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The day after the operation there is but little difference. Om the second day, says our author, if the part is viewed with a lens, there generally appears a kind of orange-coloured stain about the incision, and the surrounding skin seems to contract.' At this period the Doctor usually gives, at bed-time, a pill composed of calomel and compound powder of crabs claws, each three grains, with one tenth of a grain of emetic tartar. On the fourth or fifth day, the part grows somewhat hard, itches, and appears flightly inflamed. About the sixth day a pain and stiffness is generally felt in the axilla, which is deemed a favourable symptom. The eruptive fever coinmonly begins on the seventh or eighth day. On viewing the incision with a glass, it now appears surrounded by a vast number of small confluent pustules. About the tenth day a circular, or oval, efflorescence is discovered, generally about the size of a filling, but sometimes much larger. It accompanies the eruption, and may be deemed a signal that all danger is over. As foon as the fymptoms of the eruptive fever appear, the last mentioned mercurial pill is admivistered over night, and the following morning a draught composed of two ounces of the infufion of fena, half an ounce of manna, and two drams of the tincture of jalap. With submission to the Doctor, he might certainly have contrived a lefs nauseous purge of equal power. When the appearances above described proceed thus regularly, the disease is generally quite mild. If, on the contrary, they seem tardy. in their progress, it becomes neceffary to accelerate the eruption by a more frequent repetition of mercurial and purgative medicines. It is fomewhat extraordinary, that frequent evacuation should promote the inflammation, which, however, the Doctor assures us is the case ; and, also, contrary to what is observed of the small-pox in a natural way, that the earlier the eruption, the milder is the disorder. As soon as the symptoms of the eruptive fever appear, and the purging medicine has operated, the patient is ordered to keep abroad in the open air, be the weather ever so cold, and to quench his thirst with, cold water, taking care not to stand still, but to walk about moderately.
Such are the general principles of this new method of ino-. culation ; a method, the success of which would, a few years ago, have been thought to exceed all possibility. Those who wish to be more minutely informed, we refer to the book itself, where they will find an explicit detail of every thing necessary, to te known on this subject ; and they will probably be convinced, that the great success of the Effex inoculators, is entirely owing to this antiphlogistic method" of treatment, and not to any specific virtue in their medicines, 4
.: With regard to the experiments tried by the Doctor with an intention to ascertain the effects of a similar treatment of the natural small-pox, his opportunities have not been fo frequent as he could have wished: nevertheless he has treated forty patients in the new method, without losing 'one According to the common way of management, not less than one in seven or eight are sacrificed These forty, therefore, are no inconsiderable step towards the discovery of means to take away all danger from this hitherto dreadful disease.
12. An Elay towards an Investigation of the present successful, and
most General Method of Inoculation. . By B. Chandler, Surgeon at Canterbury. 8vo. Pr. is. Wilkie.
Mr. Chandler, having maturely considered the several particulars in which the new method of inoculation differs from the old, is firmly of opinion that the wonderful success of the former is chiefly to be attributed to the present method of communicating the disease by means of the crude, unconcocted lymph, in preference to the matter when ultiinately variolated by the succeeding fever. But since the publication of Dr. Dimsdale's pamphlet, probably our author is of another opinion. Be that as it may, he writes very sensibly; and, in point of language, he is superior to any of those that have written on this subject.
13. An Esay on Inoculation for the Small Pox. Wherein the
Nature of the Disease is explained, the various Methods of Preparation that have been practised in America are critically ex: amined, and that which the Author has found, from his own Experience, to be most successful, is clearly laid down.
With an Appendix, containing a Chymical Examination of Mr. Sutton's Medicines. By Thomas Ruston, M. D. 8vo. Price Is. 6d. Payne.
If the practice of inoculation be not, at laft, brought to its greatest possible degree of perfection, it certainly will not be for want of a sufficient variety of publications on the subject. This author, however, is of opinion, that 'though a great deal has been said, there was still a great deal more wanting.' He begins with considering three different methods practised in Ainerica, all which he condemns, upon the whole, as injudi. cious. With regard to the nature of the disease, he determines it to be putrid rather than inflammatory, as hath been generally supposed, and fupports' his opinion with a variety of strong arguments. Hence he deduces the indications for preparation, viz. 'to oppose, and by that means to moderate the
influence of the variolous infection in aslimilating our juices; and, fecondly, to evacuate the variolous matter, as fast as it is formed, out of the conftitution.' The first is to be effected by diet; the latter, by medicine. Concerning the cold regimen of the Suttonians, he approves it, upon the whole, but not in the extreme. As to medicines, mercury and antimony, he thinks, are chiefly to be depended on, because they are the inost powerful evacuants. His formulæ are there : N° 1.
R. Pulv. jallap
Crem. tart. aa zi.
Calomel, gr. iv. mifce fiat. Pulv, cathart. mane fumend. cum regimine. N° 2.
R. Calc. antimon. illot. Ziß.
Calomel. — 3j. m. f. pulv. gr. xij. pro. dos.
N° 3. R. Panac. antimon, 3B.
Mucilag. gum, tragacanth. q. f. ut fiant pil. 45, The first is to be twice exhibited in the space of a week previous to the operation. In the evening after inoculation, he gives a bolus of five grains of calomel, and the day following three doses of the powder, No 2. On the third day he orders a dose of the pills, No 3. viz. to a grown person three pills. The powders, No 2. are to be repeated every day. These, however, are to be understood as general diredions, which must vary pro re nata. From his experiments contained in the appendix, it appears, firit, that the basis of Mr. Sutton's powder is calomel ; fecondly, that his pill is the Pil. Cochiæ, mixt with calomel ; thirdly, that the acid with which he prepares his punch, 'is the dulcified volatile vitriolic acid; and that there is no antimony in any of his medicines. Upon the whole, the author appears to be well acquainted with the late improvements in chemistry; and he has, with more penetration than any of his cotemporary writers on the same subject, endeavoured to fupport his practice on rational principles. It appears, however, from Dr. Dimfdale's book, that medicines are of less importance than Dr. Ruston seems to imagine.
14. Occasional Letters on the Practice of Inoculation. 410. Price
6d. Wilson and Fell. This author may be a very pious gentleman ; but his arguments and language are no better than might be expected from any old woman in his parish. He dates his last epistle from East Clandon, and signs himself Joseph Greenhill.
15. Tentamen Sophisticon, a Chemical Ejay, designed to her
the Possibility of applying the Powers of Chemistry to an Examination of several Productions liable to be fophisticated or disguised. Interspersed with Observations on the approved Qualities of Ward's Drop and Pill, Dr. James's Powder for Fovers, counterfeit Magniefia Alba, and some other medicinal Substances. Whereto is annexed the Specimen or Plan of a Synopsis, including the chemical Structure, &c of some pharmaceutical Preparations ; and an easy Method of trying them for medicinal Purposes. By Edward Wallis. 8vo. Pr. 25. 6d. Nicoll.
What pity it is that the generality of trading chemists should be fo Thamefully dishonest as to vend sophisticated medicines, for their own private emolument, to the great danger and disappointment of his majesty's liege subjects; but how fortunate is it, on the other hand, that there should be found one amongst them of sufficient honesty and abilities to detect their villany!
Let the reader figure to himself our honest author standing at the door of his shop, with his Tentamen in his hand, and haranguing his fellow-citizens of York to the following effect : " Countrymen and fellow-citizens, sorry I am to acknowledge, that men of my profession are all ***** and ********** except myself and Co., and that if you go to any other fhop, you will certainly be ********
To convince you of
my fingular honesty, and abilities as a chemist, I here present you with a book, of my own writing, which will teach you how to detect the villany of others, and to discover the genuineness of my medicines. My book contains one hundred and fixty pages, one hundred and thirty- fix of which you are to consider as a preface to the rest. In this preface, I have proved (what no modern chemist doubts) that there is such a thing as cle£tive attraction ; and in the remainder of my book, I have shewn by a series of curious experiments, that this elective attraction may be employed to detect fraud. The medicines which I have put to the test are Cinnabar, Oil of Aniseed, Glauber's Salt, Sal martis, and Magnesia Alba. Some of these, indeed, may poslībly, by ignorant physicians, be thought of no great importance ; but with regard to the last, you will have no doubt of its medical virtues, nor of my real intention in this publication, when I inform you, from the last page of my book, that~' Genuine Magnesia Alba, in the highest perfecion, continues to be fold by E. Wallis and Co. at their fhop opposite All Saints Church in the Pavement York, in three fhillings, five thillings, and half a guinea boxes, with printed directions inclosed: where may be had likewise, all
kinds of drugs and medicines, chemical and galenical, faith fully prepared, upon the most reasonable terins, ' Country pro ders dispatched with the greatest pun&tuality and expedition.” 16. Medical Advice to the Consumptive and Aphmatic People of
England; wherein the present Method of treating Disorders of the lungs is fbe:w8. to be futile and fundamentally wrong, and a new and easy Method of Cure, proposed by Philip Stern, M. D. 8vo.
Alinon. Having previously explained the structure and use of the organs of respiration, the Doctor proceeds to the predisposing causes of consumptions, which, in this kingdom, he attributes chiefly to the instability of the climate, or rather to its immediate effect, a cold. He then explains the term, and describes its progress and effects. This leads himn to consider the usual method of cure, which he proves to be futile and fundamentally wrong, from the improbability that the balsamics which, on these occasions, are taken into the stomach, should ever reach the part affecied, at least in fufficient quantity to be of any service. Possibly the Doctor may be right. What then is to be done ? First, he reminds us, that the only direct road to the lungs is through the wind-pipe; that vapour may be easily conveyed to the lungs; that aqueous liquors may be converted into vapour, and that vapour may be impregnated with great variety of medicinal substances. The medicines which he
proposes to use, are antiseptics, antispasmodics, attenuants, and balsamics. The three first create no difficulty ; but with regard to the native balsams; as they will not diffolve in water, he was for some time under considerable perplexity. They diffolve, it is true, in vinous fpirit ; but that he judged too hot for his purpose. At length, after repeated experiments, he discovered a menstruum. with all the requisite properties : in this he diffolves his balsams, and dropping his folution into hot water, thus conveys it immediately to the affected part, In common cases, such as recent colds, or coughs, he thinks it sufficient for the patient to inhale the steam, thus imprego nated, by holding his mouth over 'a common vessel ; but, in consumptive cases, he has contrived a kind of urn, 'made of pewter, with a pipe fixed to the top, so as to carry a greater quantity of vapour to the lungs. Of thi, machine he exhibits a figure facing the title page. He then proceeds to give directions concerning the diet and exercise of consumptive people, which directions are perfeāly rational and judicious: Having founded his expectations, in the cure of consumptions which are far advanced, chiefly on the antiseptic virtue of his medicine, he relates an experiment, in which two pieces of beef, by