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ferment is intimately mixed with the whole mass; now the whole mass of blood may rationally be supposed to be affected, without being entirely assimilated or distempered.
• Malignant fevers, says the Doctor, do alfo depend on a peccant humour, which must be concocted, in order to give the disease a prosperous issue.' This is a good fort of a medical sentence, which, however, conveys no distinct, idea. To be perfectly understood, it would be necessary to inform us, what he precisely means by the terms malignant fever, peccant humour, and concoétion. In the fame chapter our author takes occasion to contradict those who are of opinion that the medical virtue of the bark consists in its antiseptic power ; ' because, says he, we are possessed of many things that are more antiseptic than the bark, but that are wholly ineffectual in obftinate agues and gangrenes.' He is of opinion, that its faJutary effects are to be ascribed to its cordial and corroborating quality. As to its cordial quality, it may be answered, almost in his own words, that we are possessed of many more powerful cordials; and as to its corroborative quality, it is sufficient to obferve, that niany robust people are afflicted with the ague, who stand in no need of corroborants, and who, nevertheless, are cured by the bark.
Some medicines, says the Doctor, have, doubtless, fpecific powers of correcting the peculiar acrimonies peculiar to the peccant humours in foine different diseases. The farsaparilla is destructive of the contagious matter in the venereal disease. If it were not impolite to contradict a positive affertion, we ihould fay, that the farsaparilla is poffefied of no fich virtue.
Vesicatories, says the author, are exceeding serviceable in How nervous fevers, not by raising the pulse, by means of their stimulus, as is commonly supposed, but by attracting the peccant humour from the noble parts.' If this were true, how happens it that, in those fevers, as soon as they cease to ftimulate, they cease to be beneficial, and that continuing the difcharge, without fresh stimulus, answers no purpofe ?
Still fond of differing from vulgar opinions, . It is, I think, fays he, generally supposed, that highly animalized juices are most susceptible of putrefa&ion; yet, I prefume, there is a moral certainty of the contrary. The bile should seein to be an highly animalized juice, since it is conducive towards the affimilation of the chyle ; yet it advances more slowly to putrefaction than red blood. This sentence should be thus reversed: the bile advances more slowly to putrefaction than red blood, because it is less animalized, as he is pleased to call it. His next argument is, that veal, which is fed with inilk, bea comes tainted much sooner than beef, which is fed with grasso
This instance is rather unfortunate for the doctor, as it is a strong ärguinent against him; for milk, though acescent, is undoubtedly more animalized than grass, therefore veal becomes fooner tainted than beef. But he might have assigned even a better reason than this.
From these few examples it will appear, that our author is apt to draw conclusions from false principles ; that he is fond of destroying old theories, without being pofleffed of fufficient materials to erect new ones. Nevertheless, we do not by any means condemn his book as an useless performance. On the contrary, it contains many practical observations, which, at least, deserve consideration ; and, upon the whole, we applaud his disinclination to adopt received opinions, merely on the credit of former writers, as nothing contributes more to retard the progress of science, than implicit faith in the doctrines of emi. nent men.
IV. Anglo-Norman Antiquities Considered, in a Tour through Part
of Normandy, by Doctor Ducarel. Illuftrated with twentyJaven Copper-plates. Large Folio. Pr. il. 11 s. 6d. Vaillant. F every antiquary would pursue his studies to the same pur
pose, and upon the like rational principles which this author has followed, that species of knowledge would be no longer considered as less respectable than the cobwebs which cover it, but esteemed as a liberal and useful acquisition. We cannot, however, forbear thinking that this performance must be mortifying to a true-born Englishınan. Every journey, every movement of the doctor must remind himn that England was a country conquered by Frenchmen; that they employed the fruits of their conquest in decorating their own paltry duchy; that their monuments of superstition were erected by the spoils of this nation; and that to this day the title of the king of England is considered in that province, only as second to that of duke of Normandy.
In the dedication to a right reverend prelate, mention is made of his lordship's having observed, about the year 1742, a difference between the mode of architecture used by the Normans in their buildings, and that practised by the contempos rary Saxons in England. Some difficulties having been started on this head, our author, in the year 1752, went into Nora mandy on purpose to view and examine such buildings of duke William (for so the conqueror of England is called) as were remaining in Caen, and other places in that neighbourhood. The publication before us contains the result of the author's
inquiries, which confirm the rules his lordship had drawn up. According to Dr. Ducarel, the ancient Normans, though a warlike, were by no ineans a barbarous, people. They prized the tweets of society, and were fond of cultivating the polite arts, especially architecture and design, many convincing evidences of which are exhibited in this work.
In the beforementioned dedication, we find some very curious remarks upon the origin of broad seals. The Doctor is of opi. nion, that the use of the broader great seals, and the affixing impreffions of them in wax, by pendant labels, to charters and other public instruments, for their better confirmation, and the ascertaining of their authenticity, was known to be practised by the Normans very early; and from them it is probable, that this custom passed into England. He then describes the broad seals of Edward the Confeffor, which are of undoubted authenticity ; one of them, in the possession of private gentlemen, appendant to a Saxon deed, is here engraved. 'It does not appear that Harold, whɔ succeeded Edward the Confeffor, ever used a broad seal. • To supply that defect, says our author, the only representation of that prince, now known to be extant, is here engraven in Plate I. We are beholden, for its first publication, to the industry of father Montfaucon, who copied it from a beautiful illuminated drawing in a manuscript prayer-book, written in England in the eleventh century, and preserved in the library of the late monsieur Colbert. Harold is therein represented as sitting on his throne upon a cushion: he rests his feet on a footstool, and holds a banner in his right hand; and in his left, a sceptre surmounted by a dove : on each side the throne is a stand, or tripod, on which lies a book open ; and near to each tripod, is the figure of a saint, with his right hand elevated, as pronouncing the benediction *.!
* Without interrupting the progress of our review, we shall mention a fact recorded by Bowmaker, the continuator of Fordun, who lived at the time when the discovery was inade, viz. in 1386, when the Scots were invading Cumberland under Robert Stuart earl of Fife, second son to Roberto II. of Scotland. He tells us, that among other spoils which were brought to the general, was a very old charter, sealed with a large seal of wax, with the following words : “ I kyng Adelftan giffs here to Paulan Oddan and Roddan, als gud and als fair, as evyr thai myne war, and thar to wytnes Mald my wiffe.” The author adds, that when the earl of Fife, under the name of the duke of Albany, came to be governor of Scotland, he
The work is ushered in with some geographical and genea" logical accounts of the town and earls of Eu, who made for considerable a figure in the French history, and may prove highly useful to the heralds and antiquaries of both nations. Every thing remarkable about the town is likewise defcribed, as are also the antiquities, rarities, buildings, and situations of all the country through which the author paffed, till he came to Rouen, the capital of Upper Normandy. We are told that the public buildings of this city make a handsome appearance; but that the streets in general are narrow, and the houses ill built ; that the inhabitants amount to upwards of fixty thoufand; and that by means of the Seine they carry on a very brisk trade with Paris, and the internal parts of the kingdom, Mention is likewise made of the spot where the famous Joan of Arc was burnt for a witch, in 1431, and (says the Doctor) . it is worth observing, that the doctors of the Sorbonne, who were consulted by the duke of Bedford, then regent of France, pronounced unanimously for her execution.' Here we beg leave to differ from this learned writer, in thinking that the fact he speaks of is not worth observing. The ignorance, violence, and superstition of those doctors are notorious to this day; neither do we find that the Pucelle was burnt for a witch, but for retracting her abjuration, by which she became a heretic relapsed.
The description of the cathedral of Rouen, which contains the remains of some of our greatest English princes, who are here delineated from antient statues and pictures, fills us with very high ideas of the old Norman magnificence; and the author has transmitted to the public a great variety of monu. mental learning, which must prove equally agreeable and instructive to all lovers of antiquity.
used, while he was sitting in judgment, to praise the succinctness and simplicity of this charter.
If this fact, as related by Bowmaker, is true, it fixes the date of great feals in England much higher than the time of Edward the Confeffor. Craig, the famous feudist and a great antiquary, thinks the seal and the charter to have been genuine. Ruddiman, in his preface to Anderson's Selectus, says, that he has no doubt of such a charter being found among the spoils, but that the great feal fufficiently proves it to have been forged. It is, however, certain, that princes upon the continent long before this time had, made use of great seals. Our chief difficulty as to the authenticity arises from the language of the charter.
• The chapter of Rouen (says he) which consists of the arch, bishop, 'a dean, fifty canons, and ten dignities or prebendaries, have, ever since the reign of Henry II. king of England and duke of Normandy, enjoyed the extraordinary annual privilege of pardoning, on Ascension-day, any person confined within the jurisdiction of the city, for murder, together with his or her accomplices; and, if there happen to be no such prisoner, then any other malefactor, however atrocious the crime he is charged with may be, provided it is not high-trea. fon against his sovereign, and that he is a native of the place, The inanner in which the chapter exert their privilege is this : During the three Rogation-days, two of the canons, attended by the register, and two chaplains dreffed in their surplices, vifit all the prisons within the city and suburbs, and having taken down in writing the examinations and confeffions of the several malefactors, as to the crimes wherewith they respectively stand charged, deliver the fame in to the chapter. On the morning of Ascension-day, the chapter having heard these feveral examinations and confessions read, proceed to the election of the person who is to be pardoned, and, the choice being made, transmit his name in writing, by one of the chaplains, to the parliament, which for that purpose assemble on that day at the palace. The parliament, having received the billet from the chapter, walk in procession to the great chamber, whither the prifoner elect being brought before them in his fetters, and placed on a stool, he is informed of the choice fallen upon him, and that thereby he is intitled to the Privilege of St. Romain. After this, the criminal is delivered over into the hands of the chaplain, who, accompanied by fifty mulketeers, conducts him to an apartment where the chains are taken off from his legs, and bound round his arms; and then He is led to a place called the Old Tower, where, in a small chapel dedicated to St. Romain, and built on the scite of the ancient palace of the Norman dukes, he waits the arrival of the proceffion of St. Mary. As soon as these matters are notified to the chapter, the procession sets out from the cathedral ; two of the canons, dressed in their albes, bearing the shrine in which the reliques of St. Romain are supposed to be preserved. When the procession is arrived at the Old Tower, the shrine is placed in the chapel, opposite to the criminal, who is kneeling, bare-headed, with the chains on his arms; and then the archbishop, or in his abfence one of the canons, having made him repeat the confession, lays his hand upon his head, and says the prayers cominonly used at the time of giving absolution. After this the criminal, still kneeling, lifrs up the shrine three times amidst the acclamations of the populace affembled to see