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again or closed for a moment; the eyebrows are drawn down in the most respectful manner; the features, and the whole body and limbs, are all composed to the most profound gravity; one posture continuing, without considerable change, during the whole performance of the duty. The knees bended, or the whole body prostrate, or if the posture be standing, which scripture does not disallow, bending forward, as ready to prostrate itself. The arms spread out but modestly, as high as the breast; the hands open. The tone of the voice will be submissive, timid, equal, trembling, weak, suppliant. The words will be brought out with a visible anxiety, and diffidence approaching to hesitation; few and slow; nothing of vain repetition, haranguing, flowers of rhetoric, or affected figures of specch; all simplicity,humility and lowliness, such as becomes a reptile of the dust, when presuming to address Him, whose greatness is tremen-dous beyond all created conception. In intercession for our fellow creatures which is prescribed in the scrip tures, and in thanksgiving, the countenance will naturally assume a small degree of cheerfulness, beyond what it was clothed with in confession of sin, and deprecation of punishment. But all affected ornament of speech or gesture in devotion, deserves the severest censure, as being somewhat much worse than absurd.
Respect, for a superior, puts on the looks and gesture of modesty. See modesty.
Hope, brightens the countenance; arches the eyebrows; gives the eyes an eager, wishful look; opens the mouth to half a smile; bends the body a little forward, the feet equal; spreads the arms, with the hands open, as to receive the object of its longings. The tone of the voice is eager, and unevenly inclining, to that of joy; but curbed by a degree of doubt and anxiety. Desire dif fers from hope as to expression, in this particular, that there is more appearance of doubt and anxiety in the former, than in the latter. For it is one thing to desire what is agreeable, and another to have a prospect of actually obtaining it.
Desire, expresses itself by bending the body forward and stretching the arms toward the object as to grasp it.
The countenance smiling, but eager and wishful; the eye wide open, and eyebrows raised; the mouth open; tone of voice suppliant, but lively and cheerful, unless there be distress as well as desire; the expression fluent and copious; if no words are used, sighs instead of them; but this is chiefly in distress.
Love,(successful)lights up the countenance into smiles. The forehead is smoothed and enlarged; the eyebrows are arched; the mouth a little open, and smiling the eyes languishing and half shut, doat upon the beloved object. The countenance assumes the eagar and wishful look of desire; (see Desire) but mixed with an air of satisfaction and repose. The accents are soft and winning; the tone of voice persuasive, flattering, pathet ic, various, musical, rapturous, as in joy. (See Joy.)
The attitude much the same with that of desire. Sometimes both hands pressed eagerly to the bosom. Love, unsuccessful, adds an air of anxiety and melancholy. See perplexity and melancholy.
Giving, inviting, soliciting, and such like actions, which suppose some degree of affection, real or pretended,are accompanied with much the same looks and gestures as cxpress love; but more moderate.
Wonder, or amazement,(without any other interesting passion, as love, esteem, &c.) opens the eyes, and makes them appear very prominent; sometimes raises them to the skies; but oftener, and more expressively,fixes them on the object; if the cause of the passion be a present and visible object, with the look, all except the wildness, of fear. (See Fear.) If the hands hold any thing, at the time when the object of wonder appears, they immediately let it drop, unconscious; and the whole body fixes in the contracted, stooping posture of amazement; the mouth open; the hands held up open, nearly in the attitude of fear. (See Fear.) The first excess of this passion stops all utterance. But it makes amends afterwards by a copious flow of words and exclamations.
Admiration, a mixed passion, consisting of wonder, with love or esteem,takes away the familiar gesture, and expression of simple love.(See Love.)Keeps the respectful look and attitude. (See Modesty and Veneration,)
The eyes are open wide, and now and then raised toward heaven. The mouth is opened. The hands are lifted up. The tone of the voice rapturous. This passion expresses itself copiously, making great use of the figure hyperbole.
Gratitude, puts on an aspect full of complacency. (See Love.) If the object of it is a character greatly superior, it expresses much submission. (sec Modesty.) The right hand pressed upon the breast accompanies very properly, the expression of a sincere and hearty sensibility of obligation.
Curiosity,as of a busy body,opens the eyes,and mouth, lengthens the neck, bends the body forward, and fixes it in one posture, with the hands nearly in that of admiration. (See Admiration.—See also Desire, Attention, Hope, Inquiry and perplexity.)
Persuasion, puts on the looks of moderate love. (See Love.) Its accents are soft, flattering, emphatical and articulate.
Tempting, or wheedling, expresses itself much in the same way; only carrying the fawning part to excess.
Promising,is expressed with benevolent looks,the nod of consent,and the open hands gently moved towards the person to whom the promise is made; the palms upwards. The sincerity of the promiser may be express. ed by laying the right hand gently on the breast.
Affectation, displays itself in a thousand different gestures, motions, airs and looks, according to the character which the person affects. Affectation of learning gives a stiff formality to the whole person. The words come stalking out with the pace of a funeral procession; and every sentence has the solemnity of an oracle. Affectation of piety turns up the goggling whites of the eyes to heaven, as if the person were in a trance, and fixes them in that posture so long that the brain of the beholder grows giddy. Then comes up deep grumbling,a holy groan from the lower parts of the thorax; but so tremendous in sound, and so long protracted, that you expect to see a goblin rise, like an exhalation through the solid earth. Then he begins to rock from side to side, or backward and forward,like an aged pine on the side of an
hill, when a brisk wind blows. The hands are clasped to-gether, and often lifted, and the head often shaken with foolish vehemence. The tone of the voice is canting, or sing song lullaby, not much distant from an Irish howl; and the words godly doggered. Affectation of beauty, and killing, puts a fine woman by turns into all sorts of forms, appearances, and attitudes, but amiable ones. She undoes, by art, or rather by awkwardness, (for true art conceals itself) all that nature had done for her. Nature formed her almost an angel, and she, with infinite pains, makes herself a monkey. Therefore, this species of affectation is easily imitated, or taken off. Make as many, and as ugly grimaces, motions and gestures as can be made; and take care that nature never peep out; and you represent coquetish affectation to the life.
Sloth, appears by yawning, dozing, snoring, the head dangling sometimes to one side,sometimes to the other, the arms and legs stretched out, and every sinew of the body unstrung, the eyes heavy or closed; the words, if any, crawl out of the mouth, but half formed, scarce audible to any ear, and broken off in the middle by powerfull sleep.
People who walk in their sleep, (of which our inimitable Shakespeare has in his tragedy of MACBETH, drawn. out a fine scene)are said to have their eyes open; though they are not the more for that, conscious of any thing, but the dream, which has got possession of their imagination. I never saw one of those persons; therefore cau not describe their manner from nature; but I suppose, their speech is pretty much like that of persons dreaming in articulate, incoherent, and very different, in its tone, from what it is when waking.
Intoxication, shows itself by the eyes half shut, sleepy, stupid, inflamed. An idiot smile, a ridiculous surliness, or affected bravado, disgraces the bloated countenance. The mouth open,tumbles out nonsense in heaps, without articulation enough for any ear to take it in, and unwor-. thy of attention, if it could be taken in. The head seems too heavy for the neck. The arms dangle from the shoulders, as if they were almost cut away, and hung by shreds. The legs totter and bend at the knees, as ready
to sink under the weight of the reeling body. And a general incapacity, corporeal and mental, exhibits hu man nature sunk below the brutal.
Anger,(violent) or rage, expresses itself with rapidity, interruption,noise, harshness and trepidation. The neck stretched out; the head forward, often nodding and shaking in a menacing manner, aginst the object of the passion. The eyes red, inflamed, staring, rolling, and sparkling; the eyebrows draw down over them; and the forehead wrinkled into clouds. The nostrils stretched wide; every vein swelled; every muscle strained; the breast heaving and the breath fetched hard. The mouth open, and drawn on each side toward the ears, shewing the teeth, in a gnashing posture. The face bloated, pale, red, or sometimes almost black. The feet stamping; the right arm often thrown out, and menacing with the clenched fist shaken, and a general and violent agitation of the whole body.
Peevishness, or ill nature, is a lower degree of anger; and is therefore expressed in the above manner, only more moderate; with half sentences,and broken speeches, uttered hastily; the upper lip drawn up disdainfully; the eyes squint upon the object of displeasure.
Matice, or spite, sets the jaws, or gnashes with the teeth; sends blasting flashes from the eyes; draws the mouth toward the ears; clenches both fists, and bends the elbows in a straining manner. The tone of voice and expression, are much the same with that of anger; but the pitch not so loud.
Envy, is a little more moderate in its gestures; than malice; but much the same in kind
Revenge, expresses itself as malice."
Cruelty. (See Anger, Aversion, Malice, and the other irascible passions.)
Complaining, as when one is under violent bodily pain, distorts the features; almost closes the eyes; sometimes raises them wishfully; opens the mouth; gnashes with the teeth; draws up the upper lip; draws down the head upon the breast, and the whole body together. The arms are violently bent at the elbows, and the fists strongly clenched. The voice is uttered in goals, lan