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Shrewsbury School, and finished under the direction of Mr. David Evans of that city. The Bridge, consisting of two spacious arches, and commanding a fine view of the striking objects around, is highly ornamental to the place.


Description of the Plan of the Castle, page 243, as it appeared at the Queen's visit in 1575.

...... 229





Described at Page 1. Cæsar's Tower, Kenilworth .......................... 214 2. Lancaster Buildings.......................

...... 224 3. Leicester Buildings .........

231 4. Base Court, or outer ballium ... ......... 239-40 5. Lake...........

ib. 6. Chase... 7. Gallery Tower ........

227 8. Tilt-Yard ........... 9. Mortimer's Tower.........

ib. 10. King Henry VIII.'s Lodgings ................... 229 11. Inner Court

...... ib. 12. The Strong, or Mervyn's Tower .................. 226

Described at Page 13. Kitchens..... 14. Pleasance ......... 15. Great Hall. 16. Leicester's Chamber fronting the Lake .......... 231 17. Gardens .................................................... 22 18. Orchard ........................................... 19. Swan Tower ...... 20. Great Gateway...... 21. Lunn's Tower............... 22. Water Tower ............

....... ib. 23. St. Lowe Tower adjoins Mervyn's Tower,

S. W., and is not seen in this point.

......... ib.



Page 245, " append." The reader is here referred to Melvin's account of Elizabeth.

(1) The Leicester Chimney-Piece, introduced at page 237. This justly-admired specimer o' art is of alabaster, finely sculptured with bears and rugged staves, and the monograms of Queen Elizabeth and the Earl of Leicester. When freshly gilded, and placed in a becoming situation, it justly deserved, says a writer of taste, to be eulogized as a work of decided skill and merit. Having happily escaped the Cromwellian devastation, this mantel-piece, together with the oaken pillars which surmount it (Wyld), were removed from one of the principal apartments or presence-chamber of Leicester Buildings, to the room which they now occupy-an oak-pannelled chamber in the old Gate-House. (2) The view introduced at page 253 represents – along with the Tower in the deep shadows of evening-a view of all that remains of the ancient moat on that side of the building. (3) The cut, page 256, is an allegorical subject of Leicester and Amy Robsart-the Dove and Snake,-or Innocence and Subtlety.

AUTHORITIES :-Camd.—Dugd. - Early Chronicles.-Strutt.—Spelman.-Harris.- Warner's Illustr. Crit. and Hist.-Lodge's Mem.-Brewer's Hist. of Warw.-Monast. and Baron.—Monum. Vetusta. Speed—Harding-Grafton-Holinshed—Secr. Mem.

of Dudley-Parsons-Melvin-Pict. Hist.-Clarendon—Illustr. of Kenilw.–Guides and Topograph. Sir W. Scott's Notes.—Memoirs of Dudley Fam.Annal. Elizab.-MS. Notes.-Collins' P.-Civil and Milit. Trans. 1570-89-etc. etc.

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THE Abbey of Waltham owes most of its celebrity to its connexion with

1 the last of the Anglo-Saxon monarchs. Our early forefathers were distinguished by their attachment to the pleasures of the chase; and the vast forest with which this district was covered must have been a favourite resort of the East-Saxon kings, as it was, after the subversion of their independence, of the thanes of Essex. One of these, named Tovi or Thovi, who held the high office of stallere (or steward) in the household of Canute the Dane, built himself a hunting residence in the rich meadows on the banks of the Lea, in the same neighbourhood where King Alfred had drawn away the waters of that river in order to cut off the retreat of the Danish fleet. This huntinghouse was the weald-ham, or residence in the wood, from which the town afterwards received its name.

The “ weald-ham” was a favourite residence of Earl Tovi, and was soon surrounded with the houses and huts of his retainers, thus becoming gradually a village, occupied, as we are informed in the early half-legendary history of the place, by threescore and six householders. The erection of a church followed as a matter of course: although the monks of the Abbey afterwards built there published a wild legend—how a cross, miraculously discovered on the summit of a hill in Somersetshire, then called Lutegaresberi, but since known by the name of Montacute, which was also the property of Tovi, was no less miraculously conveyed to this spot, and gave to it the subsequent appellation of Waltham Holy Cross.* Tovi (who was lord of “ Enefeld, Edelmetone, Cetrehunt, Mimmes (?), and of the barony which afterwards, under the Normans, passed into the family of the Mandevilles ") placed in his church two canons, endowed it with lands in Waltham, “ Chenleuedene, Hyche, Lamhee, Luketune, and Alwaretune," and gave to it the sword with which he had been first girt when he was made a knight. His wife Glitha, a very pious woman, added to these gifts a crown or wreath of pure gold. Their son Athelstan did not, however, inherit the virtues and wisdom of his parents; for, shortly after their death, he lost the manor of Waltham, which, with others in the neighbourhood, appears to have been forfeited to the Crown. Edward the Confessor gave it to his brother-in-law Harold.

Harold appears to have received these lands with the avowed purpose of founding a religious house, by which, while according to the superstitious belief

* This legend is preserved in two manuscripts now in the British Museum (MS. Harl. No. 3776, and MS. Cotton., Julius, D VI.), both of which formerly belonged to Waltham Abbey, and were written in the twelfth century, the date of both the manuscripts. It was to the following effect :- In the time of King Canute, there lived at Lutegaresberi a smith, a mau remarkable for the simplicity of his life, and respected amongst his neighbours for his virtues. One night he had a vision-an angel appeared to him, and directed him to repair early in the morning to the priest, and exhort him to proceed in solemn procession to the top of the hill, and there dig. The smith passed it over as a mere dream; but the warning was repeated the following night. He then consulted his wife, and by her advice again disregarded the injunction of the angel; but the latter repeated his visit on the third night, and threatened him with severe punishment for his continued disobedience. On the morrow the smith arose, and told his dream to the priest, who proceeded immediately with the town's people to the summit of the hill, where, after digging according to their directions, they found a large cross, with a smaller one, a little bell, and a book. (Ecce repentè apparuit oculis intuentium inestimabilis imago decoris crucifixi Salvatoris ex atro silice sic manuum

extensione et omnium corporis liniamentorum com-
positione miro fabrili et inaudito opere composita,
ut ipsius summi artificis manibus perpendens operatam,
et sub dextro ipsius brachiis alteram crucifixi effigiem
modicam in sinistra parte, nolam antiqui operis quales
bestiarum collo applicare solet antiquitas, ne in-
desuetione insolescant, librum etiam cognomento Nis
grum Tertum sicut vix perpendere possumus
Evangeliorum quem usque hodiè celebrem habet
Walthamensis ecclesia propter multa quæ ipsi oculis
nostris perspeximus miracula.) Having made known
their discovery to Earl Tovi, they placed the cross on
a cart, to which they yoked three red oxen and three
white cows. Uncertain whither to convey their pre-
cious burden, the priest uttered in succession the
names of the most famous monasteries of that day,
such as Dover, Winchester, Glastonbury, London, &c.,
but the oxen and cows remained fixed to the spot.
At length some one mentioned by accident the name
of Waltham, when the animals immediately put them-
selves in motion, and conducted the cart to that
place, amid the acclamations of the people, and of the
crowds of cripples and invalids who were cured on the
way by the miraculous influence of the cross. This
story was long implicitly believed by our superstitious

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