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the stirring spirit of the conqueror, we are perhaps rather fin.. gular in our notions upon that head. Indolence, properly
peaking, is no other than misusing the exercise of our rational faculties and virtuous affections, and suffering ourselves to be carried away by the indulgence of a favourite habit, either na. tural or acquired. Charles XII. of Sweden, though he lived in an eternal tempest of war, fatigues, and marches, was in this sense the most indolent prince of his time; because he could not put himself to the trouble of correcting that brutal bloody passion for war which he received from nature, and which was confirmed by habit. Notwithstanding this, the princely author's general observation, that it is commendable in any prince to wish to distinguish himfelf from his effeminate cotemporaries, is unquestionably laudable ; but we can by no means think it applicable to this passage of Alexander's life. Had Aristotle, who was Alexander's tutor, posseffed the temper of Buchanan, James I.'s preceptor, he would have given his pupil a good flogging, and occafioned him to shed tears on another account, for his barbarous forrow.
We can by no means subscribe to our Serene author's character of Henry prince of Wales, eldest fon of James I. of England. * This prince had a most excellent judgment, and as good a heart. He had every quality which could render him worthy of a throne, and his genius bore a striking resemblance to that of Alexander.' We are of Mrs. Macaulay's opinion, that the liberties of a people, especially of the English, are always endangered by a martial monarch. Foreigners, however, are to be excused as to the ideas they form of the British constitution, which is of itself a study totally diffimilar to any other of the kind, and sometimes very contradictory to the maxims most generally received and established in other countries. We entirely, however, agree with his Serene Highness, that the manly behaviour of Alexander (though but a boy) to the Persian embassadors is worthy of the highest eulogies. The story of Alexander's first backing Bucephalus, seems to have been one of those historical fibbs, which have been sanctified by antiquity ; and perhaps the splendor of his atchievements has dazzled writers into other anecdotes. Did he really save the life of his father in Our Serene author highly commends the contempt which Alexander discovered for Paris, and the honours he rendered to the sepulchre of Achilles. -Did not Alexander love himself in Achilles ? ---Divest Homer's hero of brutal courage, fortified by an invulnerable person, and of whining affections, and what is there praise-worthy in the character of Achil
les drawn by his immortal poet? The two following chapters do great honour to the good sense and discernment of the writer,
· Chap. VI. Tbe reflection of Alexander upon the condition of Sovereign princes.
• Alexander once observed, “ That kings should always perform good actions, and always expect to be blamed for thein." This reflection is partly true, and partly false. It is true, that good actions are the principal circumstances by which a prince should be distinguished from a private person. That sovereign must be extremely ungrateful to the Almighty, who can renounce such a glorious prerogative. He would set a wretched example to his subjects, who will not fail to say ;-" If our prince doth not think it his duty to perform good actions, the obligation upon us, who have infinitely less power and opportunity, must be extremely trifling." As to the cenfure Alexander speaks of, every prince mult expe&t his share of it. If a fovereign bestows a favour which hath been equally merited by two of his fi!bjects, and of which the one and the other believe themselves alike deserving, it is certain that he will be severely censured by him who loses the recompence he expected. But the cenfure will appear extremely unjust, if we reflect that it is not always in a sovereign's power to reward every body who may deserve it. We might add, that in all cases of this nature, a man complains of his prince, not so much from any disapprobation of his conduct, as from a disgust at his own disappointinent. But is it not, after all, a general truth, that princes are more commended than censured ? With what a swarm of flatterers is a sovereign furrounded, who are always ready to applaud him, not only for the merest trifles, but for actions which are notoriously culpable, and reflect the vilest dishonour on regal majesty. How many authors have lavished their coinmen. dations on those passages of a prince's life, which ought to be erased from the pages of history. In the tenth toine of P. Daniel's history of France, the highest eulogies are bestowed on Francis I. for condemning his protestant subjects to the flames ! To conclude this chapter, if a prince would appear.worthy of the crown he wears, and discharge the duties of his station, he will be obliged to performn good actions. This he may certainly do without much difficulty : for he can never be at a loss for opportunities, and may assure himself that he will always be more commended for it than censured.
« Chap. VII. The races at the Olympic games. The King of Macedon once took it into his head to dispute the racer's prize at the Olympic games ; but he missed his
mark, and was not able to win the prize he contended for. I cannot say that this action of Alexander greatly pleases me. must certainly be acknowledged, that exercise, and even laborious exercise, may be very proper for a king and the commander of an army, as a means to preserve him from effeminacy, a vice which will equally debilitate tlie powers both of the mind and the body. If the king of Macedon had no other design but this, we may say with a safe conscience, that his method of putting it into execution was extremely injudicious. It was very unseemly in Alexander to enter the lists, and thus
put him. self upon a level with persons of the meanest rank, and condescend to become a spectacle to his whole army, and a numerous throng of the cónimon people. All persons have not the same strength of body. This difference is obfervable among kings as well as among other men. But in bodily vigor, the lower class of people who are inured to labor and hardships, have generally speaking the advantage over kings, who are taken up : with more lofty concerns. If, therefore, in things of this na
ture, a sovereign should enter into a contest with the meaner fort of persons, the whole honour will certainly fall to the lat- ter : and, then, how severe must be the prince's mortification ? Whenever a monarch humbles hiinself in such a thoughtless manner, his merits are no longer to be decided by his fellow kings, but by those capricious judges the common people. If, therefore, he hath the least spark of ambition, he will be careful never to put himself upon an equality with persons of an inferior condition. For the same reason' a prince of understanding will scorn to waste his time in the pursuit of that trifling glory which is derived from such unimportant qualities as can add nothing to the lustre of the royal name. Thus, for example, it must be allowed that Painting is a fine art : but if a monarch should place his chief merit in an accomplifhment of - this kind, what could be more ridiculous ? It might; perhaps, be worth his while to apply himself to the study of it now and then by way of amusement; but it would manifestly be a bleiniíh to his character to make profession of it.) With what ridicule did Nero overwhelm himself by appearing on the stage ? Or what sensible Frenchman can excuse the folly of Lewis XIV. in assuming the character of a comedian? A sovereign should cautioufly avoid every thing which may lessen him in the eyes of the public. Clemency, affability, and a compassion which renders him always accessible to the unfortunate, will never deprive him of that respectful fubmiffion which is due to his rank. But he may lose it by a singly act of indiscretion like those f
' Vol. XXIII. May, 1767.
It is with regret we find ourselves unable to be more parti. cular in our commendations of this excellent performance, . which, upon the whole, itamps virtue upon greatness, and renders the author as respectable for the goodness of his heart and the foundness of his judgment, as he is for his high birth and illustrious rank.
1. The present Method of Inoculating for the Small-Pox. To which
are added, fome Experiments, instituted with a view to discover the Effects of a similar Treatment in the Natural Small Pox. By Thomas Dimsdale, M. D. 8vo.. Pr. 25. 6d. Owen. HIS work having been long advertised, and, from the
reputation of its author, expected with impatience, we fhall be foinewhat particular in our account of it.
In his first chapter, he treats of the age, conftitution, and feaJon of the year proper for inoculation. With regard to age, he tells us, he chuses to decline inoculating children under two years old, because fuch subje&ts are expofed to all the hazards of dentition, fevers, fluxes, convulsions, and other accidents ; because medicines, at that age, are more difficultly administered, and because young children have usually a larger thare of puffules. These objections he has, however, himself, in a great meafüré, obviated, by informing us, that he has inoculated many under two years old, and that they all did well. tonftitution, he informs us, from experience, that persons afHidited with various chronic complaints have passed through the fmall-pox with great ease and safety. Those who labour under any acute disease are obviously improper fubje&is ; as are likewife those in whom there are evident marks of corrosive acri. monious humours, or where there is a manifest debility of the whole frame. Concerning the seafon of the year, the Do&or is of opinion that it is of little importance.
• PREPARATION. In directing the preparatory regimen, I principally, says the Doctor, aim at these points : to reduce the patient, if in high health, to a low and more fecure state i to strengthen the constitution, if too low ; to corređ what appears vitiated, and to clear the stomach and bowels, as much as may be, from all crudities and their effects. With this View, he orders those of the first class to, abstain from all animal food, spices, and fermentid liquors, except fmall beer, for the space of ten days before the operation. During this
time, they are to take three doses of the following powder at bed-time, and a dose of Glauber's falt each succeeding morning. The powder is composed of eight grains of calomel, the fame quantity of the compound powder of crabs claws, and one eighth part of a grain of tartar emetic. This dose is intended for a person in health of a robust constitution, and must, therefore, necessarily be varied according to the age, strength, and habit of the patient.
INFECTION. After mentioning the several modes of com. municating the infection, which have been, at different times, practised by different inoculators, the Doctor informs us that he has found the following method the most eligible.
The patient to be infected being in the same house, and, if no objection is made to it, in the same room, with one who has the disease, a little of the variolous matter is taken from the place of insertion, if the subject is under inoculation; or a ripe pustule, if in the natural way, on the point of a lancet, so that both sides of the point are moistened.
. With this lancet an incision is made in that part of the arm where issues are usually placed, deep enough to pass thro the scarf skin, and just to touch the skin itself, and in length as fhort as possible, not more than one eighth of an inch.
The little wound being then stretched open between the finger and thumb of the operator, the incision is moistened with the matter, by gently touching it with the flat side of the infected lancet. This operation is generally performed in both arms, and sometimes in two places in one arm, a little distant from each other. Neither plaister, bandage, or covering is applied.
* It seems, continues our author, of no consequence whether infe&ling matter be taken from the natural or inoculated small-pox. i have used both, and never have been able to dif cover the least difference, either in point of certainty of infe&tion, the progress, or the event.--Nor is it of consequence whether the matter be taken before or after the crisis.-I have taken a little clear fluid from the elevated pellicle on the incised part, even so early as the fourth day after the opera. tion ; and have, at other times, used matter fully digested after the crisis, with equal fuccefs. It seems, then, that the means of communication is a matter of indifference, and, therefore, that the great success attending the present method of inoculation must be attributed to some other cause.
Progress of INFECTION. One advantage arising from performing the opération in such a manner as to render plaister of bandage unneceffary, is that a prognostic inay frequently be formed from the appearance of the wound thus left to itreif. Сс 2