all. 500l. worth of bread he intends to send them to-morrow, and next day intends to send them as much more, and set out a proclamation in favour of them. Gresham College is to be the new Exchange, nothing remaining in the old Exchange but the statue of him that built it." There is 25,000l. worth of cloth burnt, which will be well for the wool, and the poor. Lord General will be here to-morrow, and the fleet sets sail from Portsmouth to-morrow. One of our ships burnt by the French.
The fire being all within the city, is
Your Lordship's most obed' servant,
To Lord Viscount Scudamore,
NEW CHURCHES.-No. XXXII. ST. BARNABAS'S CHAPEL, KENSING
THE accompanying engraving (See the Frontispiece) exhibits two structures in the pointed style of archi
tecture, which found their claims to admiration on very opposite principles; the one endeavours to excite attention by a display of ornament, the other by the harmony of its proportions and the simplicity of the decorations.
The Chapel, of which a north-west view is given in the upper division of the engraving, is situated on the east side of the Addison road, in the parish of St. Mary Abbots, Kensington. It is built of white brick, with stone dressings, the light tint of the brick harmonizing with the hue of the Bath stone.
The plan is not divided into nave and ailes, but gives a parallelogram for the body of the Church, with a projection at each end; that to the east being a chancel. At the west end and in each of the flanks are porches.
The west front has a façade, approached by a flight of steps, and consisting of three arched entrances divided by piers, with attached buttresses ending in pinnacles; the central entrance has a sweeping cornice, and above it the parapet is finished pedimentally, and enriched with quaterfoils. On the apex is a handsome cross. The lateral arches have square headed weather cornices; the parapet above them is horizontal, and decorated with quaterfoils as before. In the flanks are windows of a single light. Above the porch is a large window of seven lights; the head of the arch, which is low and obtuse, instead of being occupied by the perpendicular tracery coeval with this form of arch, is filled with quaterfoil and cinquefoil tracery fantastically arranged the head of the arch is bounded with an ogee canopy crocketted. The elevation is finished pedimentally, the parapet being pierced with trefoils. At the angles are pinnacles, and in the centre is an open
This is an interesting and important part of the letter; the judicious address of Charles, who "never said a foolish thing," not appearing in other places. The proclamation is printed as a note in Evelyn's Diary, 8vo. edit. vol. ii. p. 272.
"Sir Tho. Gresham's statue, though fallen from its niche in the Royal Exchange, remained entire, when all those of the Kings since the Conquest were broken to pieces; also the standard in Cornhill, and Queen Elizabeth's effigies, with some arms on Ludgate, continued with but little detriment, whilst the vast iron chains of the city streets, hinges, bars, and gates of prisons, were many of them melted and reduced to cinders by the vehement heat." Evelyn. The statue of Queen Elizabeth which escaped the fire at Ludgate is the same which now stands looking down Fleet-street, from the east end of St. Dunstan's church.
• George Monk, Duke of Albemarle, whose military skill had achieved the Restoration; he was probably generally spoken of as the Lord General, but at this time he was specially commissioned as Commander-in-chief against the Dutch.
GENT. MAG. July, 1831.
NEW CHURCHES.-St. Barnabas Chapel, Kensington. [July,
interior succeed to an exceedingly plain outside; and in this the good taste of the architect is shewn. In such an instance the spectator, as he proceeds in the contemplation of the building, finds his admiration increase; but not so with a structure like the present; here he is disap-. pointed by the contrast which the part of the building last seen affords to that he first viewed.
hexagonal turret, ending in a dwarf spire, and finial. The portions which have been described, as will be seen by the engraving, project beyond the body of the Chapel, which forms a small wing at each side, and is finished with a parapet pierced as before. At the angles are octagonal tower-shaped buttresses broken by strings into five stories; they are carried up plain to the parapet, where an open story grounded on a basement of quaterfoils inclosing shields, succeeds; each face of this superstructure is pierced with a narrow light, with cinquefoil head, over which are quaterfoils and a cornice; the whole is crowned with a ribbed hemispherical cupola, ending in a finial which has more of an Italian than an English character.
The flanks are uniform. They are each made into eight divisions by slender buttresses which rise to a cornice, the elevation being finished with a pierced parapet continued from the west front; above the buttresses are pinnacles of a very diminutive and insignificant character. Every division has an obtusely arched window of three lights, divided into two stories by a transom, the head occupied by intersecting tracery and quaterfoils. The second division from the west has a porch, the door-way of which is arched and bounded by a sweeping cornice, the finish a parapet pierced with quaterfoils, pedimental in the front and horizontal in the flanks; on the apex is a cross, and at the angles are buttresses ending in pinnacles.
The eastern end corresponds with the western; a vestry supplies the place of the porches, the central window and the octagon buttresses as before described.
is a large unbroken arca, more resembling a hall than a church, the gallery at the west end supporting the idea. The architect having bestowed so much ornament on the outside of the building, we are led to expect an equally ornamented interior; here the spectator is disappointed by finding a quaker-like plainness. This is in the worst possible taste; in an ancient building a highly enriched outside always leads the spectator to a gorgeous display in the interior finishings, and he is often agreeably surprized by finding a splendid
The ceiling is horizontal, and divided into compartments correspondent with the windows, by ribs stretching across from wall to wall; and again in breadth into three divisions, by bands running the whole length of the interior. The principal
are trussed, and spring from corbels, the spandrils being pierced with trefoils. Such a ceiling as this somewhat resembles the flat timber ceilings of old churches, and had it been constructed of wood, or tinted to resemble oak, it would have been tolerable; but here the ribs are stonecoloured, the pannels being plain plaster. It is therefore intended for an imitation of stone; but an imitation, to be correct, should be capable of being constructed in the material which it represents; yet such a ceiling as this, of stone, would scarcely be attempted. The principal ribs are perfectly horizontal, and only approach to the arch at the side walls, where, as before remarked, they are trussed, and the longitudinal bands are so slender that if the whole were stone it would never stand for a week; how absurd then is such an imitation! We may be told the whole is but lath and plaster; true, it may be so, but it ought at least to bear the semblance of reality; it should either represent a stone or wood ceiling, for a lath and plaster structure was unknown to our ancestors, who despised false appearances. The trusses at the ends, where the design is narrower, are fantastically ornamented; and over the chancel is some lozenge work of a purely modern character. On the centre band are some attempts at ornaments in foliage; such flimsy things had better be omitted, as the chains of the two chandeliers used for lighting the church have nearly demolished the two bosses they pass through.
At the west end is a gallery, the front ornamented with perpendicular tracery, and above it a secondary gal.
NEW CHURCHES.-Trinity Chapel, Tottenham.
1831] lery, containing the organ in a fine case, and seats for the charity children.
The altar is rather uncommon, in being formed of, or in imitation of stone. The architect has taken an altar tomb of the fifteenth century as his model; it commences with a platform pierced with quarterfoils, which is surmounted by a pedestal, also pierced with quaterfoils elaborately enriched, each enclosing a quadruple flower, the ends being similarly ornamented; the back of the pierced work is painted black to give a false effect of hollowness, which only adds a flimsy puerile look to a composition which would otherwise be a judicious and handsome design. The screen is very commonplace; it consists of three arches, the centre broader than the others, and like many modern works displaying arches of a different angle, the centre being more obtuse than the side ones. As a proof of the want of attention to propriety so often visible in modern buildings, the altar window is disfigured by air-traps, the strings for working which hang down very gracefully over the altar screen.
On each side of the altar are doors leading into the vestry; these, as well as the other entrances, are surrounded by pannelling somewhat in the carpenter's Gothic style.
The pulpit and reading-desk are alike, and are placed opposite to each other at a short distance from the altar rails; they are hexagonal, and not ornamented. The font is an octagon basin, on a pedestal of the same form, and closely resembles many in the new churches; they are probably cast in the same mould.
The windows internally are finished with sweeping cornices, a very unusual mode of decoration.
Upon the whole this chapel, though it is not among the worst, is far from a good specimen of architecture. The
I take this opportunity of adverting to an error, if it be one, pointed out with much angry feeling by Mr. Bedford. that I complained of three arches of different angles in one line, and that I represented the centre to be more obtuse than the lateral ones; Mr. Bedford says it is quite the reverse, i. e. the centre is acute, and the others obtuse. It may be so, yet the fault, which arose from the juxtaposition of arches of different angles, is not mended by the correction. E. 1. C.
ornaments are of a flimsy character, the architect being too fond of piercing and hollowing out every solid part of them, so that instead of their resembling the decorations of antiquity, they have much more the appearance of the very pretty toys which are sold by Mr. Ackermann and other fancy stationers.
This church was built by the parish with the aid of a grant from the Royal Commissioners of 5000l. It will accommodate 1330 persons, 818 being in pews and 512 in free seats. The building was commenced in January, 1827, and the chapel was consecrated on the 8th June, 1830.*
TRINITY CHAPEL, TOTTENHAM.
This Chapel may rank among the best structures in the Pointed style which we have met with in the course of our surveys. It is situated on the west side of the high road at the entrance to the village, and not far from the well-known Seven Sisters.
The materials are brick and stone, of the same nature as those of the last described structure.
In the adoption of the early, or lancet style of architecture, Mr. Savage has displayed good taste, and better taste in keeping, with some exceptions, to one style in his building; the contrary practice being a fault which in another structure of this architect we felt bound to deprecate. The plan shews a nave, or body, with side ailes, which at their extremities fall short of the central part of the building, making a small chancel at one extremity, and a space for vestibules at that which is opposite.
The building being in accordance with the usual ecclesiastical arrangement, the principal front is furthest from the road. This portion of the building, which is shewn in the engraving, may be described as consisting of a centre, guarded at the angles by octagonal buttresses, and two side aisles, which, as observed in describing the plan, recede behind the line of the principal elevation. The central portion contains the entrance, a simple pointed arch of good
For a description of the Church of the Holy Trinity, built in this parish, vide vol. c. part i. p. 580.
NEW CHURCHES.-Trinity Chapel, Tottenham.
portions, and the chasteness of the decorations which it possesses, has an exceedingly pleasing appearance. The roof is not sufficiently acute or lofty for the style of the Chapel; this has a bad effect, the more so as the gables rise to a greater height. The parapet is graduated at the eastern end to conceal the clock, and this takes off from the bad effect on that side; but the western gable in particular has, in consequence of the lowness of the roof, an awkward and incomplete
proportions, above which is a lancet window of three lights; the elevation is finished by a gable, having in the tympanum a circle filled with wheel tracery, consisting of eight radiating mullions ending in arches. On each side is a quaterfoil, and on the apex of the gable a simple but elegant cross. The angular buttresses are carried up to the spring of the gable in several stories, with loop-hole lights at intervals; the portion which is clear of the building is pierced with eight lancet lights, and finished with a spire ribbed at the angles. The side aisles have each a lancet window of two lights, and are finished with an inclining parapet. At the exterior angle on each side, the architect has introduced a pinnacle utterly at variance with the general style of the building, and of a period when lancet architecture had entirely disappeared. His pinnacle is square in plan, and crock etted at the angles-the shaft finished with an embattled cornice; in its form therefore it differs from the other spires, which are octagonal, and being a copy of the pinnacles of Wykeham's works at Winchester, belongs to the reign of Richard II., the present Chapel being in imitation of the architecture of the period of Henry III. If these obnoxious pinnacles were thrown down the front would be much improved. The flanks are divided by pilaster-formed buttresses into seven divisions; the two nearest the ends of the aisles have arched doorways and lancet lights above, and the others have lancet windows of two lights in the style of the west end. The buttresses end under the parapet, below which is a block cornice composed of portions of a continuous series of hollows and rounds. The clerestory has five lancet windows of three lights each, and is also finished with a parapet. The east end agrees with the western already described, except in regard to the entrance, which is not used here, and in having a dial in lieu of the wheel tracery of the opposite side. The piers which divide the several lancet windows are worked in brick, and there is but little stone used in the building. The ornaments are simple and sparingly applied, and want perhaps the entire boldness of works of the thirteenth century, but taken as a whole the building, from the neatness and harmony of its pro
The enclosure in which the Chapel stands is surrounded with a brick wall, finished with a coping; far better than an iron railing, which, by its proximity to the main building, destroys the effect of many handsome structures.
is marked by the same simplicity which characterizes the appearance of the outside. The nave and aisles are divided by five pointed arches which spring from piers, to each of which
attached four small columns, two being carried up above the impost for the purpose of sustaining the trusses of the roof. The arch is not sufficiently acute, and the columns are too slender for the period, being, in fact, imitations of the architecture of a much later period; but the effect is not bad. The roof is sustained on oaken trusses, the space between the rafters and tie beams filled in with upright divisions with trefoil arched heads, another portion of Tudor architecture. The roof is plastered between the timbers, which is a senseless modern innovation, and would have been far better had it been entirely of wood. The trusses rest, as before observed, on the capitals of the interior columns of the principal piers, and the other timbers on a bold cornice, applied as a finish to the walls, the timbers passing through the upper moulding. The side aisles have similarly formed trusses, which consist of one half of the principal truss; they rest on corbels on the side of the wall, and on the other on the columns. The roof is partly plastered, as in the centre. A gallery crosses the west end of the Chapel, which is approached by two staircases in a lobby formed at the west end. The altar screen, occupying the dado of