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In all these cases, where we discern a great, an important, and a necessary purpose for an extraordinary interpofition, an attestation to the truth of a miracle, by the fame fulness of evidence which is sufficient to establim a natural fact, is sufficient to warrant our belief; who have the moral a tributes of God to secure us from error. And here I presume I have fairly given what Dr. Middleton and his adversaries called upon one another to give ; and yet both, in their turns, declined ; viz: a criterion, to enable men to distinguish, for all the purposes of religious belief, 'true miracles from false, or doubtful. wonder they declined; for both parties were in the class of those of whom Seneca speaks-Nesciunt NECESSARIA quia suPERVACANEA dedicerunt.'
The author goes on to explain and illustrate the three cases ; and he mentions the defeat of Julian's attempt to rebuild the temple at Jerusalem, as an example of the second class. • This matter, he says, has been discussed at large; and with such evidence, that there would be no hazard in staking the whole credit of Christianity on its truth.'
This sentiment is not unnatural in the mouth of the author, who has written the treatise to which he alludes. But does it appear that a supernatural interposition was necesary to secure the verity of our Saviour's prediction concerning the desolation of Jerusalem ? or could not Divine Providence have prevented the building of the temple, without having recourse to a miracle? A prudent man would by no means choose to hazard the credit of Christianity on such a precarious foundation *.
The third case our author illustrates in the miracle of the resurrection,
To these discourses is annexed a Charge to the clergy of the diocese of Gloucester, which was delivered at the bishop's first triennial visitation in the year 1759. In this discourse his lordfhip endeavours to excite his younger clergy to the pursuit of theological learning, as absolutely necessary to support the clerical character with reputation and success.
In these discourses the reader will perceive innumerable marks of genius and spirit ; and will find much more entertainment than he can meet with in the compositions of those divines who never venture to step out of the plain and ordinary track.
See the Critical Review for February 1767, p. 92.
VI. Terra Australis Cognita : or, Voyages to the Terra Australis,
or Southern Hemisphere, during the fixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth Centuries., Containing an Account of the Manners of the People, and the Productions of the Countries, hitherto found in the Southern Latitudes; the Advantages that may result from further Discoveries on this great Continent, and the Methods of eliablishing Colonies there, to the Advantage of Great Britain. With a Preface by the Editor, in which some geographical, nautical, and commercial Questions are discuffed. Vol. I. 800. Pr. 6s. Hawes. HESE Voyages give us a view of many extenfive re
gions hitherto little known, and open a spacious field for the investigation of fucceeding ages.
The celebrated M. Maupertuis, in a short memorial, containing several different schemes for the advancement of the sciences, particularly recommends the use of making farther difcoveries in that part of the globe generally called the Terra Aufiralis Incognita.
In 1756, one of the members of the French Academy of Sciences profecuted this idca, so useful to mankind in general, by publishing two volumes, in which he has collected a variety of geographical, nautical, and aitronomical facts and obfervations, proper to illustrate his subje&, and has given an abridged account of all the voyages that have been hitherto made towards this quarter of the globe.
This plan is adopted by the ingenious author of the present collection. The first book may be considered as a kind of preliininary discourse to those that follow. In this are treated such general questions of geography, natural history, and commerce, as relate immediately to the subject.
The three following books will contain * an account of all the navigations to the southern world, in the order of time in which they were performed, which will present the reader with thefe discoveries in a regular, progressive series, during the fixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenih centuries. The fifth book will comprehend a regular detail of the most remarkable productions of the antarctic regions, the character of the inhabitants, and the commercial advantages to be hoped for in this part of the globe. .
This diligent and accurate compiler has not only collected his materials from our own writers, but has also given a transZation of many foreign journals, which have never appeared in
* The work will consist of three volumes. The second and third are not yet published.
English before. At the head of each article he has added a thort preface, containing an account of the work from which it is extracted.
It is not without reason, we must confefs, that this writer, and several other ingenious men, have flattered themselves with the idea of amazing discoveries in the antaretic hemisphere. For the space which lies beyond the three southern points of the known world, in Africa, Asia, and America, comprehends eight or ten millions of square leagues, which make above a third part of our globe. • In this vast tract, as our author observes, it is impossible but there must be to the fouth of Asia, some immense continent to keep the globe in equilibrio during its rotation, by serving as a counterpoise to the map of northern Asia. Whoever examines the two hemispheres of the globe divided horizontally, that is, by the equator, as they should always be, and not by the meridian, must be struck in observing so much land in the one hemisphere and so little in the other ; especially, as he knows that the weight of the earth is, to that of sea-water, nearly as five to three.
Experience, continues this writer, has already begun to verify our conjecture concerning the existence of a counterpoise towards the south : For, not to mention that extensive but doubtful coast, placed by fome to the south of the vast Pacific Ocean, or that other said to lie between the lands discovered by Hawkins, Brower, and La Roche, near the east entry of the Straits of Magellan, and from thence advancing to the south of Africa, where it was seen by Vesputius and Bouvet, our best maps now show us, to the south of Asia, the immense tracts that are found in these latitudes, under the several names of Diemens Land, New Holland, Carpentaria, New Guinea, New Britain, and New Zealand. There is great reason to think, that this is not one continent, but divided by unknown Straits : Such is that illand discovered by our navigator Dampier, to which he gave the name of New Britain. Be this as it may, who can doubt that this vast tract must furnish objects innumerable, both of commercial advantage and curiosity, equal to any that were found in America by the first discover ers ? Numbers of people, entirely different from us, and from each other, in their figure, cuftoms, manners and religion : Their animals, insects, fishes, plants, medicinal herbs, fruits, metals, and fossils entirely of another species. Thus this world must present us with many things intirely new, as hitherto we have had little more knowledge of it, than if it had lain in another planet.
The little we know of the inhabitants of the islands in the Pacific Ocean, tells us, that they want neither address nor
good fense. The case is not the same with the people of the great continent; any
tribes our navigators have hitherto discovered there, being funk into the lowest degree of brutality. But this does not prove, that there may not be some civilized nation in the interior parts of this country, who are as utter strangers to us, or our arts, as we can be to theirs. Should any inhabitant there relate to his countryinen, that in Europe there were nations, where the arts and sciences were carried to the highest degree of perfection, his account would be treated by them as we did that of Marco Paulo, when he informed us, that beyond the vast desarts of Tartary there was an extensive empire, incredibly populous, whose inhabitants had good laws, and where the sciences were cultivated with the utmost care, and who like us) imagined, that all the world but themselves
were funk in barbarity. Thus America was thought to have I been inhabited by inere savages, till we afterwards discovered,
that Peru and Mexico were great kingdoms, regulated by established laws, with a settled form of government, possessed of hieroglyphical writing, full of large towns and palaces, adorned with immense publick works, in which the ingenuity and incredible patience of the inbabitants had, in a great measure, coinpensated their little skill in the mechanic arts.. Tho we might not find things so far advanced among the inhabit. ants of the Terra Australis, yet it is far from being impoflible, that something like this inay be found among them ; and, should this happen, it is hoped we would prove wiser than the Spaniards, who destroyed these monuments of the arts and ingenuity of the Americans.'
The rigour of the cold in the high southern latitudes, which is found to be much greater than in the corresponding northern climates, and the floating masses of ice, which are often found in those feas, and impede the approaches to the coasts, are popular objections against the utility of prosecuting these discoveries.
Mr. Callander replies, . If the fame parallels in America be found colder than those of Europe, the cause may proceed in 'part, from the want of culture, and the vast forests which cover that continent. The learned French writer abovementioned is of this opinion. These forests are always the cause of fogs and cold in the countries where they are found. Europe is now much more temperate than it was 3500 years ago, when it was entirely covered with woods and inhabited by savages, before the coming of the Phænicians. Be this as it may, it would be the folving of a curious question, to know with certainty, whether the Austral antipode to Europe, in the South Sea, be not as temperate as in our climate, about the ia
terfection of the forty-fifth parallel, with the two hundredth meridian in New Zealand, and so upwards from degree to de-, gree, towards the south pole. The best way to discover this would be to send a vessel from Baldivia, in Chili, with orders to hold a S. S. W. course, till the fell on some land in the above parallel. We find, that captain Tafman, being in 42° S. lat. and 188° long. near to New Zealand found no ice on the coast, but a well-situated and fertile country. A:11 our circumnavigators, immediately upon their entry to the South-Sea, went ftraight north to the line, and from thence kept a west course, quite to the Ladrone islands nearly under the thirteenth parallel north. Indeed some few, such as Le Maire, and Roggewein, on entering the South-Sea, shaped a N. W. course, and foon fell in with a number of islands, equally beautiful, well peopled, and fruitful, where they made very valuable discoveries, though hitherto attended with no advantage, that course being never followed. But no body has yet thought of attempting a west course from the coast of Chili to New Zealand, or Van Diemen's land, where they might reasonably hope to find many lands hitherto unknown; though it does not appear, that any greater danger is to be apprehended in this course, than in the coinmon run, as the eait winds are found to blow equally over this vast ocean.
• The prodigious mountains of ice which are thought to impede all navigation in these high latitudes, seem to prove that there are certain great continents in those quarters of the globe. This is the opinion of Roggewein, who had carefully examined this question, as appears by his journal. In fact, we find by experience, that in lakes and ponds the ice begins first to form next the edges, and so extends itself towards the middle,' and the more the water is agitated, the slower this progreflion is. Thus it will follow, that the greater extent of coast there is, the more ice there will be ; and, on the other hand, the more ice we find at sea, the more land we may expect to discover. The sea never freezes but in bays, and along the coasts, but our best navigators allure us that it does not freeze far out at fea, even in the neighbourhood of the Poles. The agitation, depth, and faltness of the water preserves it from this concretion, which takes hold of it near the shores, where it is mixed with a great quantity of fresh water, the produce of the inland rivers. Now the existence of these large rivers necessarily supposes a continent through which they pass, and where they are formed. Thus the Black Sea, which is narrow, and not very falt, from the many large rivers that fall into it on all sides, freezes almost every winter, while those