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of it, by the mere force of his genius,
THE PARKS. did Wellington, not only hold his lines, but, he did so in such an attitude, half Now that his Majesty William IV. is in position, half by manquvring, that about to open a new entrance into St. his opponent never dared try the ex- James's Park, it may not be out of place periment of an attack, but began here to notice its probable origin. It is that retreat, that ebbing of the fortunes likely that the inhabitants of London of Napoleon which reached their lowest are indebted to Pope Clement for their at Waterloo ! But not only had our fine promenades, St. James's and Hyde great commander the military difficul. Parks, “ the lungs of the metropolis," ties of his situation to contend with, as Lord Chatham emphatically called every letter which arrived from Eng“ thein, for both were portions of the doland, every newspaper, brought to him mains of religious houses; and the expressions of alarm, anticipations of Reformation, which emancipated pro. defeat, and the prognostics of the sole perty to a vast amount from the thraldiers of the old school, that our army dom of the Church, would have been would be lost, because lines never delayed to a later period, bad Pope could be defended ; but all this had no Clement shown more policy and less effect on the master mind which had de- honesty, by consenting to divorce Henry termined there to check French con- the Eighth from his wife Catherine. quest. That mind was never for a The monastery of St. James in the moment shaken, doubt never once Fields was suppressed in 1532, the took possession of it; when plagued grounds seized into the King's hands, with advice and caution from London, and erected into a park, at first called he wrote back both officially and pri: “ The New Park of Westminster," and vately, that there he would stay; that afterwards “Saint James's Park." On he was certain of success. I have the sites of the monastery and some seen one of these letters, there was no other old tenements were built the boasting in it, it simply and unaffect- Palace of St. James, a tennis court, edly breathed the calm confidence of cock pit, &c. Some gardens were also talent and knowledge.
formed afterwards, called “The Spring Wellington's campaigns in the Pe- Gardens." ninsula had a sort of epic unity about Henry, having converted St. James's them: they all tended to one great in the Fields into a park, inclosed it end, and although our army sometimes with a wall (called by Lord Treasurer retired, our affairs in Spain never really Cromwell “a sumptuous wall''), laid retrograded. But Marlborough's, though out some walks, stocked it with deer, great, were barren victories; they pro- and, it is said, dug Rosamond's Pond. duced no results but glory, and were Beyond this, nothing was done towards isolated in their effects. They left the beautifying the place, which is repreHouse of Bourbon where they found sented to have consisted of wet, unculit, in possession of both the crowns of tivated fields. Rosamond's Pond was France and Spain,
situated towards the west end, being fed The people of England profess to by some streams which afterwards made have had war enough, and do not wish their way across the fields, where Parthat the youth of this country should liament-street now stands, and fell into be bred up in an exclusive admiration the Thames. of great captains, either ancient or It remained in much the same state modern; but if we do teach them at till the Restoration. During the Comour schools and colleges to admire the monwealth, it had been thrown open to patience of Fabius Cunctator, let us the public, and though Charles, on his also teach them to admire the daring return, resumed it along with other cunctation of Wellington in his lines. Crown property, yet being willing to If we tell them that Scipio's conduct perform every popular act in his power, was admirable when he carried the he allowed all respectable persons to war to Carthage, shall we not also tell retain the privilege they bad acquired. them, as matter of history, and as ex Charles II. appears to have taken ploits worthy of admiration, how Marl- great delight in this park. Indeed, it borough marched to the Danube, and is to him that we are indebted for its liberated the empire at Blenheiin, and most striking features. He added thirhow Wellington marched from Lisbon ty-six acres of land ; laid out regular to Calais by way of Vitoria ?
walks ; planted rows of lime and elm To be continued.
trees ; dug the canal ; formed a decoy for wild duck, and otherwise embel:
lished the place. The lime-trees, whose And whosoever shall give information fragrant blossoms and bright green fo- to John Webbe, living in St. James's liage are so grateful amidst the smoke Park, shall have gratuity for every gun, of a large metropolis, were planted in net, dog, or any engine that shall be compliance with the salutary advice seized or taken from any offender. given by Evelyn in his “ Fumifugium."
“ NOTTINGHAM." The canal was 2800 feet in length by The grotesque muse of Dr. King has 100 feet in breadth, with a row of trees immortalized these ducks. In his “ Art along each bank. The springs which of Cookery,” he sings supplied Rosamond's Pond proving insufficient to feed this body of water, a
“ The fate of things lies always in the dark,
What Cavalier would know St. James's Park? covered way, communicating with the For Locket's stands where gardens once did Thames, was constructed, through which spring, at high tide the water was occasionally And wild-ducks quack where grasshoppers-did. allowed to flow in ; its admission being A princely palace on that space does rise regulated by a sluice, which remained Where Sedley's noble muse found mulberon the Parade till a few years ago. The decoy was a very extensive shrubbery Before Charles II. improved the Park, on an island in the canal, formed, as its it was indeed a fit place for grasshopname points out, to collect and catch pers, and for these insects only. The wild fowl; the greatest length was in “princely palace” means Buckingham the direction of the canal, the whole House, built in 1703, by John Duke of being surrounded by a row of trees. It Buckingham, the site of which is usually consisted of a large irregular grove, supposed to have been the Mulberry within which were various ponds, some Gardens, alluded to by Dr. King, though whereof were the decoys.
Mr. Malone is of opinion that Arlington Charles here maintained a numerous street stands on part of them.
The brood of tame birds, to feed which was allusion to “ Sedley's noble muse" reone of his favourite diversions. This lates to a play of Sir Charles Sedley, decoy, afterwards better known by the published in 1668, whence it appears name of the Wilderness, was destroyed that this garden was laid out with arto make a lawn before Buckingham bors, where the company assembled in House, when purchased as a palace for an evening, (the ladies frequently in the Queen; and the shape of the canal ma <s),and regaled on syllabubs, cheesewas rendered still more formal.
cakes, and sweetened wine. BuckingIt may be mentioned, as a curious ham House was purchased in 1761, for proof of the tenacity of animals in ad- the sum of 21,0001. and converted into a hering to habit, that though this park palace for the Queen. had long been in the heart of a great On an island in one of the ponds of city, the wild-fowl continued to frequent the decoy, towards the Parade, William their old haunt till within the last III. built a summer-house, where he twenty-five years. The care with which frequently drank tea. The Bird-cage they were preserved most likely pro- Walk, which was originally grassed, longed their visits. So late as Octo- takes its name from the aviary which ber, 1690, the following proclamation Charles II. placed there-most probaof William III. appeared in the London bly, the first ever built in England. In
some old books of expenditure is an “Whereas his Majesty hath empower- allowance for hempseed for the birds, ed John and Thomas Webbe, gentle- and an officer appointed to attend them, men, keepers of the game within ten called an Avener. miles of the Court of Whitehall and the The Mall is so denominated from the precincts thereof: and information being game of Mall, (Pall Malle, or Palle given, that notwithstanding his Majes- Maille-Pallere Malleo, to strike with ty's commands, several persons do kill a mallet), an amusement in which and molest his Majesty's ducks and Charles greatly indulged and excelled. game within the said limits: it is there. In that game, a round bowl, or large fore his Majesty's especial command, ball, being struck by a heavy bat, was that none presume to keep a fowling sent through an iron ring of considerpiece, gun, setting dog, net, trammel, able diameter, mounted on a high pole, or other unlawful engine wherewith to usually placed at the end of an alley of destroy, or kill, or in any ways disturb trees, as was the case in St. James's the game, contrary to the law and statute Park, the middle walk whereof was in that case made and provided, other carefully strewed with cockle-shells, than such as shall be by law qualified. which, when properly managed, pro
duce a very smooth hard surface. To He afterwards tells us that Charles had conduct this business, Charles actually constructed an ice-house, and then dicreated the important and dignified rects our attention to the Mall ; office of Cockle-strewer.
“Here a well polished Mall gives us the joy Charles, accompanied by his dogs, To see our Prince his matchless force emwas constantly in this Park, either
No sooner has he touched the dying ball, among his birds, playing at mall, or
Than 'tis already more than half the Mall; sauntering about the walks. On such
And such a fury from his arm has got, occasions, the easy monarch was usually As from a smoking cuiv'rin it was shot." unattended, a circumstance that attract
Hugh Roberts having invented a ed the notice, and alarmed the fears of draining machine, its utility was put to the House of Lords when the Popish the test in 1735, when one of these was plot exploded ; an address having been erected on piles in Rosamond's Pond, voted in 1678, wherein they beseech his discharging thirty tons of water in a Majesty that all mean and unwarranted minute, and costing about 4001. The persons (who were forbidden entering machine, however, it is to be presumed, the Park) should abstain from following was not then brought into much action, him, and that all private doors might be for the work proceeded but slowly, as It is not astonishing that “mean and don Chronicle” of July 10, 1770, which
appears from an article in “ The Lonunwarranted” persons should frequent states that “the water is drawn out of the this Park, because debtors here enjoyed canal (for the purpose of cleaning,) in freedom from arrests. In Fielding's St. James's Park, and the workmen
have “ Amelia we find the hero walking in begun to shorten it, and to fill up Rosasecurity in the Mall, when he did not mond's Pond. The trees in that part venture to parade his person elsewhere, are to be cut down to form a spacious In the comedies of the sixteenth and lawn before the Queen's palace, the seventeenth centuries, gentlemen who wilderness to be destroyed, and the moat were at a loss to find a dinner, gener- filled up.” ally beguiled the time which the plea This Rosamond's Pond appears to sure of eating would have employed, on have acquired great celebrity as a a bench in St. James's Park. There place for despairing lovers to end their they were frequently joined by others,
woes in ; before it was filled up the folwhó, though not hungering after food, lowing was affixed by some wag to a had an insatiable appetite for news, or, neighbouring tree :in a word, were politicians. Bicker “ This is to give notice to all broken staff here meets his acquaintance the hearts, such as are unable to survive upholsterer, who silently lets his own
the loss of their lovers, and are come to affairs run to ruin, that he may loudly a resolution to die, that an engineer proclaim the deep interest he takes in from Flintshire having cruelly onderthose of the King of Sweden.
taken to disturb the waters of Roso The once Republican, but now court- mond's Pond in this Park, gentlemen ly muse of Waller, prompted him to
and ladies cannot be accommodated as celebrate the improvements made by his formerly. And whereas certain daughroyal master. He declares, that though ters of Eve have been since tempted to nothing can be found of Paradise, yet make use of the Serpentine and other the description of it would very well rivers, some whereof have met disapapply to St. James's Park. And as to pointment: this is therefore to certify the canal,
all persons whatsoever labouring under
the circumstances aforesaid, that the To make a river, than to build a town," He then mentions the rows of trees
basin in the upper or Green Park is a planted by its side, and affirms that most commodious piece of water, in adAmphion
mirable order, and of a depth sufficient " In better order could not make them stand.” to answer the ends of all sizes and conHe anticipates that the gallants will ditions. Wherefore all persons applybathe there in summer, and slide there ing themselves thereto, will be sure to
meet with satisfaction." in winter, (the present elegant amuse
The Park has been grievously enment of skating not having been introduced); that boats will float on the croached on from time to time. Part water and music on the air, while
was enclosed as a garden to St. James's
Palace. The Duke of St. Albans ob* The ladies angling on the chrystal lake, Feast on the waters on the prey they take;
tained permission to take a portion of At once victorious with their lines and eyes,
the Green Park. Slices have been Tbey make the fishes and the men their prize." granted at various periods to different
" 'tis of more renoun
individuals : among others, Lord Spen “ Carolus Edgari Sceptrum estabilivit aqua. cer obtained the portion whereon his house now stands; a passage into the which alludes to the Mare Clausum of park, which, till then, existed in that Selden. spot, being thus blocked up. And, last The place of this gun is now supplied ly, the “ Spring Gardens " are now co- by a cannon, remarkable for its length vered with houses, forming Spring Gar- and ornaments, cast by some Grand den-terrace, New-street, &c.
Seignor, and taken by Buonaparte when What these Spring Gardens were, he invaded Egypt; but he was in turn may be collected from Monconys, whó deprived of this curious trophy by the states that in 1663, Spring Gardens was British troops, when they rescued that much resorted to, having grass and sand portion of the Ottoman empire from the walks, dividing squares of twenty or French grasp. thirty yards, which were inclosed with
To be continued. hedges of gooseberries, raspberries, roses, beans, and asparagus, (then great
The Note Book. rarities,) and the whole inclosed with a wall. These gardens were resorted to by the public during the Interreg
Mr. Webster, in his amusing travels, num, as appears from the following
says order :
we heard the follow“ 1647, March 3. Ordered, that the ing account of the bite of a serpent and keeper of the Spring Gardens be hereby voyage up the Nile, one of the crew
the cure, from Mahmoud. In his last required and enjoined to admit no per- was bitten in the foot by a serpent, and son to come into or walk in the Spring he ran howling to the boat, believing Gardens on the Lord's day, or any that he must die. The remedy applied of the public fast days ; or that any wine, beer, ale, cakes, or other things nish dollar upon the wound, and one
was the following: They tied a Spabe sold, either upon the Lord's day, or of the sailors stood over the patient upon public fast days." Although nearly the whole of what the Koran. A cure somewhat similar
for some time, repeating verses from was the Spring Gardens is now built
was resorted to in the case of our reis, upon, yet the old custom of supplying who one day complained of his head certain refreshments continues to drag from exposure to the sun. One of the on a kind of existence near its an
crew thrust his hand down the reis's cient haunts ; cakes and milk being back, and pulled and rubbed, as if he there still supplied to nursery-maids
were drawing something up. Having and children.
done the same with the other hand, he The present passage of Spring Gardens was granted to the parishioners of kept a firm
hold of the neck with both
hands, seeming to have caught someSt. Martin's in the Fields in the year thing. He then dragged one hand after 1699, at the rent of 61. 8s. per annum. The lease expired in 1799, and was not till they met in the middle of the brow,
the other cautiously round the head, renewed.
Anterior to 1721, the east side of and, raising up the skin between them the Park, near Spring Gardens, was By this means the sun which had mis
he squeezed it, as if extracting a thorn. inclosed by a high brick wall, but in Chievously entered the body of the reis that year the inhabitants obtained permission to remove it, and substitute an
was caught, and turned out.” iron railing. The old wooden sunk railing, which
FROM BLACKWOOD'S NOCTES. till within the last three or four years Interlocutors, Mr. Robert Howie and Mr. inclosed the green in the centre of St. James's Park, must have been placed Mr. Robert Howie -- Sir, I'm told there subsequently to 1731 ; a fact which there has been an awfu' outcry against is apparent from positive orders at that prize-fechtin' in the papers. time issued, that no one should walk Mr. North—The whole argument, upon the grass. This fence was most Bob, lies in a nutshell. The English probably made when Buckingham-house are a pugilistic people. They decide was bought for the Queen.
their quarrels by the fist. It is the At the North West corner of the pa- least dangerous—the least revengeful rade stood a piece of ordnance, called the least rancorous mode of doing " the gun," cast in 1638, and bearing so that can exist among the common the following inscription
orders. It is manly, courageous, honest,
and honourable generally speaking times befalling in the ring-in fair and therefore ought to be upheld by tighting--and the cutting of a man's all men who esteem such qualities in throat at midnight in his bed, by a barnational character. That cannot be glarious murderer. The law, say they, done without professors of pugilism; in a late case, ought to take its course and professors of pagilism can establish -and Simon Byrne ought to be hanged! their claim to that title, only by fight- This is brutally wicked, and they who ing publicly in a ring. The ring, then, hold such language are not fit to live. is essential to the existence of pugilism, Had they insults or injuries of their as the national mode of deciding and own to requite-how deadly would be extinguishing all quarrels among the their revenge ! people. In the ring, out of many hun. dred fights, one occasionally proves
HIGH NOTIONS. fatal - and the fatality, when it occurs,
The great fault of the present geneis a subject of regret-but of no great ration, is, that, in all ranks, the notions and wide lamentation, nor worthy of a of self-importance are too high. This general mourning or fast.
has arisen from causes not visible to Mr. Robert Howie - You speak, many, but the consequences are felt by weel, sir, on all subjects. What mair all, and that, too, with great severity.
Mr. North --- Prize Fights are, not. There has been a general sublimating withstanding, illegal. They cannot going on for many years. Not to put well be otherwise ; but the Law has the word Esquire before the name of wisely winked at them--and some of almost any man who is not a mere the highest Judges in the Law have labourer or artisan, is almost regarded them with no disfavour-but affront. Every merchant, every masin the light of necessary and useful ter manufacturer, every dealer, if at all pastimes even, the support of Fair Play rich, is an Esquire; squires' sons must out of the Ring, and an encouragement be gentlemen, and squires' wives and given to all manliness in the settlement daughters ladies. If this were all; if of quarrels and the satisfaction of in- it were merely a ridiculous misapplisults. Such is the feeling of the vast cation of words, the evil would not be majority of the educated classes in Eng. great; but, unhappily, words lead te land. On the other hand, many persons acts and produce things ; and the of much worth, and fine sensibilities, "young gentleman" is not easily to are shocked by what they have been be moulded into a tradesman or a taught, or have taught themselves, to working farmer. And yet the world think brutal, ferocious, and cruel is too small to hold so many gentlemen and confining their attention solely to and ladies. How many thousands of the spectacle of bloody and bruised young men have, at this moment, cause faces and figures, without any consi. to lament that they are not carpenters, deration of all the collateral circum- or masons, or tailors, or shoemakers; stances, and all the consequences, and how many thousands of those, that results, and effects, look on all such they have been bred up to wish to disexhibitions as a disgrace to a civilized gnise their honest and useful, and age. They are ninnies, Bob. But therefore honourable, calling! Rousbeing good sort of people enough in seau observes, that men are happy, their own way, I content myself with first, in proportion to their virtue, and merely saying that they know nothing next, in proportion to their indepenof the character of Englishmen. Some dence; and that, of all mankind, the people again, try all things by religion. artisan, or craftsman, is the most inde Pugilism will not stand that test-nor pendent; because he carries about, in indeed will any kind of warfare, either his own hands and person, the means private or public and if they must of gaining his livelihood; and that the weep over Moulsey Hurst, they ought more common the use of the articles to die at the bare idea of Waterloo. on which he works, the more perfect But thousands and tens of thousands his independence. who brutally abuse Prize-Fighting, are
Cobbett's Advice. -No 13. themselves worse blackguards than any that ever entered a ring. Every word they utter against the ring is a Customs of Various Countries. lie and they know it. No punishment is too much for such miscreants. They socIETY AND MANNERS IN CAIRO. assert that they can see no difference The houses at Cairo have windows, between the accidental death some or shut balconies, projecting into the