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Tutte le invenzioni le più benemerite del genere umano, e che hanno svillupato l' ingegno e la
facolta dell'animo nostro, sono quelle che accostano l'uomo all' uomo, e facilitano la communi-
cazione delle idee, dei bisogni, dei sentimenti, e riducano il genere umano a massa. VÉREI.

Reperire apta, atque reperta docendum
Digerere, atque suo quæque ordine rite locare.
Durus uterque labor

VIDA POET. lib. i. lin. 10.

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Though fromediately and primarily written for the merchants, this Commercial Dictionary will be of use to every man of business or of curiosity. There is no man who is not in some degree a merchant; who has not something to buy and something to sell, and who does not therefore want such instructions as may teach him the true value of possessions or commoditirs. The descriptions of the productions of the earth and water which this volume contains, may be equally pleasing and useful to the speculatist with any other Natural History. The de. scriptions of ports and cities may instruct the geographer as well as if they were found in books appropriated only to his own science, and the doctrines of funds, insurances, currency, monopolies, exchanges, and duties, is so necessary to the politician, that without it he can be of no use either in the council or the senate, nor can speak or think justly either on war or trade.

“ We, therefore, hope that we shall not repent the labour of compiling this work, por flatter ourselves unreasonably, in predicting a favourable reception to a book which no condition of lite can render useless, which may contribnte to the advantage of all that make or receive laws, of all that buy or sell, of all that wish to keep or improve their possessions, of all that desire to be rich, and all that desire to be wise."

JOHNSON, Preface to Roll's Dict.

MR. M CULLOCH'S PUBLICATIONS.

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In addition to this Dictionary, Mr. M°Culloch has published the following

Works, viz. :1. A DICTIONARY, GEOGRAPHICAL, STATISTICAL, AND HISTO.

RICAL, of the various Countries, Places, and principal Natural Objects in the World, with Maps. A new and improved Edition, with a Supplement.

2 thick and closely printed vols. 8vo. London, 1852, A DESCRIPTIVE AND STATISTICAL ACCOUNT of the BRITISH

EMPIRE, exhibiting its Extent, Physical Capacities, Population, Industry, and Civil and Religious Institutions. Third and greatly improved Edition.

2 thick vols. 8vo. London, 1847. 3. SMITH'S WEALTH OF NATIONS; with a Life of the Author, Notes,

and Supplemental Dissertations, Fourth Ed.tion, 1 vol. 8vo., double columns.

London, 1855.
THE PRINCIPLES OF POLITICAL ECONOMY; with some Inquiries

respecting their Application, and a Sketch of the Rise and Progress of the

Science. Fourth and amended Edition. I vol. 8vo. Edinburgh, 1849. 5. A TREATISE ON THE PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICAL INFLU.

ENCE OF TAXATION and the FUNDING SYSTEM, Second and

much improved Edition. I vol. 8vo. London, 1852. 6. THE LITERATURE OF POLITICAL ECONOMY: a Classified Cata

logue of Select Publications in the different Departments of that Science, with

Historical, Critical, and Biographical Notices. 1 vol. 8vo. London, 1845.
7. A TREATISE ON THE SUCCESSION TO PROPERTY VACANT BY

DEATH: including Inquiries into the Influence of Primogeniture, Entails,
Compulsory Partition, Foundations, &c., over the Public Interests. 1 vol. 8vo.

London, 1848.
A TREATISE ON THE CIRCUMSTANCES WHICH DETERMINE

THE RATE OF WAGES, and the Condition of the Labouring Classes.

Second Edition. I vol. post 8vo. London, 1854. 9. A TREATISE ON METALLIC AND PAPER MONEY AND

BANKS, written for the Eighth Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica.

4to, Edinburgh, 1858.
10. TREATISES AND ESSAYS ON MONEY, EXCHANGE, INTEREST,

THE LETTING OF LAND, ABSENTEEISM, THE HISTORY OF
COMMERCE, MANUFACTURES, &c. ; with Accounts of the Lives and
Writings of Quesnay, Adam Smith, and Ricardo. Second Edition, enlarged
and improved. I vol. 8vo. Edinburgh, 1859.

8.

PREFACE TO THIS EDITION.

Though in part & reprint, the edition of this Dictionary now laid before the reader, has undergone many alterations, and is, we trust, considerably improved. The extraordinary increase of manufactures and commerce in almost all countries *, and the opening of various new and important channels of intercourse, have rendered changes necessary in most parts of the work. We had, for example, to notice the new arrangements with China and Japan; the abolition of the Sound Duties; the termination of the rule of the East India Company in India; the continued efflux of the precious metals to that continent and China ; the introduction of several new articles, such as VEGETABLE Wax and SHEA BUTTER, into the list of imports ; with an all but endless variety of other matters.

The rules and regulations, too, under which trade is carried on, have been materially modified within the last four or five years. The United States and Russia passed, in 1857, new and comparatively moderate tariffs. And we are glad to have to state that the greater number of the changes which we have had to notice in the commercial legislation of foreign countries, have been of a liberal character. It seems, also, reasonable to suppose that the freedom of trade and industry will be more and more diffused, according as nations and their rulers become better acquainted with the sound principles on which it is founded, and with the wonderful progress we have made, and are continuing to make, in industrial pursuits, since we shook off the shackles of the protective system.

The greater importance of some of the many topics we have had to discuss, has necessarily required for them the greatest share of our attention, We have not, however, neglected or slurred over the others; but have endeavoured to set the different matters treated of in the clearest point of view that the information at our disposal

* There is, it must be admitted, one great exception to this statement. The fertile, well situated, and exiensive countries subjected to Turkish misgovernment and oppression continue sunk in barbarism; Or, if there be anywhere any symptoms of improvement, they are only to be found among the subjugated races. The Turks themselves have retrograded ; and their religion, and the institutions and opinions to which it has given birth, are inguperable obstacles to anything like real progress. But it is not to be supposed, despite the support it will no doubt receive, that this worthless and superannuated system of misrule should exist much longer. And there can be no doubt that its overthrow, whether it be effected by the righteous rebellion of those it has so long trampled under foot, or by foreign force, will be a vast gain to bumanity. It will do more than anything else that can be done to extend the sphere of civi. lisation and commerce.

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