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an universal massacre ensued ; nor age, nor sex, nor infancy were spared ; all conditions were involved in the general ruin. In vain did the unhappy victim appeal to the facred ties of humanity, hospitality, family-connection, and all the tender obligations of social commerce ; companions, friends, relations, not only denied protection, but dealt with their own hands the fatal blow. In vain did the pious son plead for his devoted parent ; himself was doomed to suffer a inore premature mortality. In vain did the tender mother attempt to soften the ob. durate heart of the affaflin, in behalf of her helpless children; she was reserved to behold them cruelly butchered, and then to undergo a like fate. The weeping wife, lamenting over the mangled carcase of her husband, experienced a death no less horrid than that which she deplored. This scene of blood received yet a deeper stain from the wanton exercise of more execrable cruelty than had ever yet occurred to the warm and fertile imagination of Eastern barbarians. Women, whose feeble' minds received a yet stronger impression of religious frenzy, were more ferocious than the men ; and children, excited by the example and exhortation of their parents, stained their innocent age with the blackest deeds of human butchery.' "The persons of the English were not the only victims to the general rage: their commodious houses and magnificent build. ings were either consumed with fire, or laid level with the ground. Their cattle, though now part of the poffeffion of their murderers, because they had belonged to abhorred hefetics, were either killed outright, or covered with wounds, turned loose into the woods and defarts, there to abide a lingering painful end. This amazing unexpected scene of horror was yet heightened by the bitter revilings, imprecations, threats, and insults, which every where resounded in the ears of the aftonished English. Their fighs, groans, thrieks, cries, and bitter lamentations, were ansivered with “ Spare neither man, woman, nor child ; the English are meat for dogs ; there shall not be one drop of English blood left within the kingdom." Nor did there want the most barbarous insults and exultation, on beholding those expreffions of agonizing pain which a variety of torments extorted. This was the scene which Ulster * produced.?
These are only the outlines of this horrid massacre, which our au hor has more particularly described in notes, and which, as the observes very juftly, impress on the reader's imagination images of the most horrid kind. They are, in fact, such as we cannot read without being concerned for the writer who is obliged to relate them. Juftice, however, requires us to quote the authorities brought by Mrs. Macaulay in support
of those horrid particulars, the chief of which are as follow Milton's Eiconazlastes—The Siege of Drogheda in Ireland Appendix to the Siege of Drogheda-Report of the Examinations. taken before the Commisioners appointed by the King's Authority-Remonstrance froin Ireland - Borlaffe-Temple--Cart's Life of Ormond. According to cur author, the parliament of England omitted nothing which could re establish the public tranquility in Ireland ; and we are strongly inclined to believe, from some circumstances mentioned by Mrs. Macaulay, that the queen and the violent party about her person were by no means displeased that the Irish rebels made the
opposition which the king met with in the English parliament, their chief motive for the insurrection. Perhaps, when all the arguments adduced by our author have their full weight, they will amount to a proof that the plan of the inafsacre was transmitted from Whitehall to Ireland. We shall not, however, anticipate our reader's judgment in a point fo confessedly delicate. Our historian concludes the observations and
arguments she has formed upon this subject in the following very candid manter.
· It must be owned that the question, Whether Charles, was or was not guilty of granting a commission to the rebels to rise, is involved in great doubts and difficulties. This parliament, the most august alienbly that hiftory can boast, in their vote for no more addresses (in which, for the inanifold crimes Charles had committed against his people, they absolve them from any farther allegiance) gives it clearly against him. Milton, an author of the most respectable character, both in regard to judg.ment and integrity, is of the fame opinion; as is also the author of the Myitery of Iniquity, a sensible and ingenious trai, published in the year 1643 ; with other writers of note and reputation. On the other side, many authors of judgment and candor, on various grounds, exculpate him from this accusa. tion. The author of this history leaves it entirely to the candor of the reader, without presuming to give any judgment on so tender and difficult a point.'
Mrs. Macaulay represents the loyal reception which the king met on his return from Scotland, as having intoxicated his fenfes. He dilinisfed the guard which the parliament had appointed for their own security; he deprived Sir William Balfour of his lieutenancy of the Tower ; and took the seals from Sir Henry Vane, besides issuing a proclamation for restoring those ceremonies in the national religion which had been condemned by the house of commons Falkland, Culpepper, Hyde, Capel, and other members of the lower house now declared themselves royalists; and here, we apprehend, is the crisis in which
they pretended they could not farther join in the measures of opposition, without unhinging the constitution.. Our author seems to espouse a very different opinion; and we are sorry to observe, that the proofs of Charles's insincerity towards his peo. ple and parliament are too stubborn to be invalidated by the inost violent royalist, who forms his judgment upon the principles of common sense. We are inclined to think, that had Charles crushed all opposition, the concessions he made in favour of liberty would have been, as Mezeray exprefles it, like parchment opposed to steel. We Thall, however, refer the reader to the famous remonftrance drawn up at this time on that subject, and which is too long to be inserted here.
The third chapter of Mrs. Macaulay's history describes the ill-advised attempt made by the king in person to seize the five members of the lower house, after having sent his sergeant at arms to demand them. As our historian has mentioned some particulars of this transaction not commonly known, we fall transcribe them.
• The King, on the return of his serjeant empty-handed, entered on the execution of the last part of his project ; viz. the going himself in person with an armed force, taking the house at a surprize, and seizing the five members *. This was determined on the receipt of the message from the Commons; but the morning bringing more timid reflections, the King went to the queen's apartment, and expostulated with her on the hazard of the attempt, expresling something like a determination of not putting it in execution. The queen was transported with paffion at this want of resolution : “ Go, coward ! .exclaimed this imperious woman, pull thefe rogues out by the ears, or never fee iny face more.” The fubmiffive husband obeyed, and went strait to the house of Coinmons, with a train of five hundred followers, The house having received intimation of the king's intention t, ordered the five
• * According to a plan which had been previously laid, Lilly says, that all Christmas time there were private whisperings in court; and secret councils held by the queen and her party, with whom the King fat in council very late many nights.
One captain Lángrifh rushed through the King's train, and brought the house intelligence of his hostile appearance : at the same time the assembly was informed, by one of its own members, that endeavours would be used that day to seize the five members. It is said, the intimation came from the counters of Carlisle, who overheard the dialogue between the King and queen. Clarendon hints, that it caine from Williain Murray,
members to withdraw, left the house. Thould be engaged ja blood 1:'
Mrs. Macaulay very justly remarks, that Charles, by telling the house of commons he must have the persons accused where. soever he could find them, intiinated that he meant to use force had they been in the house; though he afterwards called God to witness that he did not intend to use violence. She observes, that the king's affected arts of popularity when he came into the city, as well as his inviting himself to dine with the Theriffs, procured hiin no mark of applause or approbation. We next meet with a detail of the other injudicious steps this unfortunate monarch took, which served only to encrease the public diftraft of his intentions; and the chapter concludes with an account of the proceedings against the duke of Richmond, and the impeached bishops of the queen's leaving the kingdom; the queen's retiring northward, and a farther history of the affairs of Ireland; all which facts the reader will find stated in a manner new and entertaining.
The fourth chapter carries the history down to the cominencement of the civil war, when the king erected his standard at Nottingham; and the volume closes with the triumphant State of the king's affairs after he had taken Bristol, which is thus represented by our author.
• The queen, who by the two houses had been voted guilty of treason, marching from the North with a body of two thousand foot and one thousand horse, with artillery, arms, and ammunition, was by the parliament's general fuffered to pass
of the bed-chamber : but the fufpicions of this author are feldom well grounded. Murray was so far from acting as a spy for the opposition, that, in a resolution of the Coinmons house, he, among others, is particularly objected to, as improper to be trusted about the person of the King. Lilly the astrologer fays, that whilst he was at dinner at Whitehall, Sir Peter Wich, one of the court attendants, hurst into the room, and broke open the chest which contained the arms : - the action frighted the whole company; and one of theni ran to inform fome members of the Cominons' house, that the King had hostile intentions."
"Mr. Strode was unwilling to withdraw; but the house infified on his obedience, to prevent the inconvenience of defending their privilege by force of arms. The fix members re-, paired for shelter to a house in Coleman-Street in the city. The lord Digby was mad enough to offer to go with felect com-1. pany of gentlemen, and to bring them away, or leave them dead on the place.'
without interruption ; and joining the King at Edg-hill on the very day that he gained the battle of Roundway-Down, they entered Oxford in triumph. Bath having surrendered itself iinmediately after the defeat of Waller, the Oxford forces under the command of prince Rupert, and the Cornith army under the command of the marquis of Hertford, joined in an attempt on the city of Bristol ; a place so well defended by nature, and a strong garrison provided with all necessaries, that the Cornishi troops, having made a vigorous attack, were repulsed with confiderable lofs; whilst the army under the command of prince Rupert asfaulting that part of the town which was more penetrable, forced the oạtworks, and entered the suburbs ; but after a loss equal to what their comrades had sustained, found the entrance into the town more difficult, and better defended than that they had passed, and where their horse would be of no service. In this jundure, envy, treachery, rashness, and cowardice, combined their several influences to ruin the public cause, at the very time when the commanders of the royal army began to regret an assault which, without prospect of fuccefs, had deprived them of many of their best officers, and great numbers of their men.
Nathaniel Fiennes, the governor of Bristol, better skilled to fight the battles of Liberty in the senate than the field, being taken with a sudden panic, beat a parley; and after a treaty which lasted no more than eight hours, delivered up the city, on the Thameful conditions, that the garrison should march out without their arms, colors, cannon, or ammunition, except the officers, with a safe convoy. to Warminster, and not to be molested in their march for three days. There were some other articles in favor of the liberties of the city, and the security of the persons and properties of all the inhabitants, but they were so ill observed, that on the pretence, that the articles of capitulation of the garrison of Reading had been infringed by the parliainent's army, the foldiers, after delivering up their arms, instead of a fate-conduct, according to the conditions of the treaty, met with insults and ill usage from the brutal licence of the enemy; and those inhabitants of the city who were thought disaffected to the cause, were bafely plondered. The reduction of Bristol, which for population, riches, and trade, was second to the capital, and fuperior to every other city in the kingdomn, gave the King the entire poffeffion of Somersetshire, a large and opulent county. The condition of the parliament's forces in Dorsetshire and Devonshire were so languishing, that the total reduction of the West waited but the leisure of the enemy.
Birmingham in Warwickshire, and Lichfield in Stafford fhire, had been furrendered to prince Rupert, in an expedition