Imatges de pÓgina

veiled it with that mystery, which conceals it | thur's code of love, and partly from the cusfrom the eyes of the profane. The nearer the tomary edicts. They made sure of the execution intercourse of the two sexes approached Platonic of these decrees before hand, by making all love, the more there resulted from it strange parties swear they would submit to their deciamorous controversies, and it was apparent that sion; besides, no one would have dared to disthe subtleties of the dialectic and scholastic phi- pute the judgment awarded by the most honorlosophy, lent to love that solemn drapery, which able and powerful in the kingdom. There have made it appear amongst the most important and been instances of pecuniary fines, but the puaugust sciences. They soon formed a code of nishment was generally banishment from the love, which a knight of Bretagny brought from Kingdom of Love; that is to say, an exclusion the court of King Arthur to his lady. These from good society and other disreputable pelaws soon formed the basis, from which they nalties. The manner of proceeding was usually eventually judged every thing connected with verbal, and very properly so, in a tribunal conthe Erotic empire. There were, at first, only sisting of judges endowed by nature with an adcasual assemblies of ladies to determine difficult mirable loquacity. They kept records, however, matters of debate; for who could have been to preserve a remembrance of the most celebetter judges of these matters, than those, who

brated causes. are not only made for love, but are its most be. The following is an example—it happened in witching ornaments.

the 13th century William de Cabestaing was Although we cannot positively state the pre-accused by the Lady Eleanor de Comminge, of cise epoch of their institution, we find from the having violated the laws of gallantry. “We commencement of the twelfth century, in many will,” says the Chronicle, “ cite the names of provinces in the south of France, and the ad- the ladies summoned to give judgment on this jacent countries, Courts of Love; of which his- occasion Madam de Sabian; the Countess de torians have transmitted to us detailed descrip- Forcalquier; Mesdames d’Ampus, de Blacres, tions. The Courts of Love were composed of de Simiane, de Villeneuve, de Turenne, de a president, and from ten, to sixty counsellors. Montfort; Margaret de Tarascon, the wife of Princes and kings, sometimes became presidents, Berenger, Count of Toulouse; a lady of Ventithey were then called Princes of Love. There mille; the lady of the city of Glandèves; Meswere at each court, many posts and dignities; dames de Sault, de Castellane; the lady de for instance, at the Court of Love, which flou- Pourrières, and the Countess de Porcelet. The rished at Paris, under the presidency of Isabella cavaliers descended from the same families, with de Bavière, in the time of Charles the Sixth, there the exception of Antoine de Boulins, Claude de were two grand huntsmen, one hundred and Montauban, and many others; most of whom eighty-eight keepers of the records and charters had crossed the sea, and made war upon the Saof love; fifty-nine chevaliers of honor, as coun- racens, fought in Bohemia, or been in the sersellors of the court; fifty, as treasurers ; fifty-vice of the King of France. The ladies espeseven, as masters of the court; thirty-two se- cially charged with watching over the precretaries, &c. &c. Among these different classes servation of gallantry and chivalrous principles, of dignities, were enrolled names of the most neglected nothing which tended to this object; illustrious families, and of the most celebrated they were beautiful and considerate, and demen of learning in the state. There were, be- corum was with them the faithful companion of sides this, many other inferior tribunals, from love. The young knight remained outside the which they could appeal to the High Court of barriers. A lady who performed the office of Love, sitting at Paris. The decisions of the herald, called him three times; he entered the council were called arresta amorum, (love's de- assembly, another led himn by the hand, saying, crees), and were taken, partly, from King Ar- “ Gentle knight, leave your arms without ; you




Fading flowers, fading flowers, Ye are like the sadden'd heart,

When it's hopes, like passing hours, From it, transiently depart:

Ye are like the clouds of even, As they darken one by one;

When each has had its last faint smile, And farewell of the sun.

But the darken'd clouds have only, When the light of day has ceased;

Again to fleet across the skies, To meet it in the east.

And the flowers if fragrant ever, Will a sweetness still retain,

But the broken heart will neverOh, vever bloom again!


I FOUND the warrior on the plain,
His eyes was fixed-his hand was chill..
Still bore his breast the life blood's stain,
The blood was on his helmet still;
He died as hearts like his should die,
In the hot clasp of victory.

want no other here, than politeness and courtesy; with these, and a desire to please, you will assuredly succeed.”

When he heard the complaint of the Lady Eleanor, he blushed, for he was too sincere not to feel embarrassed-he knew not how to defend himself-he feared to offend this amiable tribunal; not being aware that his was one of those causes, which the court had chosen to make merry with. He demanded an official defender, and was permitted to make choice of one of his judges. Approaching the Lady Margaret, kneeling, he presented her with his glove; she accepted it, and, blushing, placed herself beside her client. The defence excited universal interest and applause, and the knight, enchanted with the eloquence of Lady Margaret, threw himself at her feet, to express his gratitude. “The court,” said a herald, “ grants you permission to embrace your advocate ;” which favour he did not allow to be repeated. The noble knight, Raymond, (husband of the lovely Margaret), wished to protest against it; but they only answered him with bursts of laughter. The court commanded silence, and Eleanor de Turrenne, President of the Court of Love, pronounced the following judgment:-" There is nothing punishable in your conduct, noble knight, but you have not known your duty towards the Lady Eleanor; the court, however, absolves you, and recommends you to be less embarrassed and less timid-to remember it is the duty of a chevalier to endeavour to please, to make love, at all times, with discretion and honour, and to bear in mind, that at any age, ladies are capable of loving, and expect a just return. Take heed of disdaining those who are not young, for there is then greater need of delicacy, honour, and discernment. Go, gentle knight, learn courtesy among the fair, and may the lady of your thoughts pardon you this adventure.” Thus terminated these singular proceedings.

There remain many other sentences of a similar kind in various works which treat of these extraordinary tribunals. In our next, we will insert a collection of those rules which served to regulate the decisions and resolutions of the Courts of Love.

The eye was fixed, but in its gaze,
Look'd the high soul, the crimson'd brow
Was cold, but life's departing rays
Had lit it with a warrior's glow;
The soul that from it swift had flown,
Could not have sought a prouder throne.

I saw the lover's living shade
Shiv'ring in summer's rosiest gale,
The look of woe, the cheek decayed,
The eyes' dark brilliance sunk and pate;
Rather than drag that life of pain,
Give me the sword, the strife, the plain.


SMOOTH'd be that brow, and chas'd the frown.
That half obeys thy tardy will,
Nor think to awe my raptures down,
For anger makes thee lovelier still.

In vain thou would'st compel the ire,
But lightly felt, but lightly shewn,
Thine eyes betray beneath their fire,
The pardon thou would'st blush to own.

Then still that proudly swelling breast-
And soften down thy mantling cheek,
"I'was but a kiss—that well expressed
The tenderness I could not speak.

Pacha threw across a bridge from the ravelin, coTHE SIEGE OF MALTA.

vering it with earth, to defend it from fire. At length motives, partly political, partly ge- “ After this, the mine and the sap both went on nerous, induced the Emperor Charles the Fifth, to at once; but the hardness of the rock was in favour offer the island of Malta to the Hospitallers. This of the besieged, and by a sortie, the bridge was burnt. proposal was soon accepted, and after various nego- In a wonderfully short time, it was reconstructed; ciations, the territory was delivered up to the knights, and the terrible fire from the Turkish lines, not only who took full possession on the 26th of October, 1530. swept away hundreds of the besieged, but ruined Thirty-five years had scarcely passed, when the Order the defences and dismounted the artillery. In this of St. John, which was now known by the name of the state the knights sent a messenger to the Grand Order of Malta, was assailed in its new possession by Master, representing their situation, shewing that the an army composed of thirty thousand veteran Turkish recruits they received, only drained the garrison of soldiers. The news of this armament's approach had the town, without protracting the resistance of a long before reached the island, and every preparation place that could stand no longer, and threatening had been made to render its efforts ineffectual. The to cut their way through the enemy, if boats did not whole of the open country was soon in the hands of come to take them off. La Valette knew too well the Turks, and they resolved to begin the siege by their situation; but he knew also, that if St. Elmo the attack of a small fort, situated at the end of a were abandoned, the viceroy of Sicily would never tongue of land which separated the two ports. The sail to the relief of Malta ; and he sent three comsafety of the island and the order depended upon the missioners to examine the state of the fort, and to castle of St. Elmo, a fort which the Turkish admiral persuade the garrison to hold out to the last. Two well knew, and the cannonade that he soon opened of these officers saw that the place was truly unupon the fortress was tremendous and incessant. The tenable, but the third declared it might still be mainknights who had been thrown into that post, soon tained; and, on his return, offered to throw himself began to demand succour, but the Grand Master, into it with what volunteers he could raise. La Valette La Valette, treated their request with indignation, instantly accepted the proposal, and wrote a cold and speedily sent fresh troops to take the place of and bitter note to the refractory knights in St. Elmo, those whom fear had rendered weak.

telling them that others were willing to take their “ A noble emulation reigned among the Hos- place : - Come back, my brethren,' he said, you pitallers, and they contended only which should fly will be here more in safety; and, on our part, we to the perilous service. A sortie was made from shall feel more tranquil concerning the defence of the fort, and the Turks were driven back from their St. Elmo, on the preservation of which depends the position; but the forces of the Moslems were soon safety of the island and of the order.' increased by the arrival of the famous Dragut; and “ Shame rose in the bosom of the knights; and, the succour of the viceroy of Sicily had promised mortified at the very idea of having proposed to yield to the knights, did not appear. After the coming a place that others were willing to maintain, they now of Dragut, the siege of St. Elmo was pressed with sent to implore permission to stay. redoubled ardour. A ravelin was surprised, and a La Valette well knew, from the first, that such lodgement effected; and the cavalier, which formed would be their conduct; but, before granting their one of the principal fortifications, had nearly been request, he replied, that he ever preferred new troops taken. Day after day, night after night, new efforts who were obedient, to veterans, who took upon

themwere made on either part; and the cannon of the selves to resist the will of their commanders; and it Turks never ceased to play upon the walls of the fort, was only on the most humble apologies and entreaties while, at the same time, the ravelin which they had that he allowed them as a favour, to remain in the captured was gradually raised till it overtopped the post of peril. From the 17th of June to the 14th of parapet. The whole of the outer defences were now July this little fort had held out against all the efforts exposed : the garrison could only advance by means of the Turkish army, whose loss had been already of trenches and subterranean approach ; and to cut immense. Enraged at so obstinate a resistance, the off even these communications with the parapet, the Pacha now determined to attack the rock on which it



stood, with all his forces ; and the Grand Master, per- next attacked; but here also the Turks were met by ceiving the design by the Turkish movements, took those destructive hoops of fire which caused more care to send full supplies to the garrison. Amongst dread in their ranks than all the other efforts of the other things thus received, were a number of hoops Christians. Wherever they fell confusion followed ; covered with tow, and imbued with every sort of in-, and at the end of a tremendous fight of nine hours, flammable matter. For the two days preceding the the Moslems were obliged to sound a retreat. assault, the cannon of the Turkish fleet and camp “A change of operations now took place; means kept up an incessant fire upon the place, which left were used to cut off the communication with the not a vestige of the fortifications above the surface of town; and after holding out some time longer, the the rock. On the third morning the Turks rushed fort of St. Elmo was taken, the last knight of its noble over the fosée which they had nearly filled, and at the garrison dying in the breach. The whole force of the given signal mounted to storm. The walls of the Turks was thenceforth turned towards the city; and a place were gone, but a living wall of veteran soldiers slow but certain progress was made, notwithstanding presented itself, each knight being supported by three all the efforts of the Grand Master and his devoted inferior men.

With dauntless valour the Turks companions. In vain he wrote to the Viceroy of threw themselves upon the pikes that opposed them; Sicily: no succour arrived for many days. The town and after the lances had been shivered and the was almost reduced to extremity. The bastion of St. swords broken, they were seen struggling with their Catherine was scaled, and remained some time in the adversaries, and striving to end the contest with the hands of the infidels, who would have maintained it dagger. A terrible fire of musketry and artillery longer, had not La Valette hinself rushed to the spot ; was kept up : and the Christians, on their part, hurled and after receiving a severe wound, succeeded in disdown upon the swarms of Turks that rushed in un- lodging the assailants. ceasing multitudes from below, the flaming hoops A small succour came at length under the comwhich sometimes linking two or three of the enemy

mand of Don Juan de Cardonna; but this was overtogether, set fire to the light and floating dresses of balanced by the junction of the Viceroy of Algiers the east, and enveloped many in a horrible death. with the attacking force. The bulwark of all ChrisStill, however, the Turks rushed on, thousands after tendom was being swept away, while Christian kings thousands, and still the gallant little band of Chris- stood looking on, and once more saw the knights of tians repelled all their efforts, and maintained pos- St. John falling man by man before the infidels, withsession of the height.

out stretching forth a hand to save them. “ From the walls of the town, and from the castle A large army had, in the mean while, been assemof St. Angelo, the dreadful struggle for St. Elmo was bled in Sicily, under the pretence of assisting Malta: clearly beheld; and the Christian people and the and at last the soldiers clamoured so loudly to be led knights, watching the wavering current of the fight, to the glorious service for which they had been enfelt perhaps more painfully all the anxious horror of rolled, that the vacillating Viceroy, after innumerable the scene, than those whose whole thoughts and delays, was forced to yield to their wishes, and set sail feelings were occupied in the actual combat. La for the scene of conflict. The island was reached in Valette himself stood on the walls of St. Angelo, not safety, the troops disembarked ; and, though the spending his time in useless anticipations, but scanning Turks still possessed the advantage of numbers, a eagerly every motion of the enemy, and turning the panic seized them, and they fled. Joy and triumph artillery of the fortress in that direction where it succeeded to danger and dread, and the name of La might prove of the most immediate benefit. At length Valette and his companions remains embalmed amongst he beheld a body of Turks scaling a rampart, from the remains of the noble and great.” which the attention of the besieged had been called by

James's HISTORY OF CHIVALRY. a furious attack on the other side. Their ladders were placed, and still the defenders of St. Elmo did

THE COMBAT. not pereeive them—they began their ascent, but at that moment the Grand Master opened a murderous “ Ir was with mingled and inexpressible feelings that fire upon them from the citadel, and swept them Edmund found himself, as an enemy, in the presence from the post they had gained. The cavalier was of the luathed, but terrific Dane. He looked on his fierce countenance, and measured with his eye the gi- | his foe, roaring aloud, and raiving down to the right gantic limbs of the unmoving chief, whose heavy mace and to the left his hideous blows, he seemed resolved resting on the ground, but firmly grasped in his ner- to annihilate the man who singly, had hitherto so foiled vous right hand, seemed reposing only that it might him. Nothing but the utmost presence of mind strike the surer and deadlier blow. Edmund felt no and quickness of eye and foot, could have preserved fear; yet such was the agitation of his feelings, that the Saxon against so tremendous a weapon, wielded by his limbs were seen to tremble, and his face to wax

such an arm.

It was impossible for him, in the brief pale; and all who beheld expected that he would even interval betwixt the blows of his fell adversary, to atthen abandon his mad project, or too surely become tempt without imminent peril, any assault in return. an almost instantaneous victim. But his voice was Leaping now backward, -to this side now,—and now loud and firm as he now proceeded to summon the to that,-he evaded though in momentarily peril of a Northman to submit.

fatal end, the blows against which no shield, and no “Monster!' he cried, ' by whose crimes this land armour could have defended him. But he saw the red has been for years polluted, once more are you offered stream flowing down on either side of the Dane, and the life which you so ill deserve. Throw down your expected with every passing instant, that his strength arms, and submit yourself vanquished—then may you would fail him. No sign of this however appeared, still breathe on through a few years of infamy ;-refuse though the breath of the gigantic foe became thick and this mercy

your doom is at hand.'

frequent; and the impatient and fiery youth could with “ While he spoke this, Edmund fixed his eye upon difficulty restrain himself, to a merely defensive contest that of Hubbo, cautious to read every indication of so long protracted. Already had he trodden with hostile intent; and became almost instantly assured backward step, thrice round the ring of silent spectathat such was forming in the breast of his treacherous tors, and still the frenzied Northman, with strength enemy.

unabated, was following. During all this time, the « « Saxon curl'cried the Dane, foaming with rage, Saxon had not once ventured to attempt a blow upon 'to such a demand Hubbo has but one reply: take it him, since the mere instant of delay necessary, might thus!'

have exposed him to the sway of that ponderous club, “ Lifting his mace, as he pronounced the last word, which would have needed no second stroke. At length he sprang forward, and discharging a whirlwind stroke, however, he darted forward at the instant that the which had his antagonist been less on his guard, might mace had passed him, lightly touching upon his breastat once have terminated the combat: but Edmund plate—and struck with collected force at the uplifted leaped to the left from the thundering weapon, and right arm of the Dane. The sword missed its mark, passing behind with the speed of thought, let fall upon but lighted upon the thick handle of the mace, and the undefended right side of the Dane, a stroke so shore it in two, close to the gripe. Down dropped tremendous that the corslet gaped, and the blood rushed with a dead weight the now harmless weapon; and the forth in a thick stream. A loud shout hailed the silence of the field changed to a thunder-burst of apblow, but Edmund was not thrown off his guard by un. plause. But the sword of Hubbo was instantly forth, timely exultation. A hideous stroke, as Hubbo threw and his savage roar resounded above the tumult. Yet round the whole weight of his body, instantly replied, not so quick was his motion, but that Edmund, ere and with such quickness, that the youth could not the blade of his adversary was drawn, had discharged wholly avoid it. The mace struck upon the central a second stroke, which alighting upon his breast-plate point of the buckler with a violence that drove it from close below the neck, burst through the iron cavity the grasp of the bearer, and sent it with a loud clang and inflicted another, and a wider, though slighter to the earth, almost at the feet of the spectators. The

But the Saxon was without his buckler, while arm of Edmund was benumbed ; and dropped strength- that of the Northman was on his arm, and the contest less: but the returning blow was given almost before appeared still likely to be unfavourable to him. Far the shield had reached the ground. Lighting on the superior skill in the use of his weapon,-equal strength left shoulder of the Northman, the keen steel again bit and greater agility, were however, more than a counthrough the armour,—again the red stream gushed terbalance for this deficiency. He was also unhurt, forth,—and again the shout of the Saxons arose. The save from the benumbing blow upon the shield, the fury of Hubbo now became madness; pressing upon effects of which were rapidly diminishing, and was


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