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parts of the main ocean, that lie a thousand leagues nearer the Poles, never freeze. Wherever there are few rivers falling into the sea, there less ice is seen ; as we find beyond Nova Zembla, very near the North Pole.
• As the mountains of ice generally melt in the north seas about the end of July, or beginning of August, so they must dissolve in the Antarctic hemisphere about February ; because, at that season there being almost no night, the continuance of the sun on their horizon produces a very great effect, notwithstanding the obliquity of his rays, for the same reason that we fometimes find the thermometer rise higher in Sweden and at Petersburg, than under the line. This heat must be more fensible in the antarctic regions, where the fummer is hotter than in our hemisphere. It is also probable, that the great fogs of which Bouvet complains, proceed from the vapours exhaled by the sun in melting these icy mountains. And in fact, this navigator tells us, that they were diffipated about the 20th of January. Thus it follows, that the best time for coming into the south latitudes, would be a month or fix weeks after the folftice of Capricorn.
" It has been already observed, that it is the great rivers, and deep bays that furnish these masses of ice, which impede navigation ; now it is not to be thought, that in that large tract of land, forming the continent of the Terra Australis, there should not be found lengths of coasts, along which there are few rivers, and consequentiy no ice to hinder our landing. It is very probable, that, if Bouvet had continued his course along the frozen coasts of the south continent he would have found some entry or other. Besides, experience informs us, that the greatest degree of cold is not always felt in the highest latitude. Several -navigators have attested this as a fact.
"Were we to allow that there is no land under the poles,; it would be still a very important point to be well aflured of the fa&t, Whether it be land or water that occupies this central point ? Such a place could not fail of offering to the curious observer many valuable phaenomena, with regard to the figure of the earth, astronomy, navigation, the weight of the air, the oscillation of the pendulum, the effects of magnetism, and the like. We have, for upwards of two centuries, continued to go round the globe in the direction of the equator; it is to be hoped, that, one time or other, this circumnavigation will be performed in the line of the meridian.
But, after all that has hitherto been said of the difficulties occurring in this fouthern navigation from cold and ice, we muft ftill allow, that these obstacles affect only a small part of the
countries proposed to be examined in the southern hemisphere. The far greater part of them are situated in the most fertile and temperate climates of our globe,
“To all the nations of Europe, except the Dutch, the southern continent is á chimera, or, at best, a country concerning which there are a thousand doubts and suspicions. But to them it is perfe&tly well known; and by the neglect of other nations they are at full liberty to take such measures as appear to them best for securing the eventual poffeffion of this country when ever" they think fit. This account explains at once all the mysteries of the proceedings of the Dutch in this quarter of the world.'
The author points out some of the commercial advantages that would attend the discovery he proposes, which we shall omit, as they are obvious to every reader. i In the execution of this project he thinks with Dampier, that the discovery should be attempted not in the common way, by failing from Europe to the East, but rather, by beginning from our nearest settlements in the East-Indies, and prosecuting the discovery westwards. · The advantages of this method, continues the author, are obvious enough. The greatest difficulties would thus be encountered in the beginning of the voyage, while the crew were full of health and spirits, their provisions good, and their ships sound and clean. They would have before them, the hopes of speedily arriving at lands and feas they are acquainted with, before the end of the voyage, and returning still nearer home. Whereas, hitherto, by failing eastwards from Europe, the crews were exhausted by the fatigues of a tedious navigation, long before they approached the regions that were to form the objects of their search. Their ships were become foul, their provisions bad, and the crews afficted with the sea-diseases ; so that, generaily speaking, by the time they came on these coasts, the greatest part of the fhip's company were quite debilitated by fatigue and the use of bad provisions : Unable to resist the attacks of the natives, or go through the fatigues that always must attend such voyages, they were glad to get out of these feas at any rate, in order to obtain the refreshments a long confinement at fea had made absolutely necessary for their preservation. Such has been the Fate of all our expeditions into the great Southern Ocean, from Dampier's down to · Anson's. Whereas,. we shall find, that Abel Tasman and fome few others, by following the op. posite plan we are now recommending, fuffered little or nothing from these hardships and diseases, which destroyed such numbers of British seamen, and has cast a fort of odiuin on all attempts to profecute those discoveries. By failing westwards, VOL. XXIII. March, 1767.
another advantage is gained. It is certain, that all the iflands. and continents in this immense region are not peopled universally by brutal savages. Many illands have been found in those-seas whose inhabitants were quiet and inoffensive ; nay, some have been found intirely ignorant of the use of arms of any fort, though amply provided with all the comforts of life, that a fruitful foil and benign climate could bestow. Surely, in such places, there could be no difficulty of fixing a fettlement, whence more ample discoveries, might be made ; provided we did not act like the Dutch, who (even by their own accounts) were much too ready upon every flight offence, in pointing their muskets against a benevolent, though defenceless nation. We have a striking instance of the good effects of a contrary conduct, in the assistance captain Rogers met with from the naked Indians of California, who helped him to wood and water with . the utmost cheerfulness, and expressed the deepest regret and forrow at his departure.'
If such an attempt as this were attended with success, the. discovery, would undoubtedly place the name of the navigator
on a level with that of Columbus, Americus, and Vasco de Gama; and the most celebrated potentate, of modern times, would be he, who should give his name to the great Southern Continent.'
We cannot conclude this article without paying our tribute of thanks to the ingenious Mr. Callander, for this useful and entertaining work. The project is at least amusing, and future ages may be convinced, that it is practicable. There is certainly room for many farther researches ; especially if there be any truth in the observation of Monsieur La Mothe le Vayer,. that almost one half of the terrestrial globe is yet undiscovered.
I 2 mo.
VII. The Hiftory of Alicia Montague. By the Aubor of Clarinda Cathcart. In 2 Vols.
Pr. 6s. Robinfon and Roberts. 7 HAT, said a certain person to the celebrated Demof
thenes, is the first part of oratory ? Adion, repțied the orator. What is the second part of oratory ? Adion. What is the third part of oratory ? Action. Substitute love, or rather gallantry, in place of action, and the fame answer may bę returned concerning a modern romance. The truth is, the youth of the present age, instructed, shall we say, or more properly corrupted, by romances, and by a variety of other concurrent causes, have learned to talk so much of the word love, that they have almost forgot the thing. Gallantry:
has banished love. An indiscriminate profufion of unmeaning compliments paid to the fair fex in general, has, in a great measure, fupplanted that devoted attachment to one single woman, which constitutes the true paflion of love.
The French, says Dean Swift, or some of his correspondents, think talking of love is making it : than which nothing can be more ridiculous and absurd. A man, who is really in love, and is at the same time a person of delicate sentiments, so far from entertaining his mistress with long love-letters, and with the high-flown.coinpliments of charmer, angel, goddess , &c. hardly ever prefumes to mention the word love in her presence, His palfion is expreffed in a more natural, and, if his wristress be a woman of fenfibility, we will venture to add, in a more effe&ual manner; by his zeal and anxiety to please, by his fond and respectful behaviour ; in fine, by thewing her, not by his words, but by his actions, that his chief happinefs. confifts in making her happy.
Such are the objections we have to the general run of modern romances ; objections, however, to which the present novel is as little liable as any of those we have lately perused. The heroine, Miss Montague, is a young lady of a most amiable character, who, after paffing through a variety of fcenes, and encountering a number of difficulties, is at last rewarded for all her pains and sufferings, by being joined in wedlock to the man whom she loves, the accomplished lord L. The other characters, though fubordinate to this, and though not drawn in such full proportions, are nevertheless supported with fufficient propriety, and reprefented in colours abundantly expreslive. Admiral Osmond is a true tar; void of cereinony, but full of humanity, candour, and generosity. His daughter, Mifs Osinond, is in every thing disinterested, except in that in which few ladies are disinterested, namely, in procuring for herfelf a huband, at the expence of facrificing her female friend. Sir Harry Pembroke is a finished rake; widow Jackson, an artful procurer ; Miss Encrom sprightly, but steady in her friend. fhips; and Mrs. Freeman is poffeffed of almost every good quality that can enter into the composition of a virtuous woman.
As a specimen of this author's manner, we shall present the reader with two extracts; the one of the pathetic, the other of the humorous kind.
Miss Montague having lost her mother, who died of a confumption, and being overwhelmed with grief on that unhappy occasion, Miss Encrom was sent for. to comfort her in her affliction. s When I went to the house, says Miss Encrom, I was told by Mrs. Elliat, who had been there fome days, that
Miss Montague was in the room alone with the corpse, art would not be prevailed on to leave it. She was in hopes P would prevail on her, and had sent for me on purpose.
• A mournful filence reigned through the whole house. My heart almost failing, I walked softly to the chamber, as if afraid to disturb the ashes of the dead: When I opened the door, F beheld Alicia kneeling at the bed-fide of her lifeless parent. She observed me not. I was unable to contain myself longer; but threw myself in a chair, and gave way to my tears. My fobs. made her turn about ; and seeing me, she arose, and, with a wildness in her look, which I shall never forget, said,
Why do you cry, Miss Encrom? let us have patience ; you and I, perhaps, may soon be released from this world of woe. See there my dear mamma (going to the bed-fide, and looking in her face) look Caroline, how mild she appears. Yes, my dearest parent, you are at reft, and have quitted all your cares; all
your fears and anxiety for your Alicia are over, and you are happy. But where am I! (still looking in her face) Ah ! why am I left behind ! Shall one fo young as I be left, without a parent, without a guide, to direct my future steps through a vain world !" " Oh, my deareft Alicia" said I, going to her, and throwing my arms about her neck, « let me entreat you: to leave this apartinent, and endeavour to get a little rest. Remeinber, your mamma was againft your close attendance whenx alive; now that there is no occasion, my Alicia will remember the instructions of her mother by taking care of her own health.” Hush,” said The, “ Caroline, I am perfectly well : my attendance will of course be short. On Friday my parenti will be laid in the house appointed for all living. Till then I must look at her, and recollect all she said to me. My meinory is bad ; my head is confused; but I know I shall rea member it all."
Miss Montague, in the midst of her difficulties, being reduced to the disagreeable neceffity of going about among people of fashion to sell fans, laces, and the like millenary ware, waited, among others, upon one Mrs. Ranger; of her inter view with whom she gives the following account. « To Mrs. Ranger's in Cornhill I next set out. I had not gone above a hundred paces, when I was met by two young officers, who, stopping short of a sudden, swore I was the prettiest creature" ever was seen, and begged I would allow one of them to carry my parcel. Not returning them any answer, but walking on, they went along with me, talking the most ridiculous stuff ever was heard.
Good heavens! thought I, is it thus that young: creatures are insulted, who are obliged to work for their live Hood? I was ready to cry, my dear Caroline, with vexation,