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self-defence; also the consideration of drunkenness and suicide, as offences against that care of our faculties, and preservation of our person, which we account duties, and call duties to ourselves.

СНАР, C H A P. I. C H A P. I.

THE RIGHTS OF SELF-DEFENCE.

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T has been asserted, that in a state of nature

we might lawfully defend the most insignia ficant right, provided it were a perfect determinate right, by any extremities which the obstinacy of the aggresor rendered necessary. Of this I doubt; because I doubt whether the general rule be worth sustaining at such an expence; and because, apart from the general consequence of yielding to the attempt, it cannot be contended to be for the augmentation of human happiness, that one man should lose his life, or a limb, rather than another a pennyworth of his property. Nevertheless, perfect rights can only be distinguished by their value ; and it is impossible to ascertain the value, at which the liberty of using extreme violence begins. The person attacket must balance, as well as he can, between the general consequence of yielding, and the particular effect of relistance.

However,

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felf-defence ; also the confideration of drunkenness and suicide, as offences against that care of our faculties, and preservation of our person, which we account duties, and call duties to ourfelves.

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THE RIGHTS OF SELF-DEFENCE,

IT

T has been asserted, that in a state of nature

we might lawfully defend the most insignia ficant right, provided it were a perfect determinate right, by any extremities which the obstinacy of the aggressor rendered necessary. Of this I doubt; because I doubt whether the general rule be worth fustaining at such an expence; and because, apart from the general consequence of yielding to the attempt, it cannot be contended to be for the augmentation of human happiness, that one man should lose his life, or a limb, rather than another a pennyworth of his property. Nevertheless, perfect rights can only be distinguished by their value ; and it is impossible to ascertain the value, at which the liberty of using extreme violence begins. The person attacked must balance, as well as he can, between the general consequence of yielding, and the particular effect of relistance.

However,

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However, this right, if it exist in a state of nature, is suspended by the establishment of civil fociety; because thereby other remedies are provided against attacks upon our property, and because it is necessary to the peace and safety of the community, that the prevention, punishment, and redress of injuries be adjuled by public laws. Moreover, as the individual is allisted in the recovery of his right, or of a compensation for his right by the public strength, it is no less equitable than expedient, that he Thould submit to public arbitration, the kind as well as the measure of the satisfaction which he is to obtain.

There is one case in which all extremities are justifiable, namely, when our life is assaulted, and it becomes neceffary for our preservation to kill the affüilint. This is evident in a state of nature ; unless it can be fewn, that we are bound to prefer the aggressor's life to our own, that is to lay, to love our eneiny better than ourselves, which can never be a debt of justice, nor any where appears to be a duty of charity. Nor is the cafe altered by our living in civil society; bucau'e, by the fuppofition, the laws of lociety cannot interpose to proteż us, nor by the nature of the calc compel relitution. This liberty is

refrained

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