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114 Order of the Coronation of Richard the Second. (Aug. dergone the accustomed formality of all attired in silken copes, repaired to bathing, * he retired to rest.

the King, who was seated on the great On the following day, Thursday marble table or dais in his Hall. The the 16th of July, early in the morn- procession was then marshalled. In ing Simon Archbishop of Canterbury, the mean time William de Latymer the Bishops, the abbot and monks of the Almoner caused the red ray cloth: Westminster, with others of the clergy, to be spread from the hall to the stage

The persons who were created Knights the next day performed the same sort of preparatory ablution in vats or bathing tubs placed in the apartment where they all reposed together, the full particulars of which ceremony have been given by Austis in his Essay upon the Knighthood of the Bath. The order of the Bath appears to be a remnant of the ancient general order of Knighthood, while other communities of that class are but offsets from the parent stock.

That the order of Knighthood was known among the Anglo-Saxons, and existed from au early period among the Teutonic nations, seems extremely probable. Malmsbury, speaking of Athelstan, who began his reigo anno Domini 924, says, that his grandfather Alfred “ seeing and embracing him affectionately, when a boy of astonishing beauty and graceful manners, had most devoutly prayed that his Government might be prosperous : indeed he had made him a knight unusually early, giving him a scarlet cloak, a belt studded with diamonds, and a Saxon sword with a golden scabbard :" and this description seems to designate something more than a mere gist of arms, for the scarlet or purple cloak long after formed one of the insignia of knighthood; indeed the Kuights of the Bath, a circumstance confirming the primitive nature of the order, still retain the crimson cluak as a mark of knighthood.

Iogulphus, a writer of the eleventh century, corroborates this opinion by particularly 'describing the koighthood of the Saxon chief Hereward, who so valiantly opposed the Norman William. Ingulphus relates that Hereward was knighted by his uncle che abbot of Peterborough, first confessing his sins, receiving absolution, and performing a vigil in the church, offeriog his sword upon the altar, hearing mass and receiving the sacrament; a sword was then put about his neck. But this form of military consecration was held in contempt by the Normans, who thought that secular rites should be used in making a knight." In their ceremonial the knight was shorn, placed in a bath, theo put to bed to repose for a short period, clothed in a long garment, led to the chapel or church wherein he passed the night in prayer. He was then brought to the knight from whom he was to receive the accolade, or blow on the shoulders just below the neck with the flat of a sword. Again he was led into the church, where he promised to maintain the ecclesiastical rights. John Major, a Norman writer, relates that Geoffrey Plantagenet, son of Hugh Earl of Aujou, was knighted in the following form. After speading the previous day in festivity with a numerous company of knights at the Court of King Henry I. in his duchy of Normandy at Rouen, a bath was prepared, in which he bathed; he then put on a linen shirt, a mantle of purple (muricis sanguine tincta), was attired in silken hose, and a pair of shoes or boots worked with golden lions. A war horse or charger was then brought him. He was clothed in a coat of mail of admirable workmanship, a covering of mail was put over his Jegs, a shield with little lions was placed round his neck, a helmet adorned with precious stones on his head, a spear of Poitou steel in his hand. The day was finished by a hostiludium or couroament. It may be added, that the lions on the shield above mentioned afford a very early if not the earliest instance of armorial bearings; this coat may be seen on the tablet representing him in Stothard's Monumental Effigies, and was also borne by his grandson William Longespee. See also the above beautiful work.

+ The abbot and monks of Westminster were, by the Charter of Edward the Confessor, keepers of the Regalia, and doubtless the Dean and Chapter might still as successors in their rights claim that privilege. Henry Martin the regicide was the agent to the republican Parliament in confiscating the ancient regalia. By their authority “ about the year 1642, he forced open a great iron chest within the college of Westminster, thence took out the crown, robe, sword, and sceptre, belonging anciently to King Edward the Confessor, and used by all our Kings at their inaugurations, and with a scorn greater than his lusts and the rest of his vices, he openly declared that there should be no further use of those toys and trifles, and in the jollity of that humour he invested George Wither, au old puritap satirist, in the royal habiliments, who being crowned and royally arrayed (as well right became him), did first march about the room with a stately garb, and afterwards with a thousand apish and ridiculous actions exposed those sacred ornaments to contempt and laughter." Thus much from Anthony Wood. To what base uses did the revolutionists of that time degrade the crown of the Saxon Kings and their successors, which they afterwardo consigoed to the melting pot !

“Quosdam rubeos pannos radiatos," is the expression of the MSS. Bibl. Cotton. Tib. E. viii. and Dum. XVIII. part of which is printed in the 7th volume of Rymer's Fæd. The ray or rere cloth was therefore in all probability ornamented by some radiated pattern.

cross.

the paten.

1831.] Order of the Coronation of Richard the Second. 115 erected for the Coronation of the King And William Earl of Suffolk, also, before the high altar of the Abbey by appointment of the King, a Royal Church. Every thing being prepared, sceptre, on the top of which was a the procession moved on in the following order.

The Earl of Suffolk also brought a The monks of Westminster singing certain precious garment; the Earl of an anthem in honour of the apostle Salisbury another, with which the Peter their patron.

King was afterwards invested.* Several of the Clergy.

The Archbishop then made a disHugh Bishop of Worcester, Trea- course in which the correlative duties surer of England, carrying in his hand of the King and his people were en

forced. He then administered to him Bishop of St. David's, a holy cha- the Coronation Oath to the following lice of great value.

purport : The Duke of Lancaster bearing the “Will you, Sire, grant and keep, chief sword Curtana.

and by your oath confirm, to the peoEdmund Earl of March with the ple of England the laws and customs second sword and the spurs, in right granted to them by the ancient Kings of the earldom of Pembroke.

of England your predecessors, and the The Earl of Warwick with the third laws, customs, and immunities grantsword by the right as alleged and al- ed to the clergy and the people by the lowed before the Seneschal.

glorious King St. Edward your predeEdmund Earl of Cambridge with cessor? a Royal sceptre.

1 grant and promise them. Thomas of Woodstock with another " Will you, Sire, preserve to God's Royal sceptre, by special appointment holy church, the clergy and the peoof the King.

ple, peace, and agreement in God as THE King.

much as in you lie ? The Archbishop of Canterbury. I will preserve them.

The Bishops of London and Win- “Will you execute in all your judgchester.

ments complete and right justice and The King, as soon as he arrived at discretion in mercy and in sincerity the altar, prostrated himself before it as much as in your power? on the pavement, which had been co- “I will. vered with cloth and rushes. The Arch- “Will you agree to keep the laws bishop and the Bishops who were with and right customs which the commons him, also prostrated themselves round of your kingdom shall have enacted, the King. In the mean time two Bi- defend and confirm them to the hoshops devoutly sang the Litany, which nour of God as much as in your power? being ended, the King arose, and was I agree and promise so to do." conducted to a chair placed on an ele- The Archbishop now going to the vated scaffold in sight of all the peo- four corners of the elevated stage, preple. It must here be remarked, that ceded by Henry Percy, Marshal of the Barons of the Cinque Ports bare England, openly declared to all the over the King, during the whole of the people assembled in the church the ceremony, from his setting out from substance of the oath which the King the church, a purple silk canopy, sup- had just taken, demanding if they ported by four silver staves or spears, would consent to acknowledge and with four bells of silver gilt attached obey him as their Sovereign and liege to each.

Lord. On their signifying their asThe monks then sang the anthem, sent, the Archbishop began with a Firmetur manus tua, &c.

loud voice the hymn Veni Creutor SpiThe King being seated in his chair, ritus, in which he was joined by the Richard Earl of Arundel approached whole choir; he then gave the King him, bearing a costly regal crown.

* These garments were, the tunica and dalmatica, which were ecclesiastical vestments. The tunic was a garment fitted to the body, reaching to the heels, and having long sleeves. The dalmatica was worn by the Deacon and Subdeacon, while assisting the priest at mass. The Romish ritual, in attaching so much reverence to the imposition of these garments, seems tacitly to insist on the King's subjection to the Church. The Royal dalmatica is a rich and graceful triangular garment; it is represeuted thrown over the shoulders of our ancient Kings, not unlike the Roman tiga.

116 Order of the Coronation of Richard the Second. [Aug. his benediction by the following remain there till mass should have prayers, Omnipotens et sempiterne been ended, and then have preceded Deus, &c. Deus ineffabilis, &c. and the the procession back to the Hall, pubanthem Comfortare et esto vir fortis licly challenging any one to dispute was sung. Then the Archbishop ap- the King's right, as he passed along; proached the King, and pulling down but he was instructed by the Seneshis garment from top to bottom, chal, Constable, and Marshal, that he stripped him to his shirt, the Barons might disarm and repose himself, inof the Cinque Ports still holding over asmuch as the proper time of his aphim the canopy, as they had done pearance would be when the King was from the first setting out of the pro- at dinner in the Hall. cession. Notwithstanding which cer- The anointing of the King having tain of the Peers brought a cloth of been performed, he stood up at the gold to hold over the King's head, foot of the coronation chair, and was while he received the sacrament of invested with the sword curtana, with unction. The Archbishop then anoint- the sceptre, the ring, the spurs,+ and ed the King on the palms of his hands, the rest of the regalia, and the nobles his breast, his shoulders, the joints of standing round, raising him up, placed his arms, and lastly, on his head," say- him in the chair ; the prelates and ing, Unguantur manus, 8c. The choir clergy devoutly singing the Psalm, in the mean time sang the ant) m, Te Deum laudamus, advanced to the Unxerunt regem Salomonem.

altar to celebrate high mass. In the While this ceremony was perform- midst of the performance of which, ing, the Champion of England, pre- the King descending from his seat to ceded by his two esquires, all mount- the step before the altar, offered a ed, having been to the King's armoury, mark of gold and returned to his seat. and having equipped himself, came to Whilst the clergy were thus occupied the Abbey gate with an intention to in this religious ceremony, i the fol

* At this

part of the ceremony, the King's head was covered with a linen coif, which he wore till the eighth day after the ceremony, when the abbot of Westminster or his deputy came to the King, removed the coif, and cleansed his hair from the ointinent with soft wool. Nero C. ix. Bibl. Cotton. + Without “ rouelles" or rowels, being the ancient “pryck spur."

It may not be irrelevant to observe how much similarity cxisted between the soleme nity in our own country and the neighbouriog monarchy of France; more especially as it will supply several minute particulars of preparation, &c. which were common to both. These will be found detailed in a MS. in the Cotton. Library, written in French, Tiberius B. vill. ; the illuminations in which are exceedingly beautiful. They once represented the different stages of the whole ceremonial of a French Coronation. Unfortunately, the MS. bas suffered much from the most barbarous mutilation, many of the illuminations having been entirely cut out. This splendid MS. is thus headed, C'est l'ordenance a enoindre et a coronner le Rmy (this is the order of anointing and crowning the Kiug); and the following inscription in the hand-writiug of Charles V. of France, acquaints us with its origin, Ce livre du sacre des Rois de France est à nous Charles, V. de notre nom roy de France et le fimes corriger, ordiner, escrire et istorier l'an 1365;" i. e. This book of the Consecration of the Kings of France belongs to us Charles, V. of our name, King of France, and we have caused it to be corrected, set in order, written, and recorded in the year 1365. The MS. acquaints us with the following particulars preparatory to the ceremony, and furnishes us also with a ritual of the consecratiou,-“ First, a stage somewhat elevated must be prepared adjoining the choir of the church, placed between either transept, to which the ascent is to be by steps, and on which the King with the Peers of the realm, sliall be placed, and others if necessary. On the day that the King comes to be crowued, he should be received in procession by the canons of the mother church, and the members of the other conventual churches. On the Saturday before the Sunday that the King should be consecrated and crowned, after compline being sung, the church should be delivered to the custody of the guards appointed for the King; and at night betimes, the King should come to the said church to make his orisons, and may remain there for a season, if he will, in prayer and watching. When they sing to matins, the guards of the King should be prepared to guard the entrance of the church. Matins should then be sung as usual; and matins being ended, prime is sung ; and on prime being chanted, the King should repair to the church, and with him the Archbishops, the Bishops, anil the Barons ; and seats should be ordered about the altar, where the Archbishops and the Bishops should seat themselves honourably. And those Bishops who are Peers of the realm, a litcle without over against the altar, not far from the King..................Betureen prime and tierce, the monks of So.

1831.] Order of the Coronation of Richard the Second. 117 lowing nobles did their liege homage limb, and will bear truth and earthly to the King, kneeling, holding their honour to you against all men, so hands between his and saying, “ I help me God and all saints.” become your liegeman of life* and

Remy should come in procession, with the holy ainpulla, which the abbut should bear with great reverence under a canopy of silk supported by four staves, borne by monks attired in aubes (while garments), and when they shall arrive at the church of St. Denis, the Archbishop should proceed to meet them, and with him the other Archbishops and Bishops, if it nay be done; and if not (hy reason of the great crowd without), the Archbishop must tben receive the ampulla from the hand of the abbot, and must promise him in good faith that he will return it to him, and thus the Archbishop must carry the ampulla to the allar with great reverence of the people. The abbot with some of the mooks accompanying him, the rest waiting behind lill all be completed; and then the holy ampulla shall be carried back either to the church of St Denys, or the chapel of St. Nicholas. These things being performed, the Archbishop shall attire himself for the mass in his most noble vestments, with the pall, also the Deacons and Subdeacons, and attired in this maoner must coine to the altar in procession, according to custom. The King must rise with reverence and repair thither; and when the Archbishop shall have arrived at the altar, he or any of the Bishops for their whole body, and for the churches submitted to them, must ask the King if he will swear to maintain the rights of the Bishops and their churches, as it befits the King to do in his kingdom, to preserve the dignity and jurisdiction of the Crown, to administer justice in all his judgments; and if he will subscrile moreover to the oath of the new constitution of the Council of Lateran, viz. to expel heresies from his kingdom. These things being promised by the King, and ratified by his vow on the Holy Evangelists, Te Deum laudamus is sung. In the mean time must be placed on the altar the King's Crown, the sword in its scabbard, his golden spurs, his golden sceptre, and his rod of the measure of a cubit or more, which shall have on it a hand of ivory. 'Also the stockjugs of silk of a violet colour, embroidered or tissued with golden fleurs de lys, aod a coat of that colour and of the same workmanship made in manner of the tunic with which the Subdeacons are attired for the mess ; aud with this the surcoat, which should be entirely of the same colour, made nearly like a cope of silk without a hood: all which things the abbnt of St. Denys should wing from his custody, and should be at the altar anid keep them. The King shall repair to the altar, and shall undress himself, with the exception of his silk coat and his shirt, which are to be open between the breast and shoulders can piz et aur epaules); there are also to be openings in the sides, which shall be joined by silver clasps. Then first the Great Chamberlain of France shall put on the King the stockings which the abbot of St. Denis shall give him, after which the Duke of Burgundy shall put on the spurs given him by the same, and immediately after these shall be removed. Afterwards the Archbishop alone shall gird un his sword with the scabbard, which sword being girt, the Archbishop shall draw it out of the scabbard, and the scabbard shall then be placed upon the altar, and the Archbishop shall put the sword in the hand of the King, who is humbly to offer it on the altar; and he shall immediately receive it back from the hand of the Archbishop, and forthwith commit it to the Seneschal of France to support before him in the church to the evd of the mass, and afterwards when he shall return to the palace. These things accomplished, and the chrism placed on the altar upon a consecrated paten, the Archbishop is to prepare the holy ainpulla on the altar, and take from it on the point of a golden needle, a little of the oil sent from heaven, and mix it very carefully with the chrisna which is prepared for anointing the King. “This glorious privilege of heing anointed with oil from heaven is peculiar to the Kings of France over all others in the world,” says the MS. Then the openings before and behind must be undone, and the King anointed; first, on the top of the head, next on the breast ; 3dly, between the shoulders ; 4lbly, on the shoulders ; 5thly and lastly, on the joints of the arms. While the anointing is going on, they shall sing the anthem Inunxerunt regem Salomonem, go. The upeniogs in his garment are then to be closed; the coat before mentioned is then to be put ou by the Chamberlain of France, the abbot of St. Denis handing it to him for the purpose ; the Chamberlain is also to invest him with the surcoat. The Archbishop is then to put the sceptre ia bis right hand, the rod in his left; and calling all the Peers of France who are standing round, the Archbishop takes the Royal Crown, and he alone puts it on the head of the King. The Crown being thus placed, all the Peers both clerical and lay, must put their hands to it and support it on all sides. (The nobles touch the Crown at the Coronation of an English King. Bibl. Cott. Tib. C. viii.) The Archbishop and the Peers who support the Crown, must conduct the King to the chair prepared for him, ondamented with silken cloths, and place him therein. This must be elevated within full view

of * See furm of the oath of fealty in Bibl. Cotton, Nero, C. ix.

118 Homagers at the Coronation of Richard the Second.

[Aug. List of the Homagers.

the prelates before mentioned sitting John Duke of Lancaster.

on the same platform on either hand Edmund Earl of Cambridge.

of the King. John Earl of Richmond.

On the right hand of the Hall the Edmund Earl of March.

Barons of the Cinque Ports occupied Richard Earl of Arundel.

the first table. The second was filled Thomas de Beauchamp, Earl of by the Clerks of the King's Chancery. Warwick.

The other tables were occupied by the William de Ufford, Earl of Suffolk. Justices, the Barons of the Royal ExHugh Earl of Stafford.

chequer, and other distinguished perWilliam de Monte acuto (Monta- sons according to their degree. cute) Earl of Salisbury.

At the table on the left hand sat Henry Percy.

the Sheriffs, the Recorder, the AlderThomas Roos de Hamelak.

men, and many of the citizens of LonRalph Basset de Drayton.

don. The middle table was filled by John de Nevill.

the most distinguished of the comAymer de Saint Amand.

monalty. Before dinner was served Reginald Grey de Ruthyn.

up, while all were thus sitting in James Audley de Helegh.

state, the King made the following William de Zouch de Haryngworth. honourable promotions, accompanyRoger le Straunge de Knokyn. ing them with princely gifts. His John Lovell,

uncle Thomas of Woodstock was John la Warre.

created Earl of Buckingham and Walter Fitzwater.

Northampton, with a pension of 1000 William de Bardolf.

marks yearly; Henry Percy, Earl of John de Montagu.

Northumberland; John Mowbray of Gilbert Talbot.

Axiholm, Earl of Nottingham ; GuisJohn de Buttetourt.

card d'Angle, the King's tutor, Earl Henry Grey de Wilton.

of Huntingdon, with an annual penJohn de Welynton.

sion of 1000 marks. The following Philip Darcy.

were promoted to the order of knightThomas de Berkeley.

hood : Edward, son of Edmund Earl Michael de la Pole.

of Kent; John, son of Thomas Roos Hugh la Zouche de Foulbourne. of Hamelak; Robert de Graye de Ralph de Croumwell.

Rotherfield; Richard, son of William William Botreux.

Talbot, grandson of Warren de Lisle; Richard Seymour de Somerset. Michael, son of Michael de la Pole; Ralph Baron of Grey stoke.

Richard de Ponynges, Robert de HaWilliam de Furnivall.

ryngton, and Thomas de la Mare.Archibald de Grelly.

Sir John Burleigh, the King's ChamThe Captaine de la Bouche.

berlain, was by patent for life created And Smebrond de Curton.

Custos of Nottingham Castle, and The ceremony being completed, Keeper of the Forest of Sherwood; the procession returned as it had set Sir Simon Burleigh, his brother, Con. out, passing up the centre of the Hall, stable of Windsor Castle, Wigmore, and the King retired to his chamber Guilford, and the manor of Kenningfor a short space of time to repose. ton, and Master of the King's Falcons He then came into the Hall, and hay- at his Mews near Charing Cross. ing washed his hands, seated him- The High Steward, the Constable self at the high marble dais, many of and Marshal, and various Knights ap

of all. The Archbishop must then kiss the King seated on his chair of State, after him the Bishops and the lay Peers. The prescribed service is then performied while the King is seated in his chair, and the Archbishop returns to the altar," &c. &c.

The “Sainte Ampoule" (the holy ampulla) which so peculiarly distinguished the consecration of the Kings of France, was miraculously brought to the hand of St. Remy from Heaven full of oil by a dove, when he was baptizing Clovis at Rheims in 496, the acolyte who attended with the chrism being unable to approach the font. A portion of this oil was afterwards always employed in anointing the Kings of France,-how economically is seen above. This relic was destroyed, I believe, at the Revolution. A tame pigeon might, I doubt not, now readily be found to bring a fresh supply, but faith in his co.omission would be wauting

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