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not mean daughter of a father who is ößpipos,' but 'daughter who derives from her father the quality of the oßpiuos,' or overpowering, all-subduing, by right of birth.
The epithet is used twice in the Iliad, thrice in the Odyssey. The passages, Il. v. 745–7, viii. 389–91, Od. i. 99–101, nearly correspond: they describe Athenè grasping the spear, Bpɩðù, μéya, σTIẞaρóv, weighty, huge, and stout:
τῷ δάμνησι στίχας ἀνδρῶν ἡρώων, τοῖσίντε κοτέσσεται ὀβριμοπάτρη :
'wherewith she quells those valiant, against whom she bears a grudge.' The epithet is here, as we have observed elsewhere, in close correspondence with the verb KOTÉσσɛTal. Neither is expressive of an ideal perfection: but it is of the nature of the oßpiuos to suffice and to prevail, and KóтOs is the grudge, which a sovereign silently nurses against one who has offended him (Il. i. 82). One marked side of Athene's character is that of all-prevailing, never-baffled, power. Another is supplied by her tenacity of purpose. This correspondence of the phrases is surely better sustained by supposing ỏßρμoπáτρη to describe her own quality, than her father's. Nor is Zɛús ever called oßpipos, or invested with a character to which the epithet would closely belong, though there are in him the might and movement which form its basis. His tone is somewhat Epicurean: he counsels and thinks, but he does not act with energy, except under pressing necessity.
On both the other occasions, this title is placed in immediate juxtaposition with her more angry and violent form of action. Many of the Greeks perish after the capture of Troy, not unjustly but (Od. iii. 135)
μήνιος ἐξ ὀλοῆς Γλαυκώπιδος ὀβριμοπάτρης :
and the thunderbolt of Zeus, intended to check the action of Athenè in the closing scene (xxiv. 539), lights immediately in front of the ößрiμожάтρη: and thereupon she checks Odusseus by a direct injunction, which she had not given before, to abstain from further slaughter. Again her own personal qualities seem to be brought directly into play, on that side of her character where there is a latent possibility of, if not a tendency to, excess.
We have now gone through six leading words; besides noticing several derivative and compound or otherwise related words. These six, ὠκύς, θοός, θοῦρος, ὄβριμος, and βραδύς, with the word ταχύς in another order of ideas, may be considered the most important, both as exhibiting the Poet's ideas of motion, and as throwing light upon his cast of mind.
There remain, however, four other words, each of which appears to have a mode or special notion of its own, namely крaιπvós, λáßpos, αἰόλος, ἀργός. By reason of their thus appearing to bear distinctive characters, these words also require examination.
(1) Kraipnos (paiπvós); wirbelnd, reissend (Benfey). Rapidus,
quick, hasty, hot (Autenrieth Tr.), Leicht, behend, schnell (Lünemann). Root ȧρπ-áйw: snatching away, sweeping, rushing: hence swift, rapid (Liddell and Scott).
Adjectively or adverbially, we have the word used fifteen times in the Iliad, and five times in the Odyssey.
It is always associated with what is light, and disencumbered of weight. So far it agrees with both okus and tachus. But it is also a good deal associated with rapidity of passage, or movement between place and place. Here it drops tachus and still cleaves to okus. But again, while okūs denominates a smooth or undisturbed velocity, kraipnos describes a velocity either
1. Disturbed by turbulence, or at least
1. As to association with lightness. This is universal. Twice the word is used (Il. xx. 247, xxii. 138) for the swift feet of Achilles; vi. 505 of Paris; xvii. 190 of Hector. In v. 223, viii. 107, it describes the smart movement of the horses which Diomed took from Æneas, which were next in merit to those of Eumelos. Sleep and Death are called kraipnoi as the messengers who are to carry the dead Sarpedon, evidently with the utmost lightness and speed (xvi. 671, 681), back to his home in Lycia. Poseidon marched kraipna (кpaιπvà ποσὶ προβιβάς) when in four steps he went from the top of Samothrace to Aigai. The prize of the foot-race is to the person who might prove lightest (appóraтOS) TOσσì краιπvoîσi (xxiii. 749). It is the movement of Herè travelling xpaiπv@s, and anxiously, which in xv. 80-3 is compared with the rapidity of thought. So that of Iris (xv. 170-2) is compared with the descent of hail or snow-storm. In xxii. 138, where this epithet is used for the swiftness of Achilles, he is compared with the kirkos, lightest of all birds.'
2. Swiftness, associated with a ruder form of movement, is particularly signified in the application to Boreas (Od. v. 285) and to the tempests (Od. vi. 171).
Nowhere is there an idea of weight conveyed. But the element of mental eagerness is several times mentioned, and very commonly implied. Herè, in special haste (xv. 83), moves кpaiπvâs μɛμavîa, and Iris in like manner (xv. 172). The eager mind of youth (xxiii. 590) is νόος κραιπνότερος.
Such being the ideas conveyed by kraipnos, we do not seem to have any perfect word for it in English; but 'sharp,' ' eager,' ' vehement,' and 'hasty,' seem best to meet it in its separate aspects. 'Violent' may rarely be used, but the idea of weight or impetus derived from matter must not be included: it must be as in Milton
Ease would recant
7 Paradise Lost, iv. 96.
(2) Labros (λáẞpos), according to Liddell and Scott connected with λαμβάνω, as κραιπνός with ἁρπάζω ; rendered as furious, boisterous ; in the later Greek, gluttonous.
The adjective is used but four times in Пl. and once in Od. In Il. xxi. 271 it is Scamander sweeping under Achilles :
λάβρος ὕπαιθα ῥέων, κονίην δ ̓ ὑπέρεπτε ποδοῖῖν.
In Il. xv. 625 it is a heavy swollen wave, not a storm wave, but a wind-fed swell, that falls upon a ship, compared with the charge of Hector on the Greeks. In Il. xvi. 385 it is autumn flood, and this is λaßρóτaтov. In the other passages it signifies the movement of wind. The movement in the Greek Assembly is compared to a field of corn agitated by Ζέφυρος, λάβρος ἐπαιγίζων. But we seem to find a key-passage in Od. xv. 292, where Athenè sends for Telemachos an μevov ovpov or favourable wind, with the full force indicated by the phrase λáßpov mayilovтa: this, however, is not a storm, it is a wind given that the ship may run before it, and he may get home as quickly as possible (ὄφρα τάχιστα νηῦς ἀνύσειε, K.T.λ.) It therefore appears that the word indicates a great force, but a regular and smooth force; quite unlike kraipnos, because not having in it an element of disturbance.
We have, moreover, three other passages which throw light upon this word, all in Il. xxiii., and in the short angry speech of Ajax the nimble to Idomeneus. Why is it your habit to be λáßpos? (Tí Táρos λaßρɛúɛaι); you are neither young nor sharp of sight, but you are ever λάβρος in your talk (αἰεὶ μύθοις λαβρεύεαι). And now comes, I think, the key. Yet you have no title to be λáßpos in speech (aßpayópns); for mind, here are your betters (πápa yàp καὶ ἀμείνονες ἄλλοι). In this place it seems quite plain that Máẞpos means 'talkative': for the closing words mean either here are others better entitled to be heard at large than you;' or 'here are others before whom, out of respect, you should restrain your loquacity.'
It is, therefore, quantity or volume, which is the essential idea of the motion implied by labros. This agrees with the river under autumn rains; and with the water not overwhelming but undermining Achilles; and with the billow that struck the ship, and the toward wind that filled the sails of Telemachos. It also agrees with the later usage of the word for a glutton. It implies smooth, even, copious force, without weight of matter as essential to it. It agrees with okūs, but adds quantity or volume in the moving current. Fulness and copiousness of motion without disturbance form the idea: we have no word that will supply its place. The tongue, that is labros, is talkative. The wind, that is labros, is the wind which blows fresh. It is a stiff breeze. The stream or wave is the swollen stream or wave: but our language does not supply the common link between all these. Perhaps, when applied to water, we may call it full
flowing. A mill-stream which is flushed becomes labros, fuller and stronger than it was.
(3) Aiolos (alónos). Of all the epithets we have examined, I do not find any one with which aiolos can claim kindred, except it be tachūs. Perhaps, as kraipnos is labros with an element of haste or irregularity, so aiolos is tachus with a like element added to it. It is irregularly nimble, that is to say, flickering, fitful, shifty, shifting. But there seems to be another peculiar element in aiolos: this is particularly related to the eye of the beholder, as kraipnos is to the mind, and as počeîv and poißdòs connect another kind of motion with the ear. Hence aiolos passes over to a sense, in which it has lost the power of motion, and replaces change of place by change of hue, coming to mean parti-coloured. I cite the following words from an article published some years ago in the Contemporary Review: A physical changefulness, exhibited in motion, appears to be the primary idea. But the motion should be one changeful in itself: shifting, twisting, plunging, darting, glancing, flickering, wavy, wriggling, zigzag. Always more or less irregular, never signifying an equable swiftness, like that of a bird in flight.'
Benfey (ii. 301) derives aiolos from a root signifying motion, and treats it as akin to velox and varius. Buttmann (in voc.) draws it from alw, to blow, comp. aελλа. Quick-moving, nimble, rapid, Liddell and Scott. Micans, Autenrieth Tr. Mobilis, Ebeling.
It is applied, Od. xxii. 300, to the gadfly, as darting; П. xxii. 509, to worms, as wriggling; Il. xii. 167, to wasps, as twisting at the waist; and Od. xx. 27 we have aláλλav for the twisting or turning round of meat before the fire to roast it.
Alone and in its compounds κορυθαίολος, αἰολοθώρηξ, αἰολομίτρης, it is applied to the glancing or shifting light reflected from arms. This represents a middle point between the original sense of motion, and the later purely visual sense, indicating a kind of motion, but a kind which is peculiarly related to the eye. How near it is to the later sense, we may discover by observing that, in Il. x. 149, and xvi. 134, a shield is called Tokiλov or parti-coloured, but the shield of Ajax (vii. 222) is also aiolon, which can hardly mean easily shifted, as in v. 220 it is compared with its sevenfold coat of hide to a tower. In the article already cited, I have given reasons for supposing that (I. xix. 404) Tódas alólos does not refer to the motion of a horse, but to the white stocking' so common in the chestnut horse; and that the Phrygians are ȧλóπwλoι as having not rapid but speckled, mottled, or piebald horses: these passages therefore do not affect our argument on the epithets of motion.
(4) Argos (apyós). 1. velox. 2. candidus (Ebeling). White; swift (Autenrieth Tr.) Benfey (deriving from arg or rag, bright) white: whence also arguros, silver. Liddell and Scott assume two distinct words: 1. argos, bright, meaning also swift, because ‘swift motion causes a kind of glancing or flickering light;' 2. argos con
tracted from aergos, not working, especially not working the ground, living without labour; hence idle, slow. Of this second word they cite no example from Homer. Its use in the later Greek is easily traced to the derivation which they assign.
It seems beyond doubt, in the first place, that the argos of Homer admits, and requires, in some cases to be treated as an epithet of motion. Its application to dogs, and its use for the dog Argos in Od. xvii., renders this probable; but its peculiar application to them in respect of their feet (Il. xviii. 578, Od. ii. 11, xvii. 62, xx. 145) seems absolutely to require it, as there does not appear to be any quality suggested by the feet of dogs except such as involves motion.
Again, it is difficult to exclude from the word the notion of whiteness. The wild goose (Il. xv. 161) will take this sense. It is highly appropriate, at least, for the oxen in the solemn funeral rite of Patroclos, xxiii. 30. It seems to be distinctly required by the cows in tin, ll. xviii. 574; by the sheep (apyɛvvaí), iii. 198 et al.; by the use of the same word for the dress of Helen, iii. 141; by the teeth of boars (ȧpyiódovtes), x. 264 et al., Od. viii. 60; and by human fat (apyéтa dnμóv), Il. xxi. 127. The affinity of this whiteness to the idea of light is shown in the ȧpyǹs répavvos, Il. iii. 419, viii. 133, Od. v. 128, et al., as well as in the epithet Argikeraunos for Zeus the Lightener. Again, can the epithet argipodes for oxen go to support the same construction? as does, evidently, arginoeis (Il. ii. 647, viii. 656) used in the description of certain places.
Whiteness and brightness are for Homer very closely allied: nor does it seem difficult to derive this sense from swiftness, because rapid motion produces such an appearance for the eye. But then we have no root signifying swiftness; and it does not seem, conversely, so easy to derive the idea of swiftness from whiteness or brightness. Swiftness produces brightness; but is not produced by it.
We have also to consider the relation of the epithet argos to the very important proper name Argos; and the probable affinities of that proper name. I have argued at large elsewhere that it is associated with the establishment of the agricultural stage of society in the Greek Peninsula, and is related to the important word ergon, sometimes called argon, and designating particularly agricultural labour and its results.
It appears to me that the idea involved in ergon or argon best combines all the uses and meanings of Argos the local name, Argos the national name, Argo the ship, Argos the dog, and the various applications of the epithet argos and its compounds. For the first two of these, no explanation is here required. As to the other uses, that idea of work suggests the meaning, as a ground-meaning, of 'staunch' and 'strenuous.'
We should then have the stout or good ship Argo (unless it be preferred to associate the word directly with the contemporary national 8 Juventus Mundi, pp. 53 seqq.