Imatges de pàgina

Genteelly comic I can be,

of leading into a snare, which is not And farcically sprightly, I'm excellent in Pantomime,

found in the ænigma. The rebus is In Ballet parts dance lightly;

also ranked by some in the number of Were Mr. Lee, the new lessee,

ænigmas. In a general sense, however, Aware of such a treasure,

every dark saying, every difficult quesIf I ask'd fifty pounds a night, He'd give them me with pleasure.

tion, every parable, &c. may pass for New Mon. Mag. an ænigma ; hence obscure laws are

called ænigmata juris. ÆNIGMAS.

The alchemists are great dealers in For the Olio.

the ænigmatic language, their processes

for the philosopher's stone being geneThe word enigma, which is derived rally wrapped up in riddles, for exfrom the Greek substantive ainigma, ample-"Fac ex mare et famina circuwhich the Latins call scirpus, signifies lum, inde quadrangulum, hinc trianan obscure speech, or discourse, cover- gulum, hinc triangulum, fac circulum ing something common and universally et habebis lapidem philosophorum." known, under remote and uncommon The operation of cupping, performed terms. It is also frequently called in ancient days by a machine of brass, riddle, probably from the Belgic readen, is ingeniously represented by the folor the Saxon araethan-to interpret. lowing ænigma, translated from the Fra. Junius defines an ænigma to be an Greek as follows: obscure parable or allegory, of which, I saw a man, who, unprovok'd with ire, he says, there are two kinds; the greater Stuck brass upon another's back by fire. rendering the sentence more intricate

Arist. Rbetor. I iii, c. 2 t. 2. p. 566.

Ed. Duval. and difficult of solution, by a multitude of words, and the lesser consisting of Aulus Gellius (xii. 6.) has preserved one or more words remote in their al- a Latin ænigina, which he also calls a lusion, as in Isaiah, chap. xi. verse 1, sirpus or sirpos, debased (says Mr. where Jesus Christ is called, according Harris in his Philological Inquiries, p. to the Greek language, rabdos, which 202) with all the quibble of a barbarous rendered into English, signifies a twig age:or young branch. Ænigmas are, some “ Semel minusne, an bis minus (non sat scio) times, the representations of the works An utrumque eorum (ut quondam audivi dicier) of nature or of art, concealed under hu- Jovi ipsi regi noluit concedere.” man figures, drawn from history or It is thus translated by Mr. Harris : fable ; thus our Saviour, in the middle Was it once minus or twice minus, (I of the doctors, represents the Bible, &c. am not enough informed), or was it not

The use of ænigmas was very common rather the two taken together, (as I have among the Egyptians; and it is sup- heard it said formerly), that would not posed that they borrowed their custom give way to Jove himself, the sovereign.” from the Hebrews, with whom ænigmas The two taken together, that is, once were certainly not less in use. In the minus, and twice minus, make, when 14th chapter of Judges, 12th and 13th so taken, thrice minus ; and thrice verses, Solomon says, “ I will now put minus in Latin is ter minus, which forth a riddle to you,” &c. which is, taken as a single word is terminus, the according to Vatable, an ænigmatical god of boundaries. The meaning of the problem; this the LXX. render by the riddle coincides with the pagan legend, Greek noun problema (a proposition.) which says, that when in honour tó Solomon is said to have been particu- Jove the capitol was founded, the other larly skilful in the solution of ænigmas; gods consented to retire, but the god and we are assured by Clemens, that the Terminus refused. The moral of the Egyptians placed sphinges before their fable is just and ingenious, namely, that temples, to intimate that the doctrines of boundaries are sacred and never should God and religion were ænigmatical and be moved. obscure. Some represent the ænigma as The famous riddle of the sphinx must synonymous with the word gryphus ; but be known to all your classical readers, the more exact writers make a distinc- but as you have undoubtedly many who tion, though wherein the difference lies are anti-classical, I subjoin for their is not agreed on. Some say that the amusement a short description of it. ænigma properly imports something The sphinx was a horrid monster that merry or jocose, and gryphus a subject infested the neighbourhood of Thebes more grave or profound. Others reduce in Baotia, and was sent, as mythologists the difference to this, that in the gryphus say, by Juno, to punish the family of there is something captious, and capable Cadmus. It had the head and breasts

of a woman, the body of a dog, the tail The other copy of this ænigma was of a serpent, the wings of a bird, the found written in Gothic letters in a paws of a lion, and a human voice. MS. at Milan, introduced with A. M. P. This infernal pest filled the inhabitants P. D. instead of D. M., diis manibus, of Thebes and the parts adjacent with which an anonymous author (Act. Erud. the greatest terror, by proposing ænig. Lips. Mens. Mart. 1732) interpreting mas, and devouring all who were not the riddle of a monument erected by one able to explain them. In the midst of of the Ælian family to his own soul, their consternation they were told by decyphers thus“Animæ meæ propriæ the oracle, that the sphinx would de- dico.” At the end is the following adstroy herself as soon as one of the dition : ænigmas she proposed was explained.. “ Hoc est sepulchrum intus cadaver non In this ænigma she wished to know what

habens, animal walked upon four legs in the

Hoo est cadaver sepulchrum extra bon

babens. morning, two at noon, and three in the

Sed cadaver idem est et sepulchrum sibi” evening, - which was explained by dipus, who observed that it was man, (i. e.) “ Here is a sepulchre without a who walked on his hands and feet corpse: here is a corpse without a sewhen young, or in the morning of life; pulchre. The corpse and the sepulchre at the noon of life he walked erect ; and are one and the same.” in the evening of his days he supported

On the four sides of the stone on his infirmities by a stick. The sphinx which the

above is inscribed, there are no sooner heard this explanation than twelve different explanations, with the she dashed her head against a rock, and names of their sagacious authors. Maimmediately expired.

rio Michael Angelo will have it to be I shall close this article with the fol-. rain ; Licetus, the beginning and end lowing ænigma, of which the solutions of friendship; Gevartius, love; Pontiare very numerous, but none of them nus, the remains of three different pervery satisfactory:

sons ; Turrius, the materia prima; 6. D. M.

Barnaud, an eunuch, or the philosoÆlia LÆLIA CRISPIS,

pher's s'one; Agathias Scholasticus, Nec vir, nec mulier, nec audrogyna,

Niobe ; R. Vitus, the rational soul, or Nec puella, nec juvenis, nec anus,

the idea Platonis ; Boxhornius, a sha. Nec casta, nec meretrix, nec pudica,

dow; Ovid Montalbanus, hemp; M. de Sed omnia.

Cicogne, Pope Joan; Heumaunus, Lot's Sublata

wife; an anonymous person, the ChrisNeque fame, neque ferro, neque veneno, tian Church ; Terronus, music; VesSed omnibus.

mondius, a law-suit; and Count MalNec cælo, nec aquis, nec terris,

vasia, in a treatise entitled, “ Ælia Sed ubique jacet.

Lælia Crispis non nata resurgens, Lucius-AGATHO PRISCIUS

interprets it of a daughter promised to Nec maritus, nec amator, nec necessarius

a person in marriage, who died pregNeque mærens, neque gaudens, neque nant of a male child before the celebra fleus,

tion of her nuptials. Hanc

The subject of an ænigma should be Nec molem, nec pyramidem, nec see something easily conceived and gene pulchrum,

rally known, otherwise it loses its point; Sed omnia,

for if a physician, for instance, were to Scit et nescit cui posuerit."

give a person unacquainted with physic Thus translated : ÆLIA LELIA Crispis, an ænigma to solve, clothed in all the who was neither male, female, nor her technicalities of his art, it is evident mophrodite ; neither a girl, nor a young that he would not be able to explain it; woman, nor an old woman ; neither and even if the solution were given him, chaste, nor a harlot, nor a modest woman, he would, in all probability, be as wise but all these. She died neither by fa- as he was before. A CANTAB. mine, vor sword, nor poison, but by all these. She lies neither in the air, nor MR. BUCKINGHAM'S INTENDED PLAN FOR in the water, nor in the earth, but every-where. Lucius Agatho Priscius, neither husband, nor lover, nor relation, neither The few more “ last words" which sorrowful nor rejoicing, nor weeping, Mr. Buckingham delivered at the Meerected this, which is neither fabric, nor chanics' Institute, in the evening of the pyramid, nor tomb, but all these ; but 30th ult.. were explanatory of his into whom, he knows, and does not know." tended enterprise of discovery round.


the globe. After he had paid due com able in my researches. It is not to offer pliment to the crowded auditory for new doctrines of faith, nor enforce new giving him a warm reception in all habits of practice, but to teach the their intercourse, and particularly un inhabitants how they can live more der the oppressive temperature, he cheaply, by shewing them how they can trusted that by a succinci description, grow two blades instead of one,-labour they would approve of his plan and give more profitably, produce more safely him the credit of being sincere in the and abundantly. 'To give them such common cause of humanity and univer- implements as are useful, instruct them sal freedom. “What I have seen, what in every art which will increase their I hope to see what has been done, domestic comfort-make them vigorous and what remains to do,” observed Mr. in their health, rooting out the weeds of Buckingham, "fully convinces me that idleness and disease, and establishing by the good results which have gone them in peaceful and happy circles ; before, much more infinitely must and and, agreeably with a saying made by will follow. In taking a calm and cor- Swift,“ since the fruits of life are the rect view of the subject of this enter- comforts of life," he that does best in prise, to shew what is intended to be obtaining them by healthy labour, will accomplished, it necessarily resolves insure most success in their enjoyment. into four particulars. First, the infor- Little, if any thing, has been done commation to be desired, and what are the paratively by those of British interests objects in particnlar in going round the in the East; and the Asiatics, who like globe?

their old modes, are totally ignorant of 2dly, The best means of ascertaining waggons, carts, wheelbarrows, shovels, those objects.

pickaxes, spades, and implements which 3dly, The fitness of the period; and, are so essential in lessening manual

4th, By the due observations relativé labour. to be made for the qualifications re To delay, as when it will be the fitquired.

ness of the time, is absurd. It is well It is evident, said he, by the acquaint- known that attempts ought to have been ance we have with charts, that our made long ago. The anecdote runs in knowledge is very limited as to the apposition, that the grandmother would existence of islands, vast tracts of land, not let her dear grandchild go into the the manners, custoins, habits and science water till he had already learnt to swim. of their people; and even after we have The desire also, which even princes consulted the best and latest authorities, have evinced to be taught, and the wiswe fall very short of that information dom, as well as love, they have shewn which is so desirable in the present day. after they have been instructed ; the By a perusal of the travels of Capt. Hall, value they set upon the tutors, even who states that from 120 to 150 islands doubting which they ought to have most exist of which he scarcely knew the reverence for their fathers or their names, and those islands filling a large instructors ; so highly do they estimate statistical space and importance,--the the instruments and blessings of educa. authority of Sir Stamford Raffles, Mr. tion. Maxwell, Mr. Wakely, a barrister, and Previously, however, to attempting last, though not least, the late excellent the higher branches, to acquaint them Heber, Bishop of Calcutta.* By the with the arts of life should be the first evidence, then, of books, written by men consideration. The time of peace is the of established reputation and undoubted fittest for the enterprize. Now is the integrity—for the general diffusion of accepted time. By the evidence of our knowledge, it is clear that gross ignor. notions, printed in Elizabeth's era, it is ance prevails, and it is the duty of every no wonder travellers made so little sucperson that attempts to civilize any cess when they forced their way into people, to do his best in removing it. territories by plunder and bru al acts. It is not to report, as some sapient tra. Mr. B. next, modestly, but justly, vellers have reported, by way of dis. pointed out, that for the want of means covery, that “elephants abound" in the many had not succeeded, but on his part, country without seeing them, nor to with the use of a ship (not to be re“ run through the middle of them" with. stricted to time or place, an evil which out looking round. I hope to bring others had experienced by being tied home every thing which will be valu: down to specific terms,) and models with

apparatus, seeds and media of exchange, • Mr. B. quoted largely from these authors, and the qualifications he himself posin support of his purpose.

sessed; though he could not go out as a

member of the Cavendish family went, PARALLEL BETWEEN WELLING with the expenditure of a large fortune. TON AND MARLBOROUGH. Yet, having entered the navy at nine years old, and attained to the command at 21, what he had endured by sea and

PLUTARCH drew his parallels of chaland, in famine and shipwreck, good and racter, and why may not I draw mine? ill report_his acquaintance with India, I am sitting amongst ruins recordant and other parts of the world-his habits of heroes! Camillus, Fabius, Seipio, of consolidating useful from nseless Marcellus, Cæsar, and Pompey, fit knowledge-his literary tact, patronage before me. Let me come down sevenand health, connected with an ardent teen or eighteen centuries, and comdesire for discovery and improvement, pare two great men of modern times, and the diffusion of liberty all over thé Marlborough and Wellington. globe. “ Indeed if I were certain,” said Let us begin with some of the least the lecturer, “ that my life would be brilliant parts of their characters, but shortened ten years by climate, exer

which form the warp on which the emtion, or any other cause, I would willing. blazoning woof was to be thrown, as ly offer it at the shrine of duty, and my the tissue of their lives was woven by last prayer should be lisped with de the hand of time. votional consecration by the incense of Marlborough and Wellington both sincerity.” Here, then Mr. B. appealed stand before us as eminent for patience powerfully and affectionately to the and self-command in a most extraorBritish fair sex, and persuasively so- dinary degree. Marlborough was not licited their immediate co-operating in- only patient, he was cool, moderate, fluence, by forwarding his views in and prudent in all he ever did, said, or raising the females of other nations to wrote, and he carried this sobriety of their proper and natural standard of mind, and command of temper into his equality with all civilized and liberal most confidential letters, even at times minded mankind. He pledged his heart when the cruelest vexations were pressin the cause, and guaranteed his sense ing upon him, and thwarting his great of the deep, responsibility of his under plans. His affection for, and confitaking.*

dence in that termagant, his Duchess, Mr. B.'s sentiments were manly, and never betrayed him into ill-humour or their well seasoned satiric allusions re- severity in speaking of his opponents lished by the mechanics with a just and and detractors, even in his most unrecongenial feeling. But, to conclude, served letters to her. He is always as to the more general plan intended by calm and unruffled. Mr. B. to be prosecuted, will it not be Wellington, with an occasional vimore fully developed in the columns of vacity of manner, has all the above the diurnal press?

qualities, arising out of his entire and never-failing self-possession — in no

part of his correspondence, while (Nearly forty years ago, the following lines struggling against the greatest difficulappeared upon his present Majesty, in the ties in Spain, do we discover either Oracle, a daily journal of that period.) anger or impatience. He felt, as Marl

borough did, the thwartings and vexaNo downy bed his limbs encircled round;

tions to which he was exposed by his On ocean's billowy surge the youth was rock'd, Spanish Allies, as well as from other And as the reeling vessel tossdl, so he Was sooth'd to rest with its larsh lullaby.

sources ; but they never mastered him, Oh, let the perfumed sous of luxury,

nor made him forget that his business Let pamper'd greatness bluslı as it beholds was to triumph over the difficulties he The hardibood of his princely nature.

had to deal with, not to vent hiniself Who dare usurp our empire o'er the main, Let them appear and, like a second Jove,

in angry complaints ; but the amount He shall huri forth the rattling thunder's bolt, of these difticulties no man can know Upon whose iron pinion rides pale death but himself. In terror, slaughter, and in conquest ray'd.

In point of uniform success throughout their whole career, the parallel

between Marlborough and Wellington • It was proposed that a vessel he equipped is complete, while in the field; but the hy subscriptions of any sum not exceeding five guineas, that a large portion of the British violence of the Whig politics of Marlpublic might by their contributions become borough's Duchess, brought his career personally interested in it. Those who could not subscribe, would render the speaker ser

of victory to an untimely end; and, by vice by conveying his wishes to others, thereby driving Harley and all the Tories to extending the plan over the country at large. extremities, caused that disgraceful

peace, which even at this distance of These two marches of these two great tiine we cannot help deploring. Generals are in perfect keeping with

If Marlborough had those drag- one another, admirable for science, chains the Dutch Deputies to deal secrecy, daring, and result, defeating with, as well as the jealous and coun- and defying all anticipation or counteracting Prince Louis of Baden, the teraction while in progress! Imperial Generalissimo, Wellington I cannot help mentioning here, in the had, at the outset, the more than mere same class, Buonaparte's march over inertness of the Portuguese Govern- the Great St. Bernard, and his immement; and next, the astonishing pride, diate battle of Marengo; and had Hanobstinacy, and occasional opposition nibal been but successful when he of the Spanish authorities in his early marched from Capua to Rome, his exSpanish campaigns. The ascendancy ploit would claim to be enrolled with he afterwards gained in Spain was the the great strategic movements cited; result of continued success, unwearied and, as it is, as far as military science patience, and commanding talent. and tact go, it is inferior to neither :

The beginning of Marlborough's but, in spite of all the efforts of our laborious and fatiguing career on the philosophy, and the admonitions of jusfrontiers of Holland, has no parallel in tice, success does stamp a character on that of Wellington; for Marlborough an enterprise to which however, it is had towns to besiege, take, and garri- in fact extrinsic. Had Hannibal taken son, before he could advance a step, and sacked Rome, the real merit of his and he was obliged to create the basis great operation, by which he led his on which he was to found his future army from Capua to the walls of the operations ; but having done this, when Eternal City, would not have been enwe view the two commanders beginning hanced one iota, in the estimation of their operations in the field, we find sound judges. they had both the same work to per As we go on, we see Wellington and form ; both had to inspire their armies, Marlborough both successful negotianot yet used to victory, with confidence tors, and carrying all the points they in themselves, and in their chiefs; both had to negotiate on-Marlborough all had to excite, to control, to soothe, suavity, Wellington all simplicity—the and to direct the refractory and often former persuaded, the latter convinced. retroactive elements they were oper Marlborough was eminently sucating with as Allies; and this, all fu- cessful in his attacks on lines and ture English generals acting on the entrenchments; for instance, SchellenContinent on a great scale will have to berg, the lines of Brabant, and his addo over again.

mirable manœurres when he forced When Marlborough had established the lines of Villars in 1711, previous his basis of operations, and had, by to taking Bouchain.—Now, although his commanding genius, soothed and regular and continuous lines are not persuaded his Dutch Allies into acqui- the fashion at the present day, yet the escence in his plans, he, by an im- French frequently availed themselves mense effort of mind, and with a bold- of entrenchments during the late war: ness, a judgment, and a tact truly ad- and Wellington's attacks, always sucmirable, led his army to the Danube! cessful, on M. Soult's entrenched posiIt is impossible to contemplate this tions on the Bidassoa, at the Nive, march, the secrecy with which it was Nivelle, Bayonne, and Thoulouse, suffi. conducted, and the glorious victory of ciently evince his skill in attacks of Blenheim which followed it, without at that nature. But, is not Wellington's once seeing its parallel in Wellington's defence of the lines of Lisbon a full march to Vittoria, where a single battle set off against all that Marlborough delivered Spain as a single battle had ever did in the way of attack? The delivered the empire! But this march lines of Lisbon were defended by comto Vittoria had never been sufficiently binations of the most scientific kind, celebrated or explained to the people not only in spite of their natural of England : this march alone should weakness in one part, but in face of immortalize Wellington for capacious the admitted military dictum, the truth ness of mind and firmness of execu- of which has not been disputed for half tion.*

a century, namely, that “lines will

always be forced when attacked ;” a • Let Col. Napier do justice, as he is very dictum, the general truth of which is capable of doing, to this magnificent piece of ** Stratagie” in his history, and make it in: established by the military history of leligible to those who are not soldiers. the last hundred years. Yet, in face

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